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1.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 167-174, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) care and management, there are practical challenges existing at the patient-provider level leading to implementation barriers at the primary care level. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to explore the challenges and barriers faced by people with TB and health-care workers in TB care and management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done as a part of a community intervention study between November 2021 and December 2022. Twenty interviews were taken with treatment for TB (n = 7) and health-care personnel (n = 13). Health-care personnel include nursing staff, medical officers, laboratory technicians, community health workers, and medical personnel from tertiary care hospital. Participants were recruited across all levels of health-care systems. Interviews were carried out in the Hindi language, audio recorded, and translated to English. Participants were asked about their experiences of challenges and barriers faced during TB care and management. Qualitative data were coded, and thematic analysis was done manually. RESULTS: The challenges and barriers at the level of people with TB were issues with communication between providers and people with TB, out-of-pocket expenditure, poor adherence to medicines, lack of proper diet, gender issues, and stigma. The challenges and barriers at the level of health-care providers were a lack of infrastructure and logistics, lack of awareness, COVID-19-related issues, lack of workforce, and technical issues. CONCLUSION: Communication between providers and people with TB must be improved to improve the drug adherence and satisfaction of the end user. Proper funding must be provided for the TB programs. People with TB must be counseled properly regarding the free health care services available near their homes to prevent out-of-pocket expenditure. These will help in fast-tracking the elimination of TB.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tuberculose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Índia , Adulto , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Estigma Social , Entrevistas como Assunto , COVID-19 , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação
2.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 77(2): e20230195, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to describe the validity process of the TBApp mobile application for self-care management for people with tuberculosis linked to Primary Health Care. METHODS: methodological research developed with ten expert judges, carried out virtually. The application was assessed in relation to content and technology quality in seven domains (objectivity; structure and appearance; relevance; functionality; reliability; usability; and efficiency), using an instrument with a Likert scale. RESULTS: TBApp was considered valid, relevant, functional, reliable and effective by expert judges. The objectives, structure and presentation and relevance domains presented an overall Content Validity Index of 0.93, and the functionality, reliability, usability and efficiency domains presented characteristics and sub-characteristics values greater than 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: TBApp is a creative and innovative tool that can be used by people with TB and disseminated in the scientific community.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Autocuidado , Tuberculose , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Autocuidado/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e083483, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There is an unmet need to develop high-quality evidence addressing tuberculosis (TB)-related mental health comorbidity, particularly in the context of lower-middle-income countries. This study aims to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) versus enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) in improving depressive symptoms in people with TB and comorbid depression, enhancing adherence with anti-TB treatment (ATT) and its implementation in the real-world setting of Pakistan. METHODS: We will conduct a pragmatic parallel arm randomised control trial with an internal pilot. A brief psychological intervention based on CBT has been developed using a combination of qualitative and ethnographic studies. The inbuilt pilot trial will have a sample size of 80, while we plan to recruit 560 (280 per arm) participants in the definitive trial. Participants who started on ATT within 1 month of diagnosis for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB or multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and meeting the criteria for depression on Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) will be randomised with 1:1 allocation to receive six sessions of CBT (delivered by TB healthcare workers) or ETAU. Data on the feasibility outcomes of the pilot will be considered to proceed with the definitive trial. Participants will be assessed (by a blinded assessor) for the following main trial primary outcomes: (1) severity of depression using PHQ-9 scale (interviewer-administered questionnaire) at baseline, weeks 8, 24 and 32 postrandomisation and (2) ATT at baseline and week 24 at the end of ATT therapy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from Keele University Research Ethics Committee (ref: 2023-0599-792), Khyber Medical University Ethical Review Board (ref: DIR/KMU-EB/CT/000990) and National Bioethics Committee Pakistan (ref: No.4-87/NBC-998/23/587). The results of this study will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences and disseminated to stakeholders and policymakers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN10761003.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão , Humanos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Paquistão , Depressão/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Tuberculose/terapia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Adulto
