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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014253

RESUMO

Since asymptomatic infections as "covert transmitter", and some patients can progress rapidly in the short term, it is essential to pay attention to the diagnosis and surveillance of asymptomatic patients with SARS-COV2 infection. CT scan has great value in screening and detecting patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the highly suspected or probable asymptomatic cases with negative RT-PCR for SARS-COV2. This study aimed to detect incidentally COVID-19 pneumonia on medical imaging for patients consulting for other reasons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Dor no Peito/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 641, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929589

RESUMO

Monitoring the groundwater quality situation and identifying the various pollution loads' sources are a prerequisites to finding solutions. In many areas, nitrate and salinity are one of the prime pollutants in the groundwater. This investigation is carried to present the results of a monitoring study focusing on 20 wells samples collected from the shallow groundwater of Guenniche plain (North Tunisia) during the wet season of May 2016, to present its suitability for drinking purposes with emphasis on the assessment of the presence of nitrate and salinity elements. Nitrate levels' results show that 55% of the samples exceeded the National Tunisian standard limit (NT) and the World Health Organization standard limit (WHO). The salinity results, measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), show that 95% of the samples exceed the international standard, and 25% exceed the national standard. A total of 20% of the wells exceeded the nitrite standards. The total hardness levels indicate that 90% of the samples present very hard water. The Guenniche shallow groundwater average concentrations are categorized as follows: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ for the cations and Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > NO3- for the anions. Nitrate and salinity variations during the period 2006-2015 follow the rainfall fluctuation patterns. The assessment of water quality using Water Quality Index revealed that 95% of the wells' water classes ranged between "poor", "very poor," and "unsuitable for drinking purposes". Therefore, these wells are affected by anthropogenic and/or natural factors and they are inadvisable for drinking purposes, unless the water from these wells undergoes appropriate treatment before use.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Salinidade , Tunísia , Qualidade da Água
3.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127312, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947663

RESUMO

As recognized risk factor to pose a health threat to humans and wildlife globally, atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were collected from a North African coastal city (Bizerte, Tunisia) for one year, and were characterized for their chemical compositions, including mercury (HgPM), as well as organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)), organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON), determined in a previous study. Then, we applied an in vitro reporter gene assay (DR-CALUX) to detect and quantify the dioxin-like activity of PM-associated organic contaminants. Results showed that average HgPM concentration over the entire sampling period was found to be 13.4 ± 12 pg m-3. Seasonal variation in the HgPM concentration was observed with lower values in spring and summer and higher values in winter and autumn due to the variation of meteorological conditions together with the emission sources. Principal component analysis suggested that fossil fuel combustion and a nearby cement factory were the dominant anthropogenic HgPM sources. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities were observed in all organic extracts of atmospheric PM from Bizerte city (388.3-1543.6 fg m-3), and shows significant positive correlations with all PM-associated organic contaminants. A significant proportion of dioxin-like activity of PM was related to PAHs. The dioxin-like activity followed the same trend as PM-associated organic contaminants, with higher dioxin-like activity in the cold season than in the warm season, indicating the advantage and utility of the use of bioassays in risk assessment of complex environmental samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Clima , Dioxinas/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Estações do Ano , Tunísia
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 559-564, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974765

