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1.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(1): 61-69, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005366

RESUMO

Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students is an essential and necessary component in helping students achieve exposure and success in cocurricular activities that they may not get in the classroom. It is through these cocurricular activities that faculty can expose students to the realms of various clinical activities, nursing research and education, and various service-related opportunities, such as tutoring and committee work. The intrinsic and extrinsic awards of watching your students succeed and grow into nursing leaders make mentoring worth it. This article outlines the benefits and difficulties experienced by 1 faculty member in his crusade to mentor undergraduate nursing students.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Docentes de Enfermagem/normas , Tutoria/normas , Mentores/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1074-1082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633408

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent studies suggested that a large population of high school-aged athletes participate on club sport teams. Despite attempts to document emergency preparedness in high school athletics, the adherence to emergency and medical coverage standards among club sport teams is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in emergency preparedness and training existed between coaches of high school teams and coaches of high school-aged club teams. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Online questionnaire. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 769 coaches (females = 266, 34.6%) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding their emergency preparedness and training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The questionnaire consisted of (1) demographics and team information, (2) emergency preparedness factors (automated external defibrillator [AED] availability, emergency action plan [EAP] awareness, medical coverage), and (3) emergency training requirements (cardiopulmonary resuscitation/AED, first aid). RESULTS: High school coaches were more likely than club sport coaches to be aware of the EAP for their practice venue (83.9% versus 54.4%, P < .001), but most coaches in both categories had not practiced their EAP in the past 12 months (70.0% versus 68.9%, P = .54). High school coaches were more likely to be made aware of the EAP during competitions (47.5% versus 37.1%, P = .02), but the majority of coaches in both categories indicated that they were never made aware of EAPs. High school coaches were more likely than club coaches to (1) have an AED available at practice (87.9% versus 58.8%, P < .001), (2) report that athletic trainers were responsible for medical care at practices (31.2% versus 8.8%, P < .001) and competitions (57.9% versus 31.2%, P < .001), and (3) be required to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation, AED, or first-aid training (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: High school coaches displayed much greater levels of emergency preparedness and training than coaches of high school-aged club teams. Significant attention and effort may be needed to address the lack of emergency preparedness and training observed in club coaches.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Desfibriladores/provisão & distribução , Tratamento de Emergência , Tutoria , Esportes Juvenis/lesões , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/organização & administração , Tutoria/normas , Competência Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades
5.
J Athl Train ; 54(11): 1197-1207, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483152

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Understanding the challenges faced by newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs) as they transition into clinical practice could assist employers and professional programs in developing initiatives to enhance this transition. OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges faced by newly credentialed ATs during their transition from student to autonomous practitioner. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Individual phone interviews. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 34 ATs certified between January and September 2013 participated in this study (18 women, 16 men; age = 24 ± 2 years; work settings = college, secondary school, clinic, and other). Data saturation guided the number of participants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: An interview guide was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed via phenomenologic reduction, with data coded for common themes and subthemes. Trustworthiness was established via intercoder reliability, member checks, and peer review. RESULTS: Initially, participants had difficulty making decisions independently. However, making decisions and receiving positive feedback helped them develop confidence. Communication with coaches and parents was challenging, especially for those in the secondary school setting. Participants also experienced role ambiguity, as they were unsure of basic organizational and administrative structures and expectations. Mentor inaccessibility was the final challenge described by respondents. In particular, those in the secondary school setting and with part-time employment felt they did not have a supervisor or mentor whom they could contact for support and guidance. CONCLUSIONS: Professional programs should educate students on potential challenges to help them understand what they might encounter during the transition to clinical practice. Employers should provide clear expectations and job descriptions to alleviate some of the stress and role ambiguity. If a mentor is not provided by the employer, the newly credentialed AT should seek one to assist during the transition.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Esportes/educação , Adulto , Credenciamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/normas , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 320, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supervision is a well-defined interpersonal relationship between the thesis supervisors and their students. The purpose of this study was to identify the patterns which can explain the process of expertise attainment by thesis supervisors. We aimed at developing a conceptual framework/model to explain this development based on the experience of both students and supervisors. METHODS: We have conducted a qualitative grounded theory study in 20 universities of medical sciences in Iran since 2017 by using purposive, snowball sampling, and theoretical sampling and enrolled 84 participants. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. Based on the encoding approach of Strauss and Corbin (1998), the data underwent open, axial, and selective coding by constant comparative analysis. Then, the core variables were selected, and a model was developed. RESULTS: We could obtain three themes and seven related subthemes, the central variable, which explains the process of expertise as the phenomenon of concentration and makes an association among the subthemes, was interactive accountability. The key dimensions during expertise process which generated the supervisors' competence development in research supervision consisted maturation; also, seven subthemes as curious observation, evaluation of the reality, poorly structured rules, lack of time, reflection in action, reflection on action, and interactive accountability emerged which explain the process of expertise attainment by thesis supervisors. CONCLUSIONS: As the core variable in the expertise process, accountability must be considered in expertise development program planning and decision- making. In other words, efforts must be made to improve responsibility and responsiveness.


