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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1481-1486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132280

RESUMO

Via utilizing the mixed-ligand method, a novel coordination polymer (CP) containing Cu(II) has been prepared by self-assembly at the ambient temperature, and its chemical formula is {[Cu(BINDI)0.5 (bpe)]·3H2O} n (1, bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene and H4BINDI = N,N'-bis(5-isophthalic acid) naphthalenediimide). For the treatment of the tuberculosis, its biological function was evaluated as well. The CFU assay was performed to determine the bacterial numbers of the Mycobacterium in alveolar macrophages. In addition to this, the ropA gene of the Mycobacterium in alveolar macrophages was also detected through the real time RT-PCR method. Only the oxygen atoms on the metal complex are identified to be able to interact with the probe protein by molecular docking simulation.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cobre/química , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Oxigênio , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(43): e388, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused disruptions to healthcare systems and endangered the control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). We investigated the nationwide effects of COVID-19 on the national Public-Private Mix (PPM) TB control project in Korea, using monitoring indicators from the Korean PPM monitoring database. METHODS: The Korean PPM monitoring database includes data from patients registered at PPM hospitals throughout the country. Data of six monitoring indicators for active TB cases updated between July 2019 and June 2020 were collected. The data of each cohort throughout the country and in Daegu-Gyeongbuk, Seoul Metropolitan Area, and Jeonnam-Jeonbuk were collated to provide nationwide data. The data were compared using the χ² test for trend to evaluate quarterly trends of each monitoring indicator at the national level and in the prespecified regions. RESULTS: Test coverages of sputum smear (P = 0.622) and culture (P = 0.815), drug susceptibility test (P = 0.750), and adherence rate to initial standard treatment (P = 0.901) at the national level were not significantly different during the study period. The rate of loss to follow-up among TB cases at the national level was not significantly different (P = 0.088); however, the treatment success rate among the smear-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB cohort at the national level significantly decreased, from 90.6% to 84.1% (P < 0.001). Treatment success rate in the Seoul metropolitan area also significantly decreased during the study period, from 89.4% to 84.5% (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that initial TB management during the COVID-19 pandemic was properly administered under the PPM project in Korea. However, our study cannot confirm or conclude a decreased treatment success rate after the COVID-19 pandemic due to limited data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Assistência à Saúde , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 831, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of antibiotics in the mid-twentieth century marked a major transition in tuberculosis (TB) treatment and control. There are few studies describing the duration of TB disease and its treatment from the pre-chemotherapy era and little data on how these treatments changed in response to the development of effective antibiotics. The goal of this research is to understand how inpatient treatment for high incidence populations, the First Nations peoples of Saskatchewan, Canada, changed in response to increasing availability of antibiotics effective against TB. We expected that as treatment regimens transitioned from convalescence-only to triple antibiotic therapy, the length of inpatient treatment would shorten. METHODS: Analyses were performed on records of sanatoria admissions and discharges occurring between 1933 and 1959 in Saskatchewan, Canada. Year of antibiotic discovery was taken as a proxy for treatment regimen: no chemotherapy (pre-1944), mono-therapy (Streptomycin, 1944-1946), dual-therapy (Streptomycin and PAS, 1946-1952), and triple-therapy (Streptomycin, PAS, and