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3.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(4): 389-394, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538788

RESUMO

For individuals aspiring to a career in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, mentorship can shape destiny. Mentorship helps assure safe passage into the specialty, and it influences the arc of professional development across the career continuum. Even before the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, technology and social networking were transforming mentorship in otolaryngology. Now, in an increasingly virtual world, where in-person interactions are the exception, mentorship plays an even more pivotal role. Mentors serve as trusted guides, helping learners navigate accelerating trends toward early specialization, competency-based assessments, and key milestones. However, several structural barriers render the playing field unlevel. For medical students, cancellation of visiting clerkships, in-person rotations, and other face-to-face interactions may limit access to mentors. The pandemic and virtual landscape particularly threaten the already-leaky pipeline for underrepresented medical students. These challenges may persist into residency and later career stages, where structural inequities continue to subtly influence opportunities and pairings of mentors and mentees. Hence, overreliance on serendipitous encounters can exacerbate disparities, even amid societal mandates for equity. The decision to take deliberate steps toward mentoring outreach and engagement has profound implications for what otolaryngology will look like in years to come. This article introduces the concept of new age mentoring, shining a light on how to modernize practices. The key shifts are from passive to active engagement; from amorphous to structured relationships; and from hierarchical dynamics to bidirectional mentoring. Success is predicated on intentional outreach and purposefulness in championing diversity, equity, and inclusion in the progressively technology-driven landscape.


Assuntos
Tutoria/tendências , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Otolaringologia/educação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Tutoria/métodos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 566-581, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600614

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in daily living skills. Behavior analysts can use telehealth, such as videoconferencing technology, to deliver interventions to families of these children. Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the common barriers to accessing behavioral interventions, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of delivering behavioral interventions via telehealth. This study evaluated the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention with coaching via telehealth to improve daily living skills. Children ranging in age from 5 to 9 years participated in the study with 1 or 2 of their parents serving as the primary implementer(s). Parents implemented the intervention with fidelity and the intervention yielded increases in independent daily living skill completion for all 4 participants.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Pais/educação , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
5.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(4): 333-337, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574028

RESUMO

In a companion paper, we showed how local hospital leaders could assess systems and identify key safety concerns and targets for system improvement. In the present paper, we consider how these leaders might implement practical, low-cost interventions to improve safety. Our focus is on making immediate safety improvements both to directly improve patient care and as a foundation for advancing care in the longer-term. We describe a 'portfolio' approach to safety improvement in four broad categories: prioritising critical processes, such as checking drug doses; strengthening the overall system of care, for example, by introducing multiprofessional handovers; control of known risks, such as only using continuous positive airway pressure when appropriate conditions are met; and enhancing detection and response to hazardous situations, such as introducing brief team meetings to identify and respond to immediate threats and challenges. Local clinical leaders and managers face numerous challenges in delivering safe care but, if given sufficient support, they are nevertheless in a position to bring about major improvements. Skills in improving safety and quality should be recognised as equivalent to any other form of (sub)specialty training and as an essential element of any senior clinical or management role. National professional organisations need to promote appropriate education and provide coaching, mentorship and support to local leaders.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/economia , Neonatologia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Neonatologia/normas , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467020