Assuntos
Tutoria/normas , Pesquisadores , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Pesquisa Biomédica , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 39: 17-25, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352089

RESUMO

The global shortages of nurses require a closer look at why nursing students stop in the later years of their degree programme. The purpose of this study is to explore nursing students' experiences and reasons that lead to this late dropout. Semi-structured interviews were held in 2017 with eleven former nursing students who dropped out in the third year of their Bachelor's Nursing degree programme in the Netherlands. Data was collected and analysed iteratively, following the principles of Thematic Analysis. Two core themes were identified: 'ending up in a downward spiral of physical, psychological and social problems' and 'experiencing an increasing mismatch between expectations and reality'. Reasons for late dropout from nursing education are diverse and interlinked. In contrast with studies on early dropout, academic difficulties did not play a major role in late dropout. Negative experiences during clinical placements led to dropout in both groups. One group lacked a safe learning environment in clinical placements, study coaching and psychological support. The other group missed realistic information provision about nursing education and the broad range of career opportunities in nursing.


Assuntos
Tutoria/normas , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Escolha da Profissão , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Países Baixos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181130

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the number of task, social and external athlete leaders within sports teams, and to examine the effectiveness of different leadership structures in male and female teams. The participants were 317 male and 214 female soccer players belonging to 18 teams playing in the third highest male division and to 13 teams playing in the highest female division in Spain, respectively. First, we identified the leadership structure in each team (i.e., having zero, one, two or three leaders); second, we grouped the teams according to these leadership structures; and third, MANOVA was used to compare different leadership groups in terms of their effectiveness. The results demonstrated that: (a) the most common structure within the teams was to have one task leader, one social leader, and two external leaders; (b) shared leadership across and within leadership roles was seen as the most effective leadership structure for male and female teams; and (c) male teams showed more benefits when having more task and external leaders, while female teams experienced more benefits when having more task and social leaders on the team. Based on these findings, coaches can optimize their team's functioning by implementing a structure of shared leadership within their teams, both across and within the different leadership roles.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Liderança , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/normas , Futebol , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Allied Health ; 48(2): 108-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Students in doctoral physical therapy (DPT) education must develop professional skills including mentoring. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions of developing mentoring skills within a post-baccalaureate DPT curriculum. SUBJECTS: Forty students from a physical therapy program participated and completed a survey tool. Five students from the same cohort completed the focus group. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design was used with students completing the Mentoring Culture Assessment (MCA). A focus group was used to provide further explanation. Coding of the focus group transcript was conducted with four themes emerging to support the survey results. RESULTS: Part 1 of the MCA examined characteristics of a good mentor, Part 2 examined a person's ability to mentor, and Part 3 examined what facilitates a mentoring culture. Results were in agreement with the descriptors in Part 1 and 3. Responses were mixed for Part 2. CONCLUSION: Results support that this peer mentoring model reinforces the development of mentoring skills, confidence with clinical teaching, and the building of positive relationships. Collaborative learning continues throughout professional careers, and this mentoring model could be useful in other health fields where clinical practice and preparation for future clinical instruction are expected.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Tutoria/organização & administração , Grupo Associado , Fisioterapia/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação/normas , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Tutoria/normas , Cultura Organizacional , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Autoeficácia
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 133, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In health profession education, learners are often coached by mentors for development of competencies, self-direction of learning and professionalism. It is important that the mentee-mentor relationship is aligned in terms of mutual expectations. METHODS: A dual-purpose questionnaire capturing both the mentor and mentee perceptions on the actual and preferred mentoring functions was designed and validated, by performing a principal component analysis (PCA) using the data of mentees (n = 103) and mentors (n = 23) of a medical course. As a proof of concept, alignment of needs and changes in the mentoring perceptions in mentee groups of different years were determined. RESULTS: PCA showed that specific sets of questions addressed important elements in the mentoring process, such as self-direction of learning and reflection (Scale 1), guidance of behavioural change (Scale 4), addressing personal issues and professional identity development (Scale 3 and 5) and how the mentor and mentee presents oneself in the mentoring relationship (Scale 2). Mentors and mentees perceived comparable situations as critical for an effective mentoring process, such as mentor presence and guidance of reflection, although there was also evidence of gaps, such as perception of cultural issues. By comparison of the mentee groups in the different years of the program, the dynamic or evolving nature of the mentor process became evident, mentees experienced more emphasis by the mentor on reflection (Scale 1), at a constant level of mentor presence (Scale 2). CONCLUSION: Given the individualized, context-specific, and dynamic nature of mentoring, programmes would benefit from a regular evaluation of mentoring practices, e.g. by using questionnaires, in order to facilitate organizational revisions and further development of the mentoring competencies.