INH 1952-). A pooled linear regression of log-transformed length of first admission as predicted by year of admission was modeled to assess the relationship between admission length and year of admission, corrected for clinical and demographic variables. RESULTS: First admission length increased 19% in the triple-therapy era as compared to the pre-chemotherapy era, from 316 days (10.4 months) to 377 days (12.4 months). After the discovery of INH (1952), we find statistically significant increases in the proportion of successfully completed therapies (0.55 versus 0.60, p = 0.035), but also in patients who left hospital against medical advice (0.19 versus 0.29, p < 0.0001), indicating that as hospitalizations lengthened, more patients chose to discharge without the sanction of their physician. The readmission rate increased from 10 to 50% of all admissions while the province-level TB-specific death rate fell from 63.1 per 10,000 in 1933 to 4.7 per 10,000 in 1958. CONCLUSION: Counterintuitively, we find that the length of first admissions increased with the discovery of TB-treating antibiotics. Increasing admission volume and readmission rate indicate an intensification of inpatient TB treatment during this era. These analyses provide a novel estimate of the effect of changing treatment policy on sanatorium admissions in this population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0230849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In South Africa, in 2013-2014, provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) shifted in some areas from NGOs to public facilities. Tuberculosis (TB) management has also been integrated into public services. We aimed to explore the opinions and experiences of service managers and healthcare providers regarding integration of HIV and TB services into primary healthcare services. METHODS: The study sites included three clinics in one peri-urban/urban administrative region of Johannesburg. From March 2015 to August 2016, trained interviewers conducted semi-structured interviews with purposively selected participants. Participants were eligible if they were city/regional managers, clinic managers, or healthcare providers responsible for HIV, TB, non-communicable diseases, or sexual and reproductive health at the three study sites. We used a grounded theory approach for iterative, qualitative analysis, and produced descriptive statistics for quantitative data. RESULTS: We interviewed 19 individuals (nine city/regional managers, three clinic managers, and seven nurses). Theoretical definitions of integration varied, as did actual practice. Integration of HIV treatment had been anticipated, but only occurred when required due to shifts in funding for ART. The change was rapid, and some clinics felt unprepared. That said, nearly all respondents were in favor of integrated care. Perceived benefits included comprehensive case management, better client-nurse interactions, and reduced stigma. Barriers to integration included staff shortages, insufficient training and experience, and outdated clinic infrastructure. There were also concerns about the impact of integration on staff workloads and waiting times. Finally, there were concerns about TB integration due to infection control issues. DISCUSSION: Integration is multi-faceted and often contingent on local, if not site-specific, factors. In the future in South Africa and in other settings contending with health service reorganization, staff consultations prior to and throughout phase-in of services changes could contribute to improved understanding of operational requirements, including staff needs, and improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , África do Sul