RESUMO

Peer mentorship is an effective approach for delivering health promotion programs that may be particularly useful among underrepresented populations. Advancing the peer-led approach, the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is a communal-led program rooted in Indigenous values aimed at the promotion of healthy lifestyles in children and youth. The program includes layers of multi-age mentoring (i.e., elementary students, high school student mentors, and young adult health leaders [YAHLs]) and incorporates three core components: physical activity, healthy eating, and cultural teachings. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore elementary student, mentor, and YAHL experiences in an urban IYMP offering. Eleven sharing circles were conducted; six with elementary students (n = 23; grade 4 and 5 students), two with mentors (n = 3; students enrolled in a grade 10 wellness girls class), and three with YAHLs (n = 6; undergraduate university students). Focus groups were also held with respective school teachers and principals. An inductive content analysis generated three themes that represent the perceived impacts of this urban IYMP offering: (1) Fostering Wellness, (2) Strengthening Meaningful Connections, and (3) Exploring Leadership. Findings are positioned within a communal mentorship framework that is circular and multi-directional. By bringing together Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, this program offering supports Indigenous cultural relevance in an urban-based wellness program.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25578, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decreasing prevalence over the last several decades, cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease, underscoring the need for innovative, effective solutions. Pivot is a novel, inclusive smoking cessation program designed for smokers along the entire spectrum of readiness to quit. Pivot leverages proven methods and technological advancements, including a personal portable breath carbon monoxide sensor, smartphone app, and in-app text-based coaching. We previously reported outcomes from the end of active Pivot program participation in 319 adult smokers. Herein, we report longer-term follow up in this cohort. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess and report participant outcomes 3 months after completion of Pivot, including smoking behavior, quit rates, continuous abstinence rates and durability, and predictors of abstinence. METHODS: This prospective remote cohort study included US-based cigarette smokers aged 18 to 65 years who smoked ≥5 cigarettes per day (CPD). Three months after completion of active participation in Pivot, final follow-up data were collected via an online questionnaire. Outcomes included smoking behavior (CPD and quit attempts), self-reported quit rates (7- and 30-day point prevalence abstinence [PPA]), and continuous abstinence rates (proportion who achieved uninterrupted abstinence) and duration. Exploratory regression analyses were performed to identify baseline characteristics associated with achievement of 7-day PPA, 30-day PPA, and continuous abstinence. RESULTS: A total of 319 participants completed onboarding (intention-to-treat [ITT]); 288/319 participants (90.3%) completed follow up (completers) at a mean of 7.2 (SD 1.2) months after onboarding. At final follow up, CPD were reduced by 52.6% (SE 2.1; P<.001) among all 319 participants, and most completers (152/288, 52.8%) reduced their CPD by at least 50%. Overall, most completers (232/288, 80.6%) made at least one quit attempt. Quit rates increased after the end of Pivot; using ITT analyses, 35.4% (113/319) achieved 7-day PPA and 31.3% (100/319) achieved 30-day PPA at final follow up compared with 32.0% (102/319) and 27.6% (88/319), respectively, at the end of the Pivot program. Continuous abstinence was achieved in about a quarter of those who onboarded (76/319, 23.8%) and in most who reported 30-day PPA at the end of Pivot (76/88, 86.4%), with a mean abstinence duration of 5.8 (SD 0.6) months. In exploratory regression analyses, lower baseline CPD, more positive baseline attitudes reflecting higher self-efficacy (higher confidence to quit and lower perceived difficulty of quitting), and higher education were associated with achieving abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first longer-term outcomes of the Pivot smoking cessation program. At final follow up, quit rates increased and continuous abstinence was favorable; the majority who achieved abstinence at the end of Pivot sustained abstinence throughout follow up. Decreases in CPD persisted and most participants made a quit attempt. Overall, final follow-up outcomes were stable or improved when compared to previous outcomes from the end of the program. These findings validate earlier results, and suggest that Pivot is an effective and durable solution for smoking cessation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03295643; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03295643.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23612, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective treatments for various conditions such as obesity, cardiac heart diseases, or low back pain require not only personal on-site coaching sessions by health care experts but also a significant amount of home exercises. However, nonadherence to home exercises is still a serious problem as it leads to increased costs due to prolonged treatments. OBJECTIVE: To improve adherence to home exercises, we propose, implement, and assess the novel coaching concept of hybrid ubiquitous coaching (HUC). In HUC, health care experts are complemented by a conversational agent (CA) that delivers psychoeducation and personalized motivational messages via a smartphone, as well as real-time exercise support, monitoring, and feedback in a hands-free augmented reality environment. METHODS: We applied HUC to the field of physiotherapy and conducted 4 design-and-evaluate loops with an interdisciplinary team to assess how HUC is perceived by patients and physiotherapists and whether HUC leads to treatment adherence. A first version of HUC was evaluated by 35 physiotherapy patients in a lab setting to identify patients' perceptions of HUC. In addition, 11 physiotherapists were interviewed about HUC and assessed whether the CA could help them build up a working alliance with their patients. A second version was then tested by 15 patients in a within-subject experiment to identify the ability of HUC to address adherence and to build a working alliance between the patient and the CA. Finally, a 4-week n-of-1 trial was conducted with 1 patient to show one experience with HUC in depth and thereby potentially reveal real-world benefits and challenges. RESULTS: Patients perceived HUC to be useful, easy to use, and enjoyable, preferred it to state-of-the-art approaches, and expressed their intentions to use it. Moreover, patients built a working alliance with the CA. Physiotherapists saw a relative advantage of HUC compared to current approaches but initially did not see the potential in terms of a working alliance, which changed after seeing the results of HUC in the field. Qualitative feedback from patients indicated that they enjoyed doing the exercise with an augmented reality-based CA and understood better how to do the exercise correctly with HUC. Moreover, physiotherapists highlighted that HUC would be helpful to use in the therapy process. The longitudinal field study resulted in an adherence rate of 92% (11/12 sessions; 330/360 repetitions; 33/36 sets) and a substantial increase in exercise accuracy during the 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The overall positive assessments from both patients and health care experts suggest that HUC is a promising tool to be applied in various disorders with a relevant set of home exercises. Future research, however, must implement a variety of exercises and test HUC with patients suffering from different disorders.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Fisioterapeutas/normas , Smartphone/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(1): 250-259, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341950