RESUMO

In this work, we propose to evaluate the effect of agriculture intensification under greenhouses on the biochemical and transcriptomic responses of the earthworms Eisenia andrei. This work was conducted on two sites in Téboulba and Sahline (Monastir governorate) and a control site in an experimental plot that is undergoing organic farming. For this purpose, the earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to the soils during 7 and 14 days. The physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. The biochemical biomarkers of metallothioneins (MTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulations were also assessed. Moreover, the gene expression level of the MTs was analyzed. The results of our study revealed a significant trace element accumulation accompanied by a high level of MDA and MT proteins. Moreover, a significant expression of the MT gene was observed in earthworms exposed to the soils from Sahline and Téboulba. Hence, this work reveals that intensive agriculture can affect the biological responses of earthworms and consequently, the soil's biofertility.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/genética , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Tunísia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 627, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological pattern of hepatitis A infection has shown dynamic changes in many parts of the world due to improved socio-economic conditions and the accumulation of seronegative subjects, which leads to possible outbreaks and increased morbidity rate. In Tunisia, the epidemiological status of hepatits A virus is currently unknown. However, over the past years higher numbers of symptomatic hepatitis A virus infection in school attendants and several outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health, especially from regions with the lowest socio-economic levels in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in central-west Tunisia and assess the impact of hepatitis A virus vaccination on hepatitis A epidemiology. METHODS: Serum samples from 1379 individuals, aged 5-75 years, were screened for hepatitis A virus antibodies. Adjusted seroprevalence, incidence and force of infection parameters were estimated by a linear age structured SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) compartmental model. A vaccine model was then constructed to assess the impact on hepatitis A virus epidemiology of 3 scenarios of vaccination strategies: one dose at 12-months of age, one dose at 6-years and one dose at 12-months and another at 6-years of age during 6 years. RESULTS: A rapid increase in anti-hepatitis A virus seroprevalence was noted during infancy and adolescence: 47% of subjects under 10-years-old are infected; the prevalence increases to 77% at 15-years and reaches 97% in subjects aged 30-years. The force of infection is highest between 10 and 30-years of age and the incidence declines with increasing age. The vaccine model showed that the 3-scenarios lead to a significant reduction of the fraction of susceptibles. The two doses scenario gives the best results. Single-dose vaccination at 6-years of age provides more rapid decrease of disease burden in school-aged children, as compared to single-dose vaccination at 12-months, but keeps with a non-negligible fraction of susceptibles among children < 6-years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the epidemiological switch from high to intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A virus in Tunisia and provides models that may help undertake best decisions in terms of vaccinations strategies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite A/sangue , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite A/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753169

RESUMO

This study assesses the microplastics (MPs) levels in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and seawater from a southern Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte lagoon, Northern Tunisia) and discusses the potential effects of its consumption on human health. Polyethylene was the most abundant in mussels and seawater, followed by polypropylene and cellophane. The lowest and highest average MPs concentrations were recorded in the lagoon channel and southern area of the lagoon, respectively, for both mussels (2.6 ± 1.7-12.0 ± 1.4 items mussel-1) and seawater (0.2 ± 0.1-0.7 ± 0.2 items L-1). Mussels in areas highly polluted with fibers and polyethylene were found to have higher potential to ingest and/or adhere higher numbers of these particles. The annual dietary intake of MPs by Tunisians through the consumption of local mussels was estimated at 4.2 items capita-1 year-1. Even though MPs are not biodegraded and can be excreted by humans, their potential human health risks are discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar , Tunísia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008550, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) is considered as a useful indicator of past infection by Leishmania parasites. However, the temporal dynamics of a positive LST under different epidemiologic scenarios and whether it relates to the protection against the recurrence of an overt disease are not fully documented. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on a population based prospective study conducted on 2686 individuals living in two foci located in Central Tunisia, to assess over a one-year epidemiologic season, the incidence of Leishmania (L.) major infection and disease and changes in LST reactivity. The two foci were both endemic for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) due to L. major, but contrasted in their history for this disease (ie: an old focus versus a recent focus). We found that most infections occurred in the new focus (290/1000; 95% CI: 265-315 person-years) with an incidence rate of CL lesions 2.4 times higher than in the old focus. Likewise, the rates of LST reactivity reversion and loss, in the new focus, were 99/1000[38-116] person-years and 14/1000[8-21] person-years, respectively. Loss of LST reactivity was not noticed in the old focus. Interestingly, the incidence rates of symptomatic infection did not differ significantly according to the LST status at enrolment (negative versus positive) between the combined foci and the new one. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings confirm LST as a good tool for assessing L. major cryptic infection. However, the instability of the LST positivity in new foci should be considered as an important confounder of the outcome of this infection when developing a research protocol for vaccine trial.