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1401867, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846947

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. Currently, there are complex interactions between host cells and pathogens in TB. The onset, progression, and regression of TB are correlated not only with the virulence of MTB but also with the immunity of TB patients. Exosomes are cell-secreted membrane-bound nanovesicles with lipid bilayers that contain a variety of biomolecules, such as metabolites, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication and interactions with the microenvironment represent crucial mechanisms through which exosomes exert their functional effects. Exosomes harbor a wide range of regulatory roles in physiological and pathological conditions, including MTB infection. Exosomes can regulate the immune response, metabolism, and cellular death to remodel the progression of MTB infection. During MTB infection, exosomes display distinctive profiles and quantities that may act as diagnostic biomarkers, suggesting that exosomes provide a revealing glimpse into the evolving landscape of MTB infections. Furthermore, exosomes derived from MTB and mesenchymal stem cells can be harnessed as vaccine platforms and drug delivery vehicles for the precise targeting and treatment of TB. In this review, we highlight the functions and mechanisms through which exosomes influence the progression of TB. Additionally, we unravel the critical significance of exosomal constituents in the diagnosis and therapeutic applications of TB, aiming to offer novel perspectives and strategies for combating TB.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Exossomos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Animais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 577, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the second most deadly infectious disease after COVID-19 and the 13th leading cause of death worldwide. Among the 30 countries with a high burden of TB, China ranks third in the estimated number of TB cases. China is in the top four of 75 countries with a deficit in funding for TB strategic plans. To reduce costs and improve the effectiveness of TB treatment in China, the NHSA developed an innovative BP method. This study aimed to simulate the effects of this payment approach on different stakeholders, reduce the economic burden on TB patients, improve the quality of medical services, facilitate policy optimization, and offer a model for health care payment reforms that can be referenced by other regions throughout the world. METHODS: We developed a simulation model based on a decision tree analysis to project the expected effects of the payment method on the potential financial impacts on different stakeholders. Our analysis mainly focused on comparing changes in health care costs before and after receiving BPs for TB patients with Medicare in the pilot areas. The data that were used for the analysis included the TB service claim records for 2019-2021 from the health insurance agency, TB prevalence data from the local Centre for Disease Control, and health care facilities' revenue and expenditure data from the Statistic Yearbook. A Monte Carlo randomized simulation model was used to estimate the results. RESULTS: After adopting the innovative BP method, for each TB patient per year, the total annual expenditure was estimated to decrease from $2,523.28 to $2,088.89, which is a reduction of $434.39 (17.22%). The TB patient out-of-pocket expenditure was expected to decrease from $1,249.02 to $1,034.00, which is a reduction of $215.02 (17.22%). The health care provider's revenue decreased from $2,523.28 to $2,308.26, but the health care provider/institution's revenue-expenditure ratio increased from -6.09% to 9.50%. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential of BPs to improve medical outcomes and control the costs associated with TB treatment. It demonstrates its feasibility and advantages in enhancing the coordination and sustainability of medical services, thus offering valuable insights for global health care payment reform.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Simulação por Computador , Pessoal de Saúde/economia
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 111(1): 168-175, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744270

RESUMO

In Latin America, little is known about the involvement of private health-care providers in tuberculosis (TB) detection and management. We sought to gain a better understanding of current and potential roles of the private sector in delivering TB services in Peru. We conducted a mixed-methods study in North Lima, Peru. The quantitative component comprised a patient pathway analysis assessing the alignment of TB services with patient care-seeking behavior. The qualitative component comprised in-depth interviews with 18 private health-care providers and 5 key informants. We estimated that 77% of patients sought care initially at a facility with TB diagnostic capacity and 59% at a facility with TB treatment capacity. Among private facilities, 43% offered smear microscopy, 13% offered radiography, and none provided TB treatment. Among public-sector facilities, 100% offered smear microscopy, 26% offered radiography, and 99% provided TB treatment. Private providers believed they offered shorter wait times and a faster diagnosis, but they struggled with a lack of referral systems and communication with the public sector. Nonrecognition of private-sector tests by the public sector led to duplicate testing of referred patients. Although expressing willingness to collaborate with public-sector programs for diagnosis and referral, private providers had limited interest in treating TB. This study highlights the role of private providers in Peru as an entry point for TB care. Public-private collaboration is necessary to harness the potential of the private sector as an ally for early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Setor Privado , Tuberculose , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/terapia , Setor Público , Pessoal de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
7.