RESUMO

Individuals with heart failure (HF) typically live in the community and are cared for at home by family caregivers. These caregivers often lack supportive services and the time to access those services when available. Technology can play a role in conveniently bringing needed support to these caregivers. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of a virtual health coaching intervention with caregivers of HF patients ("Virtual Caregiver Coach for You"-ViCCY). A randomized controlled trial is currently in progress to test the efficacy of the intervention to improve self-care. In this trial, 250 caregivers will be randomly assigned to receive health information via a tablet computer (hereafter, tablet) plus 10 live health coaching sessions delivered virtually (intervention group; n = 125) or health information via a tablet only (control group; n = 125). Each tablet has specific health information websites preloaded. To inform others embarking on similar technology projects, here we highlight the technology challenges encountered with the first 15 caregivers who received the ViCCY intervention and the solutions used to overcome those challenges. Several adaptations to the implementation of ViCCY were needed to address hardware, software, and network connectivity challenges. Even with a well-designed research implementation plan, it is important to re-examine strategies at every step to solve implementation barriers and maximize fidelity to the intervention. Researcher and interventionist flexibility in adapting to new strategies is essential when implementing a technology-based virtual health coaching intervention.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Tutoria/normas , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Gravação de Videoteipe/normas , Adulto , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas
10.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(1): 24-36, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319386

RESUMO

In the United States, hypertension (HTN) is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and a more significant health problem for Blacks compared with other racial/ethnic groups. The prevalence of HTN in Black women is among the highest in the world, underscoring the need for effective prevention and management approaches for blood pressure (BP) control. We developed a two-arm randomized controlled trial repeated measures design study for improving HTN self-management among Black women. The study tests whether the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) combined with interactive technology-enhanced coaching, can improve BP control and adherence to treatment (e.g., medication-taking, physical activity, calorie intake, and weight management) compared with the CDSMP alone. Repeated measurements were conducted at 3, 6, and 9 months. A sample of 90 community-dwelling Black women with uncontrolled Stage 1 HTN (BP ≥ 130/80) were enrolled, completed CDSMP training, and randomized. This study will contribute to our understanding of novel methods to empower Black women to increase their active involvement in self-care management of HTN.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Hipertensão/terapia , Tutoria/métodos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Tutoria/normas , Tutoria/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Autogestão , Estados Unidos/etnologia
11.
JAAPA ; 34(1): 32-38, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This is the final article in a series that examines the role of onboarding programs for new physician assistants (PAs) and NPs. On-the-job learning is highly relevant for this workforce. Here we examine the strategies organizations use to impart information and skills in onboarding programs. METHODS: In 2018, we interviewed 13 administrators of onboarding programs. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for themes by a team of researchers, with feedback from interviewees. RESULTS: Seven strategies were identified and are described in this article: Clinical mentoring, personal and professional mentoring, meeting with/shadowing other professionals, checking in by administrators, delivering didactic content, tailoring content or ramp-up, and assessing/ensuring competency. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes commonly used strategies in onboarding programs for PAs and NPs and can provide guidance to those designing their own onboarding programs. The programs we examined relied heavily on mentoring and other strategies appropriate for adult learners. Future work should evaluate the effectiveness of onboarding programs.