Assuntos
Leishmania major/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115263, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768926

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the ecotoxicity and interactions between heavy metals and polyvinyl chloride microplastics. Fifteen treatments were tested and results were examined after one month. In details, this work aims to study the ecotoxicological effects of cadmium (10 and 20 mg kg-1 Dry Weight DW), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its modified forms; PVC-DETA (PD) and PVC-TETA (PT) (20 and 40 mg kg-1 DW), separately and in mixtures, on meiofauna from Bizerte lagoon (NE Tunisia) with focus on nematode features. The results obtained showed that individual treatments were toxic for meiofauna and particularly for free-living nematodes. No clear trends characterized the numerical responses but significant reductions were observed for diversity indices. Moreover, the binary combinations of contaminants have a lesser toxic effect compared to their individual effects. This effect could be related to the high-capacity chelating ability of PVC and its polymers against cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cloreto de Polivinila , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Tunísia
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1203-1212, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755531

RESUMO

Introduction. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequently identified viral agent in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). No data are available to date regarding RSV genotypes circulating in Tunisia.Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of the glycoprotein G gene in Tunisian RSV strains.Methodology. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from infants hospitalized for LRTI in five Tunisian hospitals. All specimens were screened for RSV by a direct immunofluorescence assay (DIFA). To molecularly characterize Tunisian RSV strains, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Randomly selected positive samples were subjected to reverse transcription PCR amplifying the second hyper-variable region (HVR2) of the G gene.Results. Among a total of 1417 samples collected between 2015 and 2018, 394 (27.8 %) were positive for RSV by DIFA. Analysis of 61 randomly selected RSV strains revealed that group A RSV (78.7 %) predominated during the period of study as compared to group B RSV (21.3 %). The phylogenetic analysis showed that two genotypes of RSV-A were co-circulating: the ON1 genotype with a 72-nt duplication in HVR2 of the G gene was predominant (98.0 % of RSV-A strains), while one RSV-A strain clustered with the NA1 genotype (2.0 %). Concerning Tunisian group B RSV strains, all sequences contained a 60-nt insertion in HVR2 and a clustered BA10 genotype.Conclusion. These data suggest that RSV-A genotype ON1 and RSV-B genotype BA10, both with duplications in the G gene, were widely circulating in the Central coastal region of Tunisia between 2015 and 2018.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/classificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Tunísia/epidemiologia
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35738-35749, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601867