PLoS Med ; 21(5): e1004409, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India accounts for about one-quarter of people contracting tuberculosis (TB) disease annually and nearly one-third of TB deaths globally. Many Indians do not navigate all care cascade stages to receive TB treatment and achieve recurrence-free survival. Guided by a population/exposure/comparison/outcomes (PECO) framework, we report findings of a systematic review to identify factors contributing to unfavorable outcomes across each care cascade gap for TB disease in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We defined care cascade gaps as comprising people with confirmed or presumptive TB who did not: start the TB diagnostic workup (Gap 1), complete the workup (Gap 2), start treatment (Gap 3), achieve treatment success (Gap 4), or achieve TB recurrence-free survival (Gap 5). Three systematic searches of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1, 2000 to August 14, 2023 were conducted. We identified articles evaluating factors associated with unfavorable outcomes for each gap (reported as adjusted odds, relative risk, or hazard ratios) and, among people experiencing unfavorable outcomes, reasons for these outcomes (reported as proportions), with specific quality or risk of bias criteria for each gap. Findings were organized into person-, family-, and society-, or health system-related factors, using a social-ecological framework. Factors associated with unfavorable outcomes across multiple cascade stages included: male sex, older age, poverty-related factors, lower symptom severity or duration, undernutrition, alcohol use, smoking, and distrust of (or dissatisfaction with) health services. People previously treated for TB were more likely to seek care and engage in the diagnostic workup (Gaps 1 and 2) but more likely to suffer pretreatment loss to follow-up (Gap 3) and unfavorable treatment outcomes (Gap 4), especially those who were lost to follow-up during their prior treatment. For individual care cascade gaps, multiple studies highlighted lack of TB knowledge and structural barriers (e.g., transportation challenges) as contributing to lack of care-seeking for TB symptoms (Gap 1, 14 studies); lack of access to diagnostics (e.g., X-ray), non-identification of eligible people for testing, and failure of providers to communicate concern for TB as contributing to non-completion of the diagnostic workup (Gap 2, 17 studies); stigma, poor recording of patient contact information by providers, and early death from diagnostic delays as contributing to pretreatment loss to follow-up (Gap 3, 15 studies); and lack of TB knowledge, stigma, depression, and medication adverse effects as contributing to unfavorable treatment outcomes (Gap 4, 86 studies). Medication nonadherence contributed to unfavorable treatment outcomes (Gap 4) and TB recurrence (Gap 5, 14 studies). Limitations include lack of meta-analyses due to the heterogeneity of findings and limited generalizability to some Indian regions, given the country's diverse population. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review illuminates common patterns of risk that shape outcomes for Indians with TB, while highlighting knowledge gaps-particularly regarding TB care for children or in the private sector-to guide future research. Findings may inform targeting of support services to people with TB who have higher risk of poor outcomes and inform multicomponent interventions to close gaps in the care cascade.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Masculino
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e079062, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study aimed to explore opportunities to strengthen tuberculosis (TB) health service delivery from the perspectives of health workers providing TB care in Shigatse prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. DESIGN: Qualitative research, semi-structured in-depth interviews. SETTING: The TB care ecosystem in Shigatse, including primary and community care. PARTICIPANTS: Participants: 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted with village doctors (14), township doctors and nurses (14), county hospital doctors (7) and Shigatse Centre for Disease Control staff (2). RESULTS: The three main themes reported include (1) the importance of training primary and community health workers to identify people with symptoms of TB, ensure TB is diagnosed and link people with TB to further care; (2) the need to engage community health workers to ensure retention in care and adherence to TB medications; and (3) the opportunity for innovative technologies to support coordinated care, retention in care and adherence to medication in Shigatse. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of TB care could be improved across the care cascade in Tibet and other high-burden, remote settings by strengthening primary care through ongoing training, greater support and inclusion of community health workers and by leveraging technology to create a circle of care. Future formative and implementation research should include the perspectives of health workers at all levels to improve care organisation and delivery.