Assuntos
Capacitação em Serviço/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/psicologia , Assistentes Médicos/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Recursos Humanos
12.
J Surg Res ; 257: 169-177, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few opportunities exist for surgeons to receive technical skills feedback after training. Surgeons at hospitals within the Illinois Surgical Quality Improvement Collaborative were invited to participate in a peer-to-peer video-based coaching initiative focused on improving technical skills in laparoscopic right colectomy. We present a formative qualitative evaluation of a video-based coaching initiative. METHODS: Concurrent with the implementation of our video-based coaching initiative, we conducted two focus groups and 15 individual semistructured interviews with participants; all interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. A subset of surgeons participated in a group video-review session, which was observed by qualitative researchers. Transcripts and notes were analyzed using an organizational behavior framework adapted from executive coaching. RESULTS: Participation in the initiative was primarily motivated by the opportunity to learn from others and improve skills. Surgeons highlighted the value of self-video and peer-video assessment not only to learn new techniques but also for self-reflection and benchmarking. Barriers to participation included logistics (e.g. using the laparoscopic recording devices, coordinating schedules for peer coaching), time commitment, and a surgical culture that assumes the intent of coaching is to address deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: Video-based peer-coaching provides a platform for surgeons to reflect, benchmark against peers, and receive personalized feedback; however, more work is needed to increase participation and sustain involvement over time. There is an opportunity to decrease logistical barriers and increase acceptability of coaching by integrating video-based coaching into existing surgical conferences and established continuous professional development efforts.


Assuntos
Tutoria/métodos , Grupo Associado , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gravação em Vídeo
13.
Motor Control ; 25(2): 167-181, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348318

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of different coaching conditions on the magnitude and reliability of drop jump height in men and women. Nineteen collegiate sport sciences students (10 men) performed two sets of 10 drop jumps under four different coaching conditions: neutral, augmented feedback, external focus of attention, and a combination of augmented feedback and external focus of attention. The augmented feedback condition revealed a significantly higher jump height than the neutral condition (p = .002), while no significant differences were observed for the remaining conditions (p ≥ .38). The external focus of attention condition was more reliable than the neutral and augmented feedback conditions (coefficient of variationratio ≥ 1.15), while no differences were observed between the remaining conditions. These results suggest that both the magnitude and reliability of the drop jump height performance are influenced by the coaching condition.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Tutoria/métodos , Esportes/fisiologia , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364351