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Mentores/psicologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Tutoria/normas , Percepção , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(5): e12965, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Singapore's current prevalence of diabetes exceeds 13.6%. Although lifestyle modification can be effective for reducing the risks for complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), traditional lifestyle interventions are often difficult to administer in the primary care setting due to limited resources. Mobile health apps can address these limitations by offering low-cost, adaptable, and accessible platforms for disseminating lifestyle management interventions. OBJECTIVE: Using the RE-AIM evaluation framework, this study assessed the potential effectiveness and feasibility of GlycoLeap, a mobile lifestyle management program for people with T2DM, as an add-on to standard care. METHODS: This single-arm feasibility study recruited 100 patients with T2DM and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of ≥7.5% from a single community health care facility in Singapore. All participants were given access to a 6-month mobile lifestyle management program, GlycoLeap, comprising online lessons and the Glyco mobile phone app with a health coaching feature. The GlycoLeap program was evaluated using 4 relevant dimensions of the RE-AIM framework: (1) reach (percentage who consented to participate out of all patients approached), (2) effectiveness (percentage point change in HbA1c [primary outcome] and weight loss [secondary outcome]), (3) implementation (program engagement as assessed by various participatory metrics), and (4) maintenance (postintervention user satisfaction surveys to predict the sustainability of GlycoLeap). Participants were assessed at baseline and at follow-up (≥12 weeks after starting the intervention). RESULTS: A total of 785 patients were approached of whom 104 consented to participate, placing the reach at 13.2%. Four were excluded after eligibility screening, and 100 patients were recruited. Program engagement (implementation) started out high but decreased with time for all evaluated components. Self-reported survey data suggest that participants monitored their blood glucose on more days in the past week at follow-up compared to baseline (P<.001) and reported positive changes to their diet due to app engagement (P<.001) (implementation). Primary outcome data were available for 83 participants. Statistically significant improvements were observed for HbA1c (-1.3 percentage points, P<.001) with greater improvements for those who logged their weight more often (P=.007) (effectiveness). Participants also had a 2.3% reduction in baseline weight (P<.001) (effectiveness). User satisfaction was high with 74% (59/80) and 79% (63/80) of participants rating the app good or very good and claiming that they would probably or definitely recommend the app to others, respectively (maintenance). CONCLUSIONS: Although measures of program engagement decreased with time, clinically significant improvements in HbA1c were achieved with the potential for broader implementation. However, we cannot rule out that these improvements were due to factors unrelated to GlycoLeap. Therefore, we would recommend evaluating the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of GlycoLeap using a randomized controlled trial of at least 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03091517; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03091517 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/77rNqhwRn).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/normas , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(4): e12745, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) apps have the potential to increase smoking cessation, but little research has been conducted with Aboriginal communities in Australia. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility and acceptability and explore the effectiveness of a novel mHealth app to assist Aboriginal people to quit smoking. METHODS: A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) and process evaluation comprising usage analytics data and in-depth interviews was conducted. Current Aboriginal smokers (>16 years old), who were willing to make a quit attempt in the next month, were recruited from Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services and a government telephone coaching service. The intervention was a multifaceted Android or iOS app comprising a personalized profile and quit plan, text and in-app motivational messages, and a challenge feature allowing users to compete with others. The comparator was usual cessation support services. Outcome data collection and analysis were conducted blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported continuous smoking abstinence verified by carbon monoxide breath testing at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included point prevalence of abstinence and use of smoking cessation therapies and services. RESULTS: A total of 49 participants were recruited. Competing service delivery priorities, the lack of resources for research, and lack of support for randomization to a control group were the major recruitment barriers. At baseline, 23/49 (47%) of participants had tried to quit in recent weeks. At 6-month follow-up, only 1 participant (intervention arm) was abstinent. The process evaluation highlighted low to moderate app usage (3-10 new users per month and 4-8 returning users per month), an average of 2.9 sessions per user per month and 6.3 min per session. Key themes from interviews with intervention participants (n=15) included the following: (1) the powerful influence of prevailing social norms around acceptability of smoking; (2) high usage of mobile devices for phone, text, and social media but very low use of other smartphone apps; (3) the role of family and social group support in supporting quit attempts; and (4) low awareness and utilization of smoking cessation support services. Despite the broad acceptability of the app, participants also recommended technical improvements to improve functionality, greater customization of text messages, integration with existing social media platforms, and gamification features. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation apps need to be integrated with commonly used functions of mobile phones and draw on social networks to support their use. Although they have the potential to increase utilization of cessation support services and treatments, more research is needed to identify optimal implementation models. Robust evaluation is critical to determine their impact; however, an RCT design may not be feasible in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616001550493; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371792 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/76TiV7HA6).


