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1.
Theriogenology ; 174: 160-168, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455243

RESUMO

Vitrification is an effective technique for fertility preservation, but is known to lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in porcine oocytes. Mitophagy is induced to rebalance mitochondrial function, a process in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a role. In this study, vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes were incubated for 4 h with the oxidant AAPH or antioxidant α-tocopherol to alter ROS levels. A series of tests suggested that vitrification damaged mitochondrial structure and caused dysfunction, including blurred mitochondrial cristae, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mtDNA copy number and increased ROS generation. This dysfunction resulted in mitophagy and the loss of embryonic developmental potential. Incubation with AAPH or α-tocopherol altered mitochondrial function and mitophagy flux status in vitrified oocytes. The PINK1/Parkin pathway was involved in oxidative stress regulation in vitrified oocytes. Under AAPH-induced oxidative stress, increased fluorescence intensity of Parkin, increased expression of PINK1, Parkin, and LC3B-II, and decreased expression of MFN2 and p62 were observed, whereas the opposite effects were induced under α-tocopherol treatment. The inhibition of ROS by α-tocopherol benefitted mitochondrial homeostasis and alleviated PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, resulting in the recovery of embryonic developmental potential in vitrified porcine oocytes. Therefore, this study provides a new mechanism for the application of antioxidants to aid the cryopreservation of porcine oocytes.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia , Animais , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suínos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
2.
Curr Protoc ; 1(8): e219, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370399

RESUMO

Targeted protein depletion using a conditional degron is a powerful method to probe the role of proteins in living cells because of the speed with which depletion can be induced and its reversibility. The auxin-inducible degron (AID) is one of the most common degron-based technologies used in cell biology. We recently established an improved system, called AID2, which involves expressing a mutant E3 ligase subunit, OsTIR1(F74G), and fusing a protein of interest to the mini-AID (mAID) tag, and that employs a new and more potent ligand, 5-phenyl-indole-3-acetic acid (5-Ph-IAA). The AID2 system overcomes some of the drawbacks associated with the original AID system, i.e., leaky degradation without auxin and the requirement of high auxin doses. With AID2 it is, therefore, now possible to control a degron-fused protein more precisely, enabling target proteins to be degraded with a half-life of 10 to 45 min via the addition of a low dose of 5-Ph-IAA. Importantly, in AID2, it is not necessary to control the expression of OsTIR1(F74G) for suppressing leaky degradation and a parental cell line constitutively expressing OsTIR1(F74G) can be used for the generation of multiple mAID-tagged proteins. Here, we describe a protocol for the tagging of endogenous proteins with mAID in diploid HCT116 cells. Our protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines and will enhance the utility of AID2 for studying protein functions in living cells. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Generation of a parental HCT116 cell line expressing OsTIR1(F74G) Basic Protocol 2: Construction of CRISPR and donor plasmids for tagging endogenous genes Basic Protocol 3: Generation of cell lines expressing a protein of interest fused with mAID.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Proteínas , Animais , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Proteólise , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5016, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408138

RESUMO

DNA damage prompts a diverse range of alterations to the chromatin landscape. The RNF168 E3 ubiquitin ligase catalyzes the mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine (K)13/15 (mUb-H2A), forming a binding module for DNA repair proteins. BRCA1 promotes homologous recombination (HR), in part, through its interaction with PALB2, and the formation of a larger BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2-RAD51 (BRCA1-P) complex. The mechanism by which BRCA1-P is recruited to chromatin surrounding DNA breaks is unclear. In this study, we reveal that an RNF168-governed signaling pathway is responsible for localizing the BRCA1-P complex to DNA damage. Using mice harboring a Brca1CC (coiled coil) mutation that blocks the Brca1-Palb2 interaction, we uncovered an epistatic relationship between Rnf168- and Brca1CC alleles, which disrupted development, and reduced the efficiency of Palb2-Rad51 localization. Mechanistically, we show that RNF168-generated mUb-H2A recruits BARD1 through a BRCT domain ubiquitin-dependent recruitment motif (BUDR). Subsequently, BARD1-BRCA1 accumulate PALB2-RAD51 at DNA breaks via the CC domain-mediated BRCA1-PALB2 interaction. Together, these findings establish a series of molecular interactions that connect the DNA damage signaling and HR repair machinery.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
4.
Science ; 373(6558): 998-1004, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446601