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders defined by a deficit in social interactions and the presence of restricted and stereotypical behaviors or interests. The etiologies of autism remain mostly unknown. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suspected. Among these environmental factors, exposure to several chemical elements has been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of trace elements in the blood plasma of children with ASD with typically developed children (TDC). The participants in this study consisted of 89 children with ASD (14 girls and 74 boys) and 70 TD children (29 girls and 41 boys). The levels of 33 chemical elements have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS). We detected significant differences in the levels of eight elements between the two groups, among which there were three rare earth elements (REEs): Eu, Pr, and Sc (p = 0.000, p = 0.023, and p < 0.001 respectively); four heavy metals: Bi, Tl, Ti, and V (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001 respectively); and one essential element: Cu (p = 0.043). Children with ASD had higher levels of Er, Pr, Sc, Bi, Tl, Ti, and V, and lower levels of Cu in comparison with the TD group. The children exposed to passive smoking had lower levels of lead (Pb) compared with children without exposure (p = 0.018). Four elements (Cr, Er, Dy, and Pr) were negatively correlated to the severity of ASD. The level of Cu was significantly associated with autistic children's behavior (p = 0.014). These results suggest that children with ASD might have abnormal plasma levels of certain chemical elements (including Er, Pr, Sc, Bi, Tl, Ti, and V, and Cu), and some of these elements might be associated with certain clinical features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tunísia
11.
Lancet ; 396(10246): 267-276, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, often receive glucocorticoids, but long-term use can produce adverse effects. Evidence from randomised controlled trials to guide tapering of oral glucocorticoids is scarce. We investigated a scheme for tapering oral glucocorticoids compared with continuing low-dose oral glucocorticoids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: The Steroid EliMination In Rheumatoid Arthritis (SEMIRA) trial was a double-blind, multicentre, two parallel-arm, randomised controlled trial done at 39 centres from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and Tunisia). Adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tocilizumab and glucocorticoids 5-15 mg per day for 24 weeks or more were eligible for inclusion if they had received prednisone 5 mg per day for 4 weeks or more and had stable low disease activaity, confirmed by a Disease Activity Score for 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) of 3·2 or less 4-6 weeks before and on the day of randomisation. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to either continue masked prednisone 5 mg per day for 24 weeks or to taper masked prednisone reaching 0 mg per day at week 16. All patients received tocilizumab (162 mg subcutaneously every week or 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks) with or without csDMARDs maintained at stable doses during the entire 24-week study. The primary outcome was the difference in mean DAS28-ESR change from baseline to week 24, with a difference of more than 0·6 defined as clinically relevant between the continued-prednisone group and the tapered-prednisone group. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02573012. FINDINGS: Between Oct 21, 2015, and June 9, 2017, 421 patients were screened and 259 (200 [77%] women and 59 [23%] men) were recruited onto the trial. In all 128 patients assigned to the continued-prednisone regimen, disease activity control was superior to that in all 131 patients assigned to the tapered-prednisone regimen; the estimated mean change in DAS28-ESR from baseline to week 24 was 0·54 (95% CI 0·35-0·73) with tapered prednisone and -0·08 (-0·27 to 0·12) with continued prednisone (difference 0·61 [0·35-0·88]; p<0·0001), favouring continuing prednisone 5 mg per day for 24 weeks. Treatment was regarded as successful (defined as low disease activity at week 24, plus absence of rheumatoid arthritis flare for 24 weeks and no confirmed adrenal insufficiency) in 99 (77%) patients in the continued-prednisone group versus 85 (65%) patients in the tapered-prednisone group (relative risk 0·83; 95% CI 0·71-0·97). Serious adverse events occurred in seven (5%) patients in the tapered-prednisone group and four (3%) patients in the continued-prednisone group; no patients had symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. INTERPRETATION: In patients who achieved low disease activity with tocilizumab and at least 24 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment, continuing glucocorticoids at 5 mg per day for 24 weeks provided safe and better disease control than tapering glucocorticoids, although two-thirds of patients were able to safely taper their glucocorticoid dose. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/etnologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
12.
Cancer Invest ; 38(7): 394-405, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643440

RESUMO

The study investigated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in gliomas. A retrospective study was conducted on 112 samples. HCMV was investigated by PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry. HPV was tested by PCR and DNA ISH. HCMV was identified in 60 gliomas, including 55 GBM. However, RNA ISH and immunohistochemistry failed to detect HCMV positivity. HPV was identified in 44 GBM. No significant relationship was identified between HCMV and HPV and tumour characteristics (p > 0.05). Our findings support the HCMV and HPV presence in gliomas. Further assays are required to more explore the potential efficient antiviral management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/virologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Glioma/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3315-3326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699938

RESUMO

Haemogregarina species are apicomplexan blood parasites infecting vertebrates such as fish, lizards, and turtles. Due to the high morphological similarity of the erythrocytic stages infecting host species, it has always been a challenge to identify the true diversity of these parasites. Therefore, taxonomic studies are presently based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. In Tunisia, two species of Haemogregarina have been reported within the freshwater turtle Mauremys leprosa (Geoemydidae) for more than 40 years. Since M. leprosa occurs in the same aquatic environments as Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) in Tunisia, our objectives were to assess parasite diversity and specificity on the basis of both morphological and molecular approaches. The turtles were surveyed and sampled across six aquatic areas of Tunisia. Among the 39 specimens of M. leprosa and seven of E. orbicularis that were trapped and investigated, the presence of haemogregarines was detected in the blood of turtles only at sites where leeches were observed. Three 18S variants were identified, which corresponded to three distinct Haemogregarina species, among which one was identified as Haemogregarina stepanowi. The two other species that were detected are likely new to science. Because we show the occurrence of more than one blood parasite species within a single host specimen, our study provides the first report of coinfection with molecularly distinct Haemogregarina spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/classificação
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37660-37667, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607994