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/normas , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , New South Wales , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato/normas , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(4): e11664, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, we launched the Smarter Pregnancy mobile health (mHealth) coaching program, which has shown to effectively improve inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors in women before and during pregnancy. It is known that in deprived neighborhoods, risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes like inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors accumulate. However, it has not yet been investigated whether the Smarter Pregnancy program is equally effective in women living in deprived neighborhoods. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to study the associations between neighborhood deprivation and improvement of inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors of women who were either contemplating pregnancy or already pregnant and subscribed to the Smarter Pregnancy program. METHODS: We performed an additional analysis on data from women who used the Smarter Pregnancy program from 2011 to 2016. The program comprised 24 weeks of coaching on 5 nutrition and lifestyle behaviors, of which adequate intakes or lifestyle behaviors were defined as an intake of 200 grams or above of vegetables, 2 pieces of fruit, daily folic acid supplement use of 400 µg per day, and no smoking or alcohol consumption. Neighborhood deprivation was determined according to the status scores of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. Logistic regression analyses and generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between the neighborhood status score (NSS) and the improvement of inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors, taking into account the behaviors at baseline. We adjusted the analyses for maternal age, body mass index, geographic origin, pregnancy status, and participation as a couple. RESULTS: Of the 2554 women included, 521 participated with their male partner. Overall, daily vegetable intake was most frequently inadequate at the start of the program (77.72, 1985/2554). Women with a higher NSS (ie, nondeprived neighborhood) smoked less often (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% CI 0.77-0.93), consumed alcohol more often (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.24), and were less likely to complete the 24 weeks of coaching (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.95) compared with women who lived in a neighborhood with a low NSS (ie, deprived). In the total group, the relative improvement of inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors after 24 weeks of coaching was between 26% and 64%. NSS was negatively associated with this improvement, indicating that women with a higher NSS were less likely to improve inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors, especially vegetable intake (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: The Smarter Pregnancy mHealth coaching program empowers women to improve inadequate nutrition and lifestyle behaviors. Unexpectedly, the program seemed more effective in women living in deprived neighborhoods. It is important to unravel differences in needs and behaviors of specific target groups to further tailor the mHealth program on the basis of demographic characteristics like neighborhood deprivation.


Assuntos
Tutoria/normas , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Telemedicina/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Países Baixos , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Razão de Chances , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/normas , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(7): 317-325, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931841

RESUMO

The integration of health coaching in workplace interventions has increased over the past several years. However, the tasks and the qualifications of the coaches have not been clearly defined. The objective of this qualitative study was to assess workplace stakeholders' expectations regarding a health coach. Systematic field notes of 11 meetings and 14 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders of a workplace intervention, including employees, company doctors, and representatives of health insurances, were analyzed according to the structured content analysis. Stakeholders reported that the main aspect of a health coach's work should be the motivation of clients (workers) to achieve their internally developed goals. Regarding the coach's competencies, personal, methodological, and social skills were desired. They also expected that the health coach use a range of different approaches to develop contacts and, in terms of content, focus on physical activity. These findings provide a step toward establishing criteria for professional health coaching and an evidence-based curriculum for coach training.