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health challenge and leading infectious killer worldwide. The need for continuous evaluation of TB treatment outcomes becomes more imperative in the midst of a global economic meltdown substantially impacting resource-limited-settings. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 25-years of treatment outcomes in 3,384 patients who were managed for TB at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Confirmed TB cases were given directly observed therapy of a short-course treatment regimen and monitored for clinical response. RESULTS: Out of 1,146,560 patients screened, there were 24,330 (2.1%) presumptive and 3,384 (13.9%) confirmed TB cases. The patients' mean age was 35.8 years (0.33-101 years). There were 1,902 (56.2%) male, 332(9.8%) pediatric, and 2,878 (85%) pulmonary TB cases. The annual mean measured treatment outcomes were as follows: adherence, 91.4(±5.8) %; successful outcome, 75.3(±8.8) % potentially unsatisfactory outcome, 14.8(±7.2) %; and mortality 10.0(±3.6) %. Female, extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), newly diagnosed, and relapsed patients compliant with treatment had successful outcomes. Adulthood and HIV infection were mortality risk factors. CONCLUSION: The mean annual successful treatment outcome is 75.3(±8.8) %. Female, pediatric, EPTB, new, and relapsed patients were predisposed to successful treatment outcomes. Lessons learned will guide future program modifications.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 720, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with sputum smear-positive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients are vulnerable to acquire tubercular infection. Contact tracing is an important strategy to control tubercular infection in the community. This study was done to find out prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular infection in children living with sputum smear-positive adult patients receiving DOTS at recruitment and to find out incidence of tubercular infection and disease in these children on follow up. METHOD: Children (< 15 years) living in contact with adults on DOTS were grouped as < 6 years and 6-14 years. They were further sub grouped as being - uninfected, infected, diseased and on prophylaxis and were followed at 3, 6 and 9 months. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were done. RESULTS: At recruitment 152 children were enrolled and 21.1% (n = 32) had TB. On follow up, 4.3% (n = 5), 5.8% (n = 6) and 11.6% (n = 11) children developed TB after 3, 6 and 9 months respectively.9 children did not come for the last follow up so the overall prevalence of TB disease at 9 months was 37.7% (n = 54). Out of the 128 children with TST reading 23.4% (n = 30) child contacts were found to be infected already at recruitment. The incidence of TST conversion was 20.7% (n = 18), 26.9% (n = 18) and 16.3% (n = 7) respectively. The overall prevalence of tubercular infection in the children, who were in contact with TB patients for 9 months was 74.5% (n = 73). CONCLUSION: About half the children were either suffering from TB or tubercular infection on recruitment. During 9 months follow up 22 unaffected children developed disease and 43acquired infection.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 766, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the completeness of tuberculosis (TB) notification data is important for monitoring of TB surveillance systems. We conducted an inventory study to calculate TB underreporting in Germany in 2013-2017. METHODS: Acquisition of two pseudonymized case-based data sources (national TB notification data and antibiotic resistance surveillance data) was followed by two-source Capture-recapture (CRC) analysis, as case-based data from a third source was unavailable. Aggregated data on consumption of a key anti-TB drug (pyrazinamide [PZA]) was compared to an estimated need for PZA based on TB notification data to obtain an independent underreporting estimation. Additionally, notified TB incidence was compared to TB rate in an aggregated health insurance fund dataset. RESULTS: CRC and PZA-based approaches indicated that between 93 and 97% (CRC) and between 91 and 95% (PZA) of estimated cases were captured in the national TB notification data in the years 2013-2017. Insurance fund dataset did not indicate TB underreporting on the national level in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that more than 90% of estimated TB cases are captured within the German TB surveillance system, and accordingly the TB notification rate is likely a good proxy of the diagnosed TB incidence rate. An increase in underreporting and discrepancies however should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pirazinamida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Tempo de Internação , Tuberculose/microbiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027392