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tibet , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Feminino , Masculino , Entrevistas como Assunto , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e081767, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health challenge, especially prevalent in the WHO African region. The WHO's End TB Strategy emphasises effective treatment approaches such as directly observed therapy (DOT), yet the optimal implementation of DOT, whether through health facility-based (HF DOT) or community-based (CB DOT) approaches, remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic comparison of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Community-Based Directly Observed Treatment (CB DOT) versus Health Facility-Based Directly Observed Treatment (HF DOT) for tuberculosis (TB) treatment in African settings. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and the Cochrane Library for articles published up to 30 March 2023, without date restrictions. Eligible studies must be full economic evaluations conducted in African countries, comparing CB DOT to HF DOT regarding treatment outcomes and costs. Exclusion criteria include non-English, non-peer-reviewed or studies lacking caregiver involvement in CB DOT, health facility-based DOT comparison, direct comparability between CB DOT and HF DOT, significant selection bias or non-economic evaluations. Data extraction will be performed independently by reviewers, and meta-analyses will use STATA software. To pool the data, a random-effect model will be applied, and quality assessment of the studies will be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required as the study will use previously published articles available publicly. Findings will be presented at international and national conferences and published in open-access, peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023443260.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tuberculose , Humanos , África , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/economia
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 101, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of the people with Tuberculosis (TB) symptoms in India seek care from the private sector. People with TB getting treatment from private sector in India are considered to be at a higher risk for receiving suboptimal quality of care in terms of incorrect diagnosis and treatment, lack of treatment adherence support with a high loss to follow-up rate that could eventually increase their risk of drug resistance. The current study aims at documenting the approach and efforts taken by the Kerala state to partner with the private health care delivery providers for ensuring quality TB care to the people with presumed TB reaching them. METHODS: A case study approach was adopted with review of all available literature followed by five Key Informant Interviews to understand the case through a primary descriptive exploration. Grounded theory approach was used to generating the single theory of the case itself that explains it. RESULTS: Kerala state has taken a variety of interventions to ensure universal access to TB care for citizens reaching the private sector with documented improvement in the quality of TB care. Key learnings from these initiatives were (i) patients need to be at the centre of partnerships, (ii) good governance is essential for ensuring Universal Health Coverage in a mixed health system, (iii) data intelligence is required to guide partnerships, (iv) identification of the correct 'problems' is crucial for effective design of partnerships and (v) a platform for meaningful dialogue of key stakeholders is needed. CONCLUSION: Kerala experience demonstrated that if governments take a proactive role in engaging the private sector, in an informed and evidence-based way, they can leverage the advantages of the private sector while protecting the public health interest.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Setor Privado , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tuberculose , Humanos , Índia , Tuberculose/terapia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Parcerias Público-Privadas
11.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(5): 437-443, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706065