RESUMO

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused drastic changes in medical education and might affect students' mental health and perception of study conditions. Mentoring may have mediating effects by enhancing social support. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) offers a voluntary general mentoring program (g-mentoring) for all interested students and a mentoring program for students with excellent course results and scientific interest (e-mentoring) We aimed to investigate the mental burden and views of their study situation during COVID-19 among students who did or did not participate in one of the formal mentoring programs. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey (May 2020) examining students' mental burden using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), and assessing their perception of study conditions and digital teaching using self-developed items. Results: Of 1193 invited students, 543 (45.5%) completed the survey. 35% of those participated in the g-mentoring and 7% in the e-mentoring. 59% did not participate in any program. More e-mentees than g-mentees and nonparticipants reported clinically unproblematic levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. The majority of students (55%) was somewhat worried about the impact of the pandemic on their study situation. Regarding digital teaching students did not feel overburdened by the lack of a fixed schedule and structure, e-mentees even less than g-mentees and nonparticipants. Both g-mentees and nonparticipants were significantly more appreciative of the possible repeated use of the digital teaching materials than e-mentees (both groups M=5.7 vs. M=5.4 in e-mentees, p=.045). Conclusion: The results indicate that while students feel substantially burdened by the situation and the majority worries about the impact of the pandemic on their studies, they also seem to cope well with the digital course format. Study motivation during COVID-19 decreased among the majority of students with and without mentoring. These aspects may be important to address by medical schools interested in developing effective interventions to support students during a pandemic and continuous online teaching.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tutoria/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370337

RESUMO

Grant writing is an essential skill to develop for academic and other career success but providing individual feedback to large numbers of trainees is challenging. In 2014, we launched the Stanford Biosciences Grant Writing Academy to support graduate students and postdocs in writing research proposals. Its core program is a multi-week Proposal Bootcamp designed to increase the feedback writers receive as they develop and refine their proposals. The Proposal Bootcamp consisted of two-hour weekly meetings that included mini lectures and peer review. Bootcamp participants also attended faculty review workshops to obtain faculty feedback. Postdoctoral trainees were trained and hired as course teaching assistants and facilitated weekly meetings and review workshops. Over the last six years, the annual Bootcamp has provided 525 doctoral students and postdocs with multi-level feedback (peer and faculty). Proposals from Bootcamp participants were almost twice as likely to be funded than proposals from non-Bootcamp trainees. Overall, this structured program provided opportunities for feedback from multiple peer and faculty reviewers, increased the participants' confidence in developing and submitting research proposals, while accommodating a large number of participants.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Organização do Financiamento , Redação , Adulto , Educação Continuada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Revisão por Pares , Autoeficácia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321849

RESUMO

This study compared the effectiveness of a 12-day stress-prevention program (SGS) supplemented by individualized, structured, four-session telephone-coaching to that of an SGS without telephone-coaching in entrepreneurs from the green professions presenting with increased stress levels. All participants went through the SGS before being randomized either to the telephone-coaching group (TC) or to the control group without telephone-coaching (noTC). SGS included four key therapeutic elements: stress-management intervention, relaxation, physical exercise, and balneotherapy. The primary outcome was the current degree of subjectively experienced stress assessed with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) at a 9-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included burnout symptoms, well-being, health status, sleep disorders, expectation of self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, ability to work, pain, and days of sick leave. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12 days (end of program), and 1 (start telephone-coaching), 3, 6 (end of telephone-coaching), and 9 months. Data from 103 adults (TC = 51; noTC = 52), mostly fulltime farmers, were available for analysis (mean age: 55.3; 49.1% female). Participants experienced significant immediate improvement in all outcome measurements, which declined somewhat during the first three months after the end of SGS and then remained stable for at least another six months. While within-group changes from baseline to 9 months showed significant improvements at medium to large effect sizes for all target variables (PSQ-total, TC: -13.38 (±14.98); 95%-CI: (-17.68; -9.07); noTC: -11.09 (±14.15); 95%-CI: (-15.11; -7.07)), no statistically significant differences were found between the groups at any time and for any target variable (between-group ANCOVA for PSQ-total at 9 months, parameter estimator for the group: -1.58; 95%-CI: (-7.29; 4.13)). The stress-prevention program SGS is a feasible, effective, and practical way to reduce perceived stress and improve participants' resources. Four subsequent telephone-coaching sessions do not seem to contribute to a further improvement in the results.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Fazendeiros , Tutoria , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/normas , Terapia por Exercício , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relaxamento/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 217, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in an increased demand for eHealth services globally. There is emerging evidence for the efficacy for group eHealth interventions that support population-based mental health and wellbeing, but a systematic review is lacking. The primary objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for eHealth group counseling and coaching programs for adults. A second objective is to assess, within studies selected for our primary objective, the impact of programs that encourage PA on outcomes compared to those that do not. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials that assess the impact of eHealth group counseling or coaching programs on mental health, health behavior, or physical health activity among community-dwelling adults will be included. We will search the following electronic databases (from January 2005 onwards): MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and the Central Register of Controlled Trials. The primary outcomes will be changes in mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life), behavioral health conditions (e.g., substance use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating behavior, medication adherence), and physical health conditions (e.g., coping with cancer, menopausal symptoms, arthritis pain). Secondary outcomes will be changes in physical activity. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. A narrative synthesis without meta-analysis will be conducted. The strength of the body of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Potential sources of gender bias in included studies will be considered at all stages of the planned review. DISCUSSION: This review will contribute to the literature by providing evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth counseling and coaching programs delivered to adults in a group format. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol has been registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42020187551 ).