RESUMO

Tuberculosis of the skull or calvarial tuberculosis (CTB) is rare. The literature until 2019 reported less than 60 cases of CTB in childhood. The authors describe two patients with CTB associated with other manifestations of TB, such as: spine and rib injuries, peripheral adenopathy, hepatic and splenic involvement who improved with chemotherapy. The patients were a four-year-old and an eight-year-old child, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological, bacteriological or molecular investigation. Both were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and did not need orthopedic treatment.


Assuntos
Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053077

RESUMO

Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
10.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(10): 912-5, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical effect of movable external fixation and fusion fixation for the treatment of elbow tuberculosis. METHODS: From October 2013 to June 2019, 52 patients with elbow tuberculosis treated with standard antituberculosis therapy were divided into movable external fixation group and fusion fixation group according to treatment methods. In group A, there were 25 patients, including 11 males and 14 females, aged from 24 to 75 years old with an average of (42.81± 9.01) years old; the courses of diseases ranged from 2 to 9 months with an average of (3.96±1.45) months. In group B, there were 27 patients, including 15 males and 12 females, aged from 23 to 77 years old with an averageof (44.08±7.44) years old; the courses of diseases ranged from 2 to 7 months with an average of (3.88±1.67) months. All patients were performed focus debridement. Intraoperative blood loss, operative time were compared between two groups. VAS score before operation, 2 weeks and 12 months after operation were applied to evaluate pain relieve;Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) before operation, 1 and 12 months after operation were used to evaluate clinical effect;changes of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and Creactive protein, CRP) before operation, 3 weeks after antituberculosis therapy, 1 week and 6 months after operation were compared between two groups. RESULTS: All patients were followed up from 12 to 20 months with an average of (13.50±4.85) months. No mixed infection and recurrence of tuberculosis occurred. There were no statistical differences in intraoperative blood loss and operative time(P>0.05). There was difference in postoperative VAS score at 2 weeks between movable external fixation group (5.15±0.95) and fusion fixation group (4.04±0.84)(P<0.01);while no difference in postoperative VAS score at 12 months between two groups (P>0.05). No difference in ESR and CRP level between two groups before and after operation (P>0.05). Postoperative Mayo score at 1 and 12 months in movable external fixation group were (78.15±7.83) and (90.19±7.13);in fusion fixation group were (70.40±7.61) and (82.60±8.38);there were differences in Mayo score at different time points between two groups(P<0.01). CONCLUSION: For elbow tuberculosis, movable external fixation and fusion fixation have equal effect in operative time, amount of bleeding and control of tuberculosis infection indicator. Movable external fixation need earlier functional exercise, not conducive to pain relief at early stage, which may be better than fusion fixation, it is worth clinical promoting.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo , Fixadores Externos , Tuberculose , Cotovelo , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/cirurgia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have explored an effect of cigarette smoking on tuberculosis treatment outcomes but with dissimilar conclusions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cigarette smoking on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library and Google scholar databases were searched last on February 27, 2019. We applied the random-effects model for the analysis. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and Egger's regression. Furthermore, we performed Orwin's Fail-Safe N and cumulative meta-analysis to check for small studies' effect. RESULTS: Out of 22 studies we included in the qualitative synthesis, 12 studies reported p-values less than 0.05 where smoking significantly favored poor treatment outcomes. The remaining 10 studies reported p-values larger than 0.05 implying that smoking does not affect the treatment outcomes. Twenty studies met the criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis found that smoking significantly increased the likelihood of poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes by 51% (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.75 and I-square = 75.1%). In a sub-group analysis, the effect was higher for low- and middle-income countries (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.31 to 2.30) and upper-middle-income economies (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.98) than for high-income ones (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.75) even though the differences in the effects among the strata were not statistically significant as demonstrated by overlapping of confidence intervals of the effects. Meta-regression analysis, adjusted for income economies, found the effect of smoking has not significantly improved over the years (p = 0.92) and thus implying neither of the covariates were source of the heterogeneity. Egger's regression test indicated that publication bias is unlikely (p = 0.403). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is significantly linked with poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at a greater risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) compared to people without HIV and of developing complications due to the complexity of TB/HIV coinfection management. METHODS: During 2013-2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 TB Regional Training and Medical Consultation Centers (RTMCCs) (now known as TB Centers of Excellence or COEs) to provide medical consultation to providers for TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI), with data entered into a Medical Consultation Database (MCD). Descriptive analyses of TB/HIV-related consultations were conducted using SAS® software, version [9.4] to determine the distribution of year of consultation, medical setting and provider type, frequency of consultations regarding a pediatric (<18 years) patient, and to categorize key concepts and themes arising within consultation queries and medical consultant responses. RESULTS: Of 14,586 consultations captured by the MCD in 2013-2017, 544 (4%) were categorized as TB/HIV-related, with 100 (18%) received in 2013, 129 (24%) in 2014, 104 (19%) in 2015, 117 (22%) in 2016, and 94 (17%) in 2017. Most TB/HIV consultations came from nurses (54%) or physicians (43%) and from local (65%) or state health departments (10%). Only 17 (3%) of HIV-related consultations involved pediatric cases. Off the 544 TB/HIV consultations, 347 (64%) concerned the appropriate treatment regimen for TB/HIV or LTBI/HIV for a patient on or not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). CONCLUSIONS: The data support a clear and ongoing gap in areas of specialized HIV knowledge by TB experts that could be supplemented with proactive educational outreach. The specific categories of TB/HIV inquiries captured by this analysis are strategically informing future targeted training and educational activities planned by the CDC TB Centers of Excellence, as well as guiding HIV educational efforts at regional and national TB meetings.