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment capacity and the development and changes of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in provincial and municipal designated medical institutions in China from 2017 to 2022, so as to provide a basis for the formulation of relevant policies for the improvement and development of designated medical institutions for tuberculosis and the tuberculosis prevention and treatment service system, and to provide reasonable support for further strengthening the capacity of designated medical institutions for tuberculosis. Methods: This study was initiated and carried out by Beijing Chest Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University/Clinical Center for Tuberculosis Prevention and Control of China CDC (hereinafter referred to as "Clinical Center") by means of questionnaire survey, and the investigation was carried out from March to November 2023. During this period, the clinical center distributed questionnaires to the hospital member units of "Beijing Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Technology Innovation Alliance", retrospectively collected their tuberculosis-related diagnosis and treatment data from 2017 to 2022, and used descriptive statistical methods to analyze the number of tuberculosis beds, outpatients and hospitalizations in medical institutions. The results were expressed in absolute numbers (percentages), and three-line tables, bar charts and line charts were drawn to describe the analysis results and changing trends. Results: The 54 medical institutions surveyed in this survey included 21 provincial-level designated medical institutions and 33 prefecture-level designated medical institutions. Most medical institutions have set up clinical departments, auxiliary departments and functional departments to undertake public health tasks of infectious diseases. The tuberculosis laboratory in the hospital has a comprehensive ability and has the detection technology needed for most tuberculosis diagnosis; The number of tuberculosis beds, children's tuberculosis beds and ICU beds all showed an increasing trend from 2017 to 2022. The proportion of tuberculosis beds in the hospital decreased slightly, from 39.31% in 2017 to 34.76% in 2022, showing a slight downward trend. Compared with the hospital surveyed, the number of tuberculosis outpatients in 2019 was 562 029, and the number of outpatients in 2020-2022 was 462 328, 519 630 and 424 069 respectively, which was significantly lower than that in 2019. The number of tuberculosis outpatients in medical institutions decreased significantly from 2020 to 2022. By analyzing the proportion of patients with different types of tuberculosis, the proportion of sensitive tuberculosis outpatients in 2017-2022 decreased from 84.49% in 2017 to 78.05% in 2022, showing a downward trend year by year. The proportion of patients with multidrug-resistant/ rifampin-resistant tuberculosis increased from 2.03% in 2017 to 7.18% in 2022. From 2017 to 2019, the total number of inpatients with tuberculosis showed an upward trend. Compared with 2019, the number of inpatients in 2020, 2021 and 2022 showed a downward trend, and the decline in 2020 was large (down 14.94% compared with 2019). Among the inpatients, the absolute number and proportion of patients with sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis remained relatively stable, and the number and proportion of inpatients with multidrug-resistant/rifampin-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis increased year by year. Conclusions: Most medical institutions have the capacity to carry out routine diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, but the public health function needs to be strengthened. The transformation of medical institutions requires proper guidance and adequate support. During 2019-2022, most medical institutions were affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, and their tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment work also changed to varying degrees. During this period, hospitals took various measures to overcome difficulties and tried their best to maintain the normal development of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, and the tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment work of various institutions gradually resumed in 2022.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitalização
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e080844, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of tuberculosis (TB) care for the whole course and assess factors that affect completing treatment. DESIGN: This is an observational retrospective study using chart abstraction for the whole course of TB care conducted at two underserved provinces in China. SETTING: The study was conducted from June 2021 to July 2021. All medical records (outpatient and inpatient) for the whole course (6-8 months) of patients with TB newly registered from July 2020 to December 2020 were reviewed and abstracted using predetermined checklists. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 268 outpatient medical records and 126 inpatient records were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome included diagnostic quality, treatment quality and management quality. The secondary outcome was completing treatment. RESULTS: For diagnostic quality, 94.2% of the diagnosis were based on adequate evidence. For treatment quality, 240 (91.6%) outpatients and 100 (85.5%) inpatients took the standard chemotherapy regimens. 