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870930

RESUMO

Changing institutional culture to be more diverse and inclusive within the biomedical academic community is difficult for many reasons. Herein we present evidence that a collaborative model involving multiple institutions of higher education can initiate and execute individual institutional change directed at enhancing diversity and inclusion at the postdoctoral researcher (postdoc) and junior faculty level by implementing evidence-based mentoring practices. A higher education consortium, the Big Ten Academic Alliance, invited individual member institutions to send participants to one of two types of annual mentor training: 1) "Mentoring-Up" training for postdocs, a majority of whom were from underrepresented groups; 2) Mentor Facilitator training-a train-the-trainer model-for faculty and senior leadership. From 2016 to 2019, 102 postdocs and 160 senior faculty and administrative leaders participated. Postdocs reported improvements in their mentoring proficiency (87%) and improved relationships with their PIs (71%). 29% of postdoc respondents transitioned to faculty positions, and 85% of these were underrepresented and 75% were female. 59 out of the 120 faculty and administrators (49%) trained in the first three years provided mentor training on their campuses to over 3000 undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs and faculty within the project period. We conclude that early stage biomedical professionals as well as individual institutions of higher education benefited significantly from this collaborative mentee/mentor training model.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Tutoria , Mentores , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Estudantes
20.
Surgery ; 168(4): 714-723, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multisource feedback provides a method of quantitatively assessing and improving physician professionalism, interpersonal communication, teamwork, and leadership behaviors. We sought to determine whether tiered educational interventions can improve measurements of multisource feedback for physicians across specialties, and whether multisource feedback baseline measurements and improvements after intervention vary by specialty designation. METHODS: Multisource feedback assessments were performed on physicians from academic (34%) and community hospitals (66%) in the United States and Canada. PULSE 360 Survey data was obtained on 1,190 physicians from primary care (25%), surgical (46%), and other (29%) specialties. Physician respondents were 75% male and 24% female. Raters included administrators, colleagues, staff, and self-ratings with an average of 35.7 ratings per physician. A leadership teamwork index was measured before and after delivery of educational intervention. Three tiers of intervention were used depending on baseline leadership teamwork index score: (1) report only, (2) debriefing only, and (3) debriefing and development. RESULTS: Surgeons had a significantly lower baseline leadership teamwork index at 59.9, whereas primary care and specialists started with an leadership teamwork index of 67.1 and 65.9, respectively. Those who participated in a tier 3 intervention had the greatest change from an average baseline leadership teamwork index of 36.6 to 56.3 on follow-up. Surgeons experienced the largest mean increase of 9.1 leadership teamwork index points after intervention, whereas medicine specialists had a mean increase of 6.7 leadership teamwork index points. CONCLUSION: Baseline multisource feedback scores vary by specialty and improve based on feedback, goal-setting, coaching, and education. In particular, physicians who start with low scores have the greatest potential for leadership teamwork index improvement.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Médicos/psicologia , Canadá , Comunicação , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Profissionalismo , Habilidades Sociais , Estados Unidos
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