Assuntos
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./economia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Tuberculose/complicações , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Segurança , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
13.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since a meta-analysis showed little or no effect of second-line injectables on treatment success, and using injectables may induce ototoxicity, injectable-free rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment regimens are recommended. However, acquired resistance preventing activity was overlooked. No previous study assessed the effect of shortening the duration of kanamycin administration to 2 months during the intensive phase of the RR-TB shorter treatment regimen (STR). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of the effect of using 2 months of kanamycin instead of the standard 4(+) months (extension if lack of smear conversion at 4 months) on recurrence (either treatment failure or relapse) and fluoroquinolone acquired drug resistance, in patients treated with a gatifloxacin-based STR in Damien Foundation supported clinics in Bangladesh. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations. RESULTS: Five of 52 (9.6%) treated with a STR containing two months of kanamycin had recurrence, compared to 21 of 738 (2.8%) patients treated with the standard STR containing 4(+) months of kanamycin (OR 3.7; 95%CI:1.5-10.3). In those with initially fluoroquinolone-susceptible TB, acquired resistance to fluoroquinolone was detected in none of 639 patients treated with 4(+) months of kanamycin and two (4.5%) of 44 treated with two months of kanamycin (OR 75.2; 95%CI:3.6-1592.1). CONCLUSION: Two months of kanamycin was insufficient to prevent recurrence with acquired resistance to gatifloxacin, the core drug of the most effective RR-TB STR. Injectable mediated resistance prevention is important to reach high effectiveness, to safeguard all treatment options after recurrence, and to prevent the spread of resistant TB. Studies on all-oral regimens should also assess the effect of regimen composition on resistance acquisition. Until evidence shows that other drugs can assure at least the same strong resistance preventing activity of the injectables, it seems wise to continue using this group of drugs, and adapt the regimen if any ototoxicity is detected.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Canamicina/administração & dosagem , Canamicina/farmacologia , Canamicina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 686, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited research to guide TB treatment specifically in pregnant women and few studies have described the presentation of TB in pregnant women. We aimed to understand TB presentation and treatment outcomes in pregnant women in a low HIV burden setting. We describe a cohort of women of childbearing age treated for TB disease in Lima, Peru, and compare clinical presentation and treatment outcomes among pregnant and non-pregnant women between 2009 and 2012, including 36 pregnant women. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. Subjects were recruited from across 106 public health centers in Lima, Peru. Baseline demographic, medical history, and drug-susceptibility test results were collected. We used descriptive statistics to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of the women using Pearson chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests, or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Among 4500 individuals with pulmonary TB disease, 1334 women were included in analysis with 36 (2.69%) pregnant women. Pregnant women had similar demographics, past medical histories, and clinical presentation to non-pregnant women, except being more likely to be married (p = 0.01) and have cardiac disease (p = 0.04) and less likely to have weight loss (p = 0.05). Twenty (71.4%) pregnant women had pan-susceptible TB compared with 616 (63.1%) non-pregnant women; four (14.3%) pregnant women had mono-resistant TB compared with 154 (15.8%) non-pregnant women; and four (14.3%) pregnant women had multi-drug-resistant TB compared with 140 (14.3%) of non-pregnant women (p = 0.53). Twenty-eight (96.6%) pregnant women had a successful outcome (cure, completed treatment, treatment ended early by clinical team) while one (3.4%) had an unsuccessful outcome (treatment failed) and 1074 (97.3%) non-pregnant women had a successful outcome while 30 (2.7%) had an unsuccessful outcome (p = 0.56). CONCLUSION: In this cohort with low HIV co-infection, we found high TB treatment success rates in both pregnant and non-pregnant women, irrespective of drug-susceptibility profiles. If treated appropriately, pregnant women with TB disease can have successful outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008370, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956348