234 (87.3%) patients completed treatment. 85.1% of the inpatients prescribed with second-line drugs were inappropriate. For management quality, 128 (47.9%) patients received midterm assessments, but only 47 (19.7%) received sufficient services for the whole course. Patients with TB symptoms were 1.8 times more likely to complete treatment (p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Patients with TB received high-quality diagnosis and treatment services, but low-quality whole-course management. Integration of medical and public health services should be strengthened to improve whole-course quality.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tuberculose , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , China , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , População Rural , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente , Prontuários Médicos
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11205, 2024 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755216

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) causes an economic impact on the patients and their households. Although Thailand has expanded the national health benefit package for TB treatment, there was no data on out-of-pocket payments and income losses due to TB from patients and their household perspectives. This national TB patient cost survey was conducted to examine the TB-related economic burden, and assess the proportion of TB patients and their households facing catastrophic total costs because of TB disease. A cross-sectional TB patient cost survey was employed following WHO methods. Structured interviews with a paper-based questionnaire were conducted from October 2019 to July 2021. Both direct and indirect costs incurred from the patient and their household perspective were valued in 2021 and estimated throughout pre- and post-TB diagnosis episodes. We assessed the proportion of TB-affected households facing costs > 20% of household expenditure due to TB. We analyzed 1400 patients including 1382 TB (first-line treatment) and 18 drug-resistant TB patients (DR-TB). The mean total costs per TB episode for all study participants were 903 USD (95% confident interval; CI 771-1034 USD). Of these, total direct non-medical costs were the highest costs (mean, 402 USD, and 95%CI 334-470 USD) incurred per TB-affected household followed by total indirect costs (mean, 393 USD, and 95%CI 315-472 USD) and total direct medical costs (mean, 107 USD, and 95%CI 81-133 USD, respectively. The proportion of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs was 29.5% (95%CI 25.1-34.0%) for TB (first-line), 61.1% (95%CI 29.6-88.1%) for DR-TB and 29.9% (95%CI 25.6-34.4%) overall. This first national survey highlighted the economic burden on TB-affected households. Travel, food/nutritional supplementation, and indirect costs contribute to a high proportion of catastrophic total costs. These suggest the need to enhance financial and social protection mechanisms to mitigate the financial burden of TB-affected households.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Características da Família , Gastos em Saúde , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/economia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
15.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 28(4): 176-182, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563339

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDTanzanian TB guidelines recommend facility-based TB screening for symptomatic household contacts (HHCs) or those aged <5 years, but cost remains a major barrier. In this study, we evaluate the use of unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) to facilitate completion of HHC TB screening.METHODSIn this prospective interventional study, we enrolled index people diagnosed with TB (PWTB) within 8 weeks of TB treatment initiation from the TB clinic at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Haydom, Tanzania, and surrounding TB dispensaries in rural Tanzania. The study provided at the time of enrollment an UCT up to 40,000 Tanzanian shillings (USD16.91) directly to heads of households with PWTB, covered medical costs from screening activities and provided three bi-weekly phone reminders to facilitate HHC TB screening. The primary outcome was TB screening completion for all HHCs compared to the same period of the preceding year.RESULTSWe enrolled 120 index PWTB, including 398 HHCs between July and December 2022. The median age for index PWTB was 35 years; 38% were females. Sixty-five (54%) households completed screening for all HHCs, compared to 7% during the same period of the preceding year.CONCLUSIONThese interventions may considerably improve completion of HHC TB screening in rural Tanzania..