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic conditions. Its incidence varies considerably between countries, suggesting its interaction with the external environment. To analyze the influence of climate and air pollution on the occurrence of idiopathic PE in the region of Sousse (Tunisia). A total of 142 patients with idiopathic PE at two academic hospitals in Sousse (Tunisia) were enrolled in the study over a 7-year period. An analysis of two time series (environmental data and PE cases) was performed. Climatic data were collected from the National Institute of Meteorology. Air pollution data were obtained from the modeling platform of the National Agency for Protection of the Environment. The year 2015 was marked by the occurrence of the highest number of cases (24.6%). A statistically significant decrease in PE risk of 41.9% was observed during the summer with an OR of 0.59 (95% CI [0.36-0.94] and p = 0.026), compared with other seasons. Poisson GLM regression showed a significant increased risk of PE of 3.3% for each 1 °C temperature drop. After multiple binary logistic regression, the elevation of PM10 concentration was independently associated with an increased risk of PE (p < 10-3, OR 79.55, 95% CI [42.28-149.6]). Some environmental parameters may predispose to the onset of idiopathic PE. Understanding their accurate influence may have preventive and curative implications.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tunísia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37699-37708, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607996

RESUMO

This paper seeks to answer an empirical question of whether clean biomass energy consumption lowers CO2 emissions while controlling for technical innovation in eight selected countries from Africa for the 1980-2015 period. The countries which are chosen based on availability of data on biomass energy and technological innovation include Egypt, Algeria, South Africa, Mauritius, Kenya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Zambia. Applying pooled mean group, mean group, and dynamic fixed effect panel estimators, the results indicate that clean biomass energy use decreases CO2 emission in the long run. But the effect of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emission is insignificant in the short run. The findings imply that CO2 emission can be reduced by increasing clean biomass energy in the energy mix of these countries. Similarly, environmental quality and economic growth can be achieved simultaneously by increasing the share of biomass energy in large-scale production process. Furthermore, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), which hypothesizes an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emission and economic growth, was validated in the long run. This suggests that the EKC pattern is only observed in the long run. Thus, as part of recommendation from this study, policy makers in these countries should formulate more policies that will enhance clean biomass energy production and its usage to substitute significant percentage of fossil fuel use in production process.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Argélia , Biomassa , Egito , Quênia , Marrocos , África do Sul , Tunísia , Zâmbia
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 393-396, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699910

RESUMO

Lizards increasingly are recognized as suitable contaminant biomonitors in terrestrial ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that Bosk's fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus boskianus) living close to the Gabès-Ghannouche industrial complex for fertilizer and acid production in southern Tunisia were contaminated by heavy metals. However, the impact of this contamination on lizard health parameters has not been investigated. In this study, we used the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling test to assess whether the proximity to the industrial complex was associated with notable changes in lizard cell-mediated immune response (CMI). Our results showed significantly lower CMI in lizards living close to the industrial complex compared to those occurring farther away in a similar coastal habitat. Overall, our findings are consistent with the idea of immunotoxic effects of metal contamination. They also stress the usefulness of the PHA approach as an efficient tool for the evaluation of contaminant-related immunosuppression in lizards.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Lagartos/imunologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Tunísia
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2437-2451, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607726