Assuntos
Tutoria/normas , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(3): e11070, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended intervention contact after an initial, intensive intervention is becoming accepted as best practice in behavioral weight control interventions. Whether extended contact mitigates weight regain in the longer term or it simply delays weight regain until after the extended intervention contact ceases is not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate, in multiple ways, maintenance of weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes following Get Healthy, Stay Healthy (GHSH), a text message-delivered extended contact intervention. METHODS: Clients completing the Get Healthy Service (GHS) lifestyle telephone coaching program were randomized to receive GHSH (n=114) or standard care (no additional contact, n=114) and were assessed at baseline (following completion of GHS), 6 months (following completion of GHSH), and 12 months (noncontact maintenance follow-up). At all 3 assessments, participants self-reported their body weight, waist circumference, physical activity (walking and moderate and vigorous sessions/week), and dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetable serves/day, cups of sweetened drinks per day, takeaway meals per week; fat, fiber, and total indices from the Fat and Fiber Behavior Questionnaire). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed via accelerometry. Maintenance was examined multiple ways: (1) using traditional methods to assess and compare group averages after some period of noncontact (ie, at 12 months), (2) using a novel approach to assess and compare group average changes over the first 6 months of noncontact, and (3) exploring individual participant changes (increase/decrease/no change) over the first 6 months of noncontact. RESULTS: Retention over the 12-month trial was high (92.5%, 211/228). Participants had a mean (SD) age of 53.4 (SD 12.3) years and a baseline body mass index of 29.2 (SD 5.9) kg/m2. The between-group differences detected at 6 months were still present and statistically significant at 12 months for bodyweight (-1.33 kg [-2.61 to -0.05]) and accelerometer-assessed MVPA (24.9 min/week [5.8-44.0]). None of the other outcomes were significantly favored compared with the control group at 12 months. Changes over their first 6 months of noncontact for the GHSH group were significantly better than the control group in terms of accelerometer-measured MVPA and self-reported moderate activity (other differences between the groups were all nonsignificant). In addition to the maintenance seen in the group averages, most intervention participants had maintained their behavioral outcomes during the first 6 months of noncontact. CONCLUSIONS: The GHSH participants were better off relative to where they were initially, and relative to their counterparts, not receiving extended contact in terms of MVPA. However, based on the between-group difference in bodyweight over the first 6 months of noncontact, GHSH does appear to simply delay the inevitable weight regain. However, this delay in weight regain, coupled with sustained improvements in MVPA, has public health benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000949785; https://www.anzctr.org. au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=364821&isReview=true.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/normas , Tutoria/normas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/normas , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861036

RESUMO

In scenarios where allocations are determined by participant's preferences, Two-Sided Matching is a well-established approach with applications in College Admissions, School Choice, and Mentor-Mentee matching problems. In such a context, participants in the matching have preferences with whom they want to be matched with. This article studies two important concepts in Two-Sided Matching: multiple objectives when finding a solution, and manipulation of preferences by participants. We use real data sets from a Mentor-Mentee program for the evaluation to provide insight on realistic effects and implications of the two concepts. In the first part of the article, we consider the quality of solutions found by different algorithms using a variety of solution criteria. Most current algorithms focus on one criterion (number of participants matched), while not directly taking into account additional objectives. Hence, we evaluate different algorithms, including multi-objective heuristics, and the resulting trade-offs. The evaluation shows that existing algorithms for the considered problem sizes perform similarly well and close to the optimal solution, yet multi-objective heuristics provide the additional benefit of yielding solutions with better quality on multiple criteria. In the second part, we consider the effects of different types of preference manipulation on the participants and the overall solution. Preference manipulation is a concept that is well established in theory, yet its practical effects on the participants and the solution quality are less clear. Hence, we evaluate the effects of three manipulation strategies on the participants and the overall solution quality, and investigate if the effects depend on the used solution algorithm as well.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Relações Interprofissionais , Tutoria/normas , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/educação , Objetivos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Holist Nurs ; 37(3): 225-237, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924707

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the lived experience of adults with chronic conditions receiving holistic nurse coaching. Method: A qualitative phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 15 patients with varied chronic conditions participated. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the participating university prior to data collection. The patients' stories of their experiences with holistic nurse coaching were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenological analysis. Findings: Eight theme clusters emerged when the formulated meanings were organized into the following categories: (1) Seeking Guidance to Navigate Life's Challenges, (2) Entering a Safe Sacred Place, (3) Feeling Empowered and Accountable, (4) Developing Strategies to Access Different Ways of Knowing, (5) Finding the Answers Within, (6) Making Healthy Behavioral Changes, (7) Forming a New Caring Relationship with Self, and (8) Transforming to a Brand-New Approach to Life. Conclusions: Findings from this study provide insight into experiences of holistic nurse coaching for patients with chronic conditions. Further research is needed to examine the influence of holistic nurse coaching on health outcomes related to chronic conditions such as quality of life, patient empowerment, and targeted metrics related to specific chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Enfermagem Holística/normas , Tutoria/normas , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Enfermagem Holística/métodos , Enfermagem Holística/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
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