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Tuberculose/terapia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Programas de Rastreamento , Características da Família
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(3): e00104823, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656066

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the feasibility of building an evaluative model for the management of the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program in the State of Roraima, located on the border between Brazil and Venezuela. This is an evaluability assessment, a type of study used as a pre-evaluation of the development and implementation stages of a program, as well as throughout its execution. The study was developed in stages comprising the: (i) definition of the intervention to be analyzed and its objectives and goals; (ii) construction of the intervention logical model; (iii) screening of parties interested in the evaluation; (iv) definition of the evaluative questions; and (v) design of the evaluation matrix. Four priority components were defined for the evaluation: management of the organization and implementation of tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control policy; epidemiological surveillance management; care network management; and management of expected/achieved results. In this model, and based on theoretical references, we defined the necessary resources, activities, outputs, outcomes, and the expected impact for each of the policy management components. The management of the TB control program is feasible for evaluation based on the design of its components, the definition of structure and process indicators, and relevant results for the analysis of the management of TB prevention and control actions, as well as its influence on compliance with the agreed indicators and targets aiming at eradicating the disease by 2035.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tuberculose , Humanos , Venezuela , Brasil , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0286894, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603636

RESUMO

In 2021, an estimated 10.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) globally and 11.3% were children. About 40% of children aged five to fourteen years with TB are missed annually. In Uganda, 44% of adolescents with chronic cough of more than two weeks do not seek care from health facilities. Therefore, strategies to promote health care-seeking behaviour among adolescents were urgently needed to resolve the gap. In regard to this, the research project utilized a before and after design, in which the number of adolescents (10-19years) enrolled in the project health facilities were compared before and after the intervention. The intervention package that comprised of tuberculosis awareness and screening information was developed together with adolescents, thus; a human-centred approach was used. The package consisted of TB screening cards, poster messages and a local song. The song was broadcasted in the community radios. Poster messages were deployed in the community by the village health teams (VHTS). The TB screening cards were given to TB positive and presumptive adults to screen adolescents at home. Adolescents that were found with TB symptoms were referred to the project health facilities. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible adolescents were collected in a period of six months from Kawolo, Iganga, Gombe and Kiwoko health facilities. To determine the effectiveness of the package, before and after intervention data were equally collected. A total of 394 adolescents were enrolled, majority (76%) were school going. The intervention improved adolescent TB care seeking in the four project health facilities. The average number of adolescents screened increased from 159 to 309 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.9, P<0.001, 95% CI [1.9, 2.0]). Those presumed to have TB increased from 13 to 29(IRR = 2.2, P<0.001, 95% CI [1.9, 2.5]). The ones tested with GeneXpert increased in average from 8 to 28(IRR = 3.3, P<0.001, 95% CI [2.8, 3.8]). There was a minimal increase in the average monthly number of adolescents with a positive result of 0.8, from 1.6 to 2.4(p = 0.170) and linkage to TB care services of 1.1, from 2 to 3.1(p = 0.154). The project improved uptake of TB services among adolescents along the TB care cascade. We recommend a robust and fully powered randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Package.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the baseline to measure one of the three indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy (2015-2035), measure the costs incurred by patients affected by tuberculosis (TB) during a treatment episode and estimate the proportion of households facing catastrophic costs (CC) and associated risk factors, in Colombia, 2021. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among participants on TB treatment in Colombia, using telephone interviews due to the exceptional context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey collected household costs (direct [medical and non-medical out-of-pocket expenses] and indirect) over an episode of TB, loss of time, coping measures, self-reported income, and asset ownership. Total costs were expressed as a proportion of annual household income and analyzed for risk factors of CC (defined as costs above 20% annual household income). RESULTS: The proportion of TB-affected households incurring in costs above 20% annual household income (CC) was 51.7% (95%CI: 45.4-58.0) overall, 51.3% (95%CI: 44.9-57.7) among patients with drug-sensitive (DS) TB, and 65.0% (95%CI: 48.0-82.0) among drug-resistant (DR). The average patient cost of a TB case in Colombia was $1,218 (95%CI 1,106-1,330) including $860.9 (95%CI 776.1-945.7) for non-medical costs, $339 (95%CI 257-421) for the indirect costs, and $18.1 (95%CI 11.9-24.4) for the medical costs. The factors that influenced the probability of facing CC were income quintile, job loss, DR-TB patient, and TB type. CONCLUSION: Main cost drivers for CC were non-medical out-of-pocket expenses and income loss (indirect costs). Current social protection programs ought to be expanded to mitigate the proportion of TB-affected households facing CC in Colombia, especially those with lower income levels.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Tuberculose , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Renda