RESUMO

A total of 15 samples of thalassotherapy products, distributed in Tunisia in their intact and final state of production, was analyzed to determine their microbiological safety status. The result shows the absence of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coliforms). The incidence of contamination by Gram-positive Bacilli (mesophelic bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic spore forming bacteria, anaerobic sulphite-reducing bacteria) was found to be higher in products composed by mud and extract of alga. The biochemical and molecular identification of the major contaminant show that Bacilli were the most covered from 75% of the thalassotherapy products. Mineral analysis (organic matter, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na d K, Al, Si and Ti) shows strong composition on Aluminum and Silica. Cytotoxicity study of six thalassotherapy products and three essential oil extracts (Menthol, Clove and Eucalyptus) did not show any cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, antibacterial acitivity of 5 essentila oils, against 30 isolates of the genus Bacillus and 10 reference strains, has been characterized showing an interesting bactericidal potential of the extract of menthol and Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Climatoterapia/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tunísia
18.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 324-333, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measuring the attitudes of health professionals in two Maghreb countries (Tunisia and Algeria) with regard to the response to COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This scoping study was based on a "Google Form" covering three constituents of the response plan against COVID-19: responders, activities and crisis communication. The attitudes of health professionals who are working in Tunisia and Algeria were measured through the Likert scale with four propositions, grouped in pairs, during the analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 280 health professionals, 170 of whom are Tunisians along with 110 Algerians. The medians of age and that of professional seniority are, respectively, 37 and 10 years. The role of "health workers", "Mass Media" and "civil society associations" was found to be satisfactory according, respectively, to 92%, 71%, and 55% of the respondents. As far as 72% of health professionals are concerned, the "barrier measures" were respected by the population. Approximately, seven in ten respondents were satisfied with the quality of communication occuring between the Ministries of Health and its epidemiological structures. CONCLUSION: Health professionals of the Maghreb working in Tunisia and Algeria had a generally positive perception of the role of population responders, community engagement, and the quality of official communication in regards to the response plan against COVID- 19. This perception would be a prerequisite for the success of community participation and multisectoral action as well as essential in the strategy of prevention and control of this pandemic and of possible other health emergencies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Tunísia/epidemiologia
19.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 334-342, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602470

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection causes to medical community many difficulties worldwide. In addition to its therapeutic problems, it can generate situations with high medico-legal risk to doctor who can see his criminal medical liability engaged. In fact, in Tunisia, this new infection imposes many specific legal obligations. Some of these obligations have recently been introduced, therefore still little or not known by doctors, despite the need for them to comply with. In this paper, we propose to analyse the circumstances of medical practice in Covid-19 pandemic period , which risk to engage the doctor's criminal medical liability, and to set out the sanctions incurred, in order to protect health professionals against the specific legal risk of this emerging disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Responsabilidade Legal , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Tunísia/epidemiologia
20.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 348-354, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Report the results of a participatory approach in Tunisian orthopedic surgery, for the development of a consensus of experts, on the identification of the list of pathologies to always be considered as non-postponable emergencies, during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This descriptive study of the opinions of Tunisian experts covered all orthopedic morbidities classified into three homogeneous groups: trauma, infections and tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The attitudes of the interviewees were collected using the "Delphi" method, using a "Google-Form" questionnaire, sent by email to all of the Tunisian university orthopedic surgeons in practice, and registered at the SOTCOT. Consensus has been established for an item, if validated by at least 80% of the experts. The analysis of the results focused on the first 30 responses to this "online" form. RESULTS: Tunisian experts agreed on the continuity of the urgency of taking in charge all the items of orthopedic morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic, apart from the following affections: aseptic nonunions in the upper and lower limbs, aggressive giant cell tumors, and hyperalgesic disc herniations, where agreement rates were only at 8%, 12%, 58% and 77%. CONCLUSION: Relative to its disciplinary and professional specificities, the majority the of orthopedic conditions were still considered as emergencies, during the COVID-19 pandemic, which did not lend to postponement of the surgery. However, their management should obey to the recommendations of "Sorting" and the " COVID-19 Patient Pathway ", established by national authorities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emergências , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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