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) and tuberculosis (TB) are important health problems in Bolivia. Current treatments for both infections require a long period of time, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are frequent. This study aims to strengthen the Bolivian pharmacovigilance system, focusing on CD and TB. A situation analysis of pharmacovigilance in the Department of Cochabamba was performed. The use of a new local case report form (CRF) was implemented, together with the CRF established by the Unidad de Medicamentos y Tecnología en Salud (UNIMED), in several healthcare centers. Training and follow-up on drug safety monitoring and ADR reporting was provided to all health professionals involved in CD and TB treatment. A comparative analysis of the reported ADRs using the CRF provided by UNIMED, the new CRF proposal, and medical records, was also performed. Our results showed that out of all patients starting treatment for CD, 37.9% suffered ADRs according to the medical records, and 25.3% of them were classified as moderate/severe (MS). Only 47.4% of MS ADRs were reported to UNIMED. Regarding TB treatment, 9.9% of all patients suffered ADRs, 44% of them were classified as MS, and 75% of MS ADRs were reported to UNIMED. These findings show that the reinforcement of the Bolivian pharmacovigilance system is an ambitious project that should involve a long-term perspective and the engagement of national health workers and other stakeholders at all levels. Continuity and perseverance are essential to achieve a solid ADR reporting system, improving patient safety, drug efficacy and adherence to treatment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/organização & administração , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacovigilância , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolívia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 711, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis could infect patients with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive conditions via Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Tuberculosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is reported, but not HPS caused by Mycobacterium bovis in children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-month Chinese boy presented fever and cough. The initial laboratory investigation showed the lymphocyte count of 0.97 × 109/L, which decreased gradually. HPS was diagnosed based on the test results that fulfilled the HLH-2004 criteria. In addition, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected from his peripheral blood via metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and M. bovis was identified by polymerase chain reaction-reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB). Thus, the patient was treated with Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide, but not improved. However, parents refused to accept further therapy, and was discharged on the day 12 of admission. To confirm the pathogenesis, genetic analysis was performed. Mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene: Exon 6: c.854G > A; p. Arg285Gln was detected in the patient and the mother, which could underlie X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. CONCLUSIONS: A boy with X-SCID was diagnosed with M. bovis-associated HPS, emphasizing that X-SCID should be considered when M. bovis is detected in a male infant with low lymphocyte counts.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/complicações , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/microbiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Alta do Paciente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pirazinamida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem and one of the leading causes of death among infectious diseases. Although TB can be cured with first-line antibiotics treatment of 6 months regimen, non-adherence to the treatment remains the main challenge for TB prevention and control. Interventions to promote adherence need to address multiple underlying factors linked to non-adherence, which requires a synthesis of studies to understand these factors in the local context. Our review accordingly examines these factors for TB treatment in Ethiopia. METHODS: Articles were searched from PubMed and ScienceDirect databases, as well as manual searches through Google and Google Scholar search engines. Both quantitative and qualitative studies that showed factors associated with or reasons for non-adherence, default or loss to follow up from TB treatment were included. A total of 276 articles were screened, and 29 articles were ultimately included in the review. FINDINGS: The extracted factors were synthesized thematically into seven dimensions of patient-centred, social, economic, health system, therapy, lifestyle, and geographic access factors. More than 20 distinct factors were identified under these headings. Some of these factors may also apply quite widely in other settings, with greater or lesser influence, but some are particularly applicable to the Ethiopian setting. CONCLUSION: Helping patients to achieve full adherence to TB medication is a complex problem as it is influenced by interplay between many factors. Healthcare managers, providers, and researchers need to consider and address multiple underlying factors when designing adherence interventions. This work provides a reference set of such factors for Ethiopian interventions.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(7): 893-897, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735088

RESUMO

The current global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is one of the greatest challenges to public health, particularly in developing countries, and thus effective diagnostic methods and treatment options for TB remain a central topic in basic and clinical research. Heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA)-specific immune responses have been linked to protection against TB. The binding of HBHA-coated beads to epithelial and endothelial cell layers may trigger transcytosis of the beads, which is the basis for extrapulmonary dissemination. In addition, HBHA has been confirmed as a potential diagnostic marker for TB, and it is important in developing new TB vaccines and anti-TB drugs. Recently, basic research on HBHA has been intensified. The HBHA application in the field of prevention and treatment should be further explored. In addition, the existing research achievements have shown its broad application prospects. Currently, there are no relevant specialized products, and research should be accelerated. These products may contribute to the application of HBHA in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Humanos , Lectinas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
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