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 349: 116894, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648708

RESUMO

The collapse of the Soviet Union triggered an escalation of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in many post-Soviet countries, including Ukraine. The main reasons for this situation include both the approach to TB care and the concentration of TB cases in prisons. The neoliberal approach to TB care system reform promises the optimization of treatment terms, "dehospitalization" and "despecialization" of the system of care, and a different type of control, established through digital technologies. One such technology is the "e-TB Manager", which was designated as a national TB registry, including in the prison system in 2012. In prison, where everyone "is to be fixed" and isolated, the uncertainty of patients' movements seems to be avoided by pre-existing conditions. In practice, however, the vertically aligned, centralized organizational structure of the post-Soviet prison implies a constant need to link its elements together through "coerced" mobility carried out in secrecy. Treatment in exile may not be the primary goal of such a practice, but it becomes the result when prisoners from numerous prison facilities are sent to a limited number of prison TB hospitals. The integration of the e-TB Manager as a tool to enable the tracking of patient movements and, consequently, improve the efficiency of diagnostic and treatment processes in prison, can be seen as both a purely technical measure and a "magic bullet". In this article, we argue that, in the case of Ukrainian prisons, the neoliberal approach and the Soviet socialist approach to gaining control over TB indeed adapt and reinforce each other but fail to compete meaningfully. The fragmented implementation of one is absorbed by the fundamental and resilient nature of the other to produce and reproduce the state of "post-Soviet limbo". We use the "post-Soviet limbo" as an overall framework aimed at conceptualizing the post-Soviet transformation as a combination of efforts to avoid and manage the uncertainty of TB treatment, especially in prison. We examine the empirical case of coerced mobility of prisoners who require TB treatment, seeking to trace how this process is reflected in the e-TB Manager. We provide a more in-depth picture of this journey with details gathered from qualitative research materials to situate numbers and variables in their contexts, deconstructing the way the data are recorded according to the logic of the system in which they are produced.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Tuberculose , Humanos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Incerteza , U.R.S.S. , Masculino
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 40, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vietnam's primary mechanism of achieving sustainable funding for universal health coverage (UHC) and financial protection has been through its social health insurance (SHI) scheme. Steady progress towards access has been made and by 2020, over 90% of the population were enrolled in SHI. In 2022, as part of a larger transition towards the increased domestic financing of healthcare, tuberculosis (TB) services were integrated into SHI. This change required people with TB to use SHI for treatment at district-level facilities or to pay out of pocket for services. This study was conducted in preparation for this transition. It aimed to understand more about uninsured people with TB, assess the feasibility of enrolling them into SHI, and identify the barriers they faced in this process. METHODS: A mixed-method case study was conducted using a convergent parallel design between November 2018 and January 2022 in ten districts of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Quantitative data were collected through a pilot intervention that aimed to facilitate SHI enrollment for uninsured individuals with TB. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 participants, who were purposively sampled for maximum variation. Qualitative data were analyzed through an inductive approach and themes were identified through framework analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data sources were triangulated. RESULTS: We attempted to enroll 115 uninsured people with TB into SHI; 76.5% were able to enroll. On average, it took 34.5 days to obtain a SHI card and it cost USD 66 per household. The themes indicated that a lack of knowledge, high costs for annual premiums, and the household-based registration requirement were barriers to SHI enrollment. Participants indicated that alternative enrolment mechanisms and greater procedural flexibility, particularly for undocumented people, is required to achieve full population coverage with SHI in urban centers. CONCLUSIONS: Significant addressable barriers to SHI enrolment for people affected by TB were identified. A quarter of individuals remained unable to enroll after receiving enhanced support due to lack of required documentation. The experience gained during this health financing transition is relevant for other middle-income countries as they address the provision of financial protection for the treatment of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Vietnã , Seguro Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Tuberculose/terapia
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