RESUMO

In eukaryotic cells, half of all proteins function as subunits within multiprotein complexes. Imbalanced synthesis of subunits leads to unassembled intermediates that must be degraded to minimize cellular toxicity. Here, we found that excess PSMC5, a subunit of the proteasome base, was targeted for degradation by the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian cells. HERC1 identified unassembled PSMC5 by its cognate assembly chaperone PAAF1. Because PAAF1 only dissociates after assembly, HERC1 could also engage later assembly intermediates such as the PSMC4-PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. A missense mutant of HERC1 that causes neurodegeneration in mice was impaired in the recognition and ubiquitination of the PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. Thus, proteasome assembly factors can serve as adaptors for ubiquitin ligases to facilitate elimination of unassembled intermediates and maintain protein homeostasis.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Mutação Puntual , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
5.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452305

RESUMO

A weak production of INF-ß along with an exacerbated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported during infection by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 encodes several proteins able to counteract the host immune system, which is believed to be one of the most important features contributing to the viral pathogenesis and development of a severe clinical picture. Previous reports have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 N protein, along with some non-structural and accessory proteins, efficiently suppresses INF-ß production by interacting with RIG-I, an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved in the recognition of pathogen-derived molecules. In the present study, we better characterized the mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 N counteracts INF-ß secretion and affects RIG-I signaling pathways. In detail, when the N protein was ectopically expressed, we noted a marked decrease in TRIM25-mediated RIG-I activation. The capability of the N protein to bind to, and probably mask, TRIM25 could be the consequence of its antagonistic activity. Furthermore, this interaction occurred at the SPRY domain of TRIM25, harboring the RNA-binding activity necessary for TRIM25 self-activation. Here, we describe new findings regarding the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the IFN system, filling some gaps for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms affecting the innate immune response in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Proteína DEAD-box 58/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(7): 631-634, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To screen proteins interacting with ring finger protein 216(RNF216) through yeast two hybrid experiment, and further clarify the role of RNF216 in the pathogenesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. METHODS: A recombinant expression vector pGBKT7-RNF216 was constructed and transformed into yeast Y2HGold, which was hybridized with a human cDNA library in order to screen proteins interacting with RNF216. The interaction was verified in yeast Y2HGold. RESULTS: A recombinant expression vector pGBKT7-RNF216 was successfully constructed and expressed in yeast Y2HGold. Filamin B (FLNB) was identified by yeast two hybrid experiment, and their interaction was verified in yeast Y2HGold. CONCLUSION: An interaction between FLNB and RNF216 was identified through yeast two hybrid experiment. RNF216 may affect the proliferation and migration of GnRH neurons by regulating FLNB or FLNB/FLNA heterodimers.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Proteínas , Biblioteca Gênica , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Humanos , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203408

RESUMO

TENT4A (PAPD7) is a non-canonical poly(A) polymerase, of which little is known. Here, we show that TENT4A regulates multiple biological pathways and focuses on its multilayer regulation of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), in which error-prone DNA polymerases bypass unrepaired DNA lesions. We show that TENT4A regulates mRNA stability and/or translation of DNA polymerase η and RAD18 E3 ligase, which guides the polymerase to replication stalling sites and monoubiquitinates PCNA, thereby enabling recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases to damaged DNA sites. Remarkably, in addition to the effect on RAD18 mRNA stability via controlling its poly(A) tail, TENT4A indirectly regulates RAD18 via the tumor suppressor CYLD and via the long non-coding antisense RNA PAXIP1-AS2, which had no known function. Knocking down the expression of TENT4A or CYLD, or overexpression of PAXIP1-AS2 led each to reduced amounts of the RAD18 protein and DNA polymerase η, leading to reduced TLS, highlighting PAXIP1-AS2 as a new TLS regulator. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TLS error-prone DNA polymerase genes and their TENT4A-related regulators are frequently mutated in endometrial cancer genomes, suggesting that TLS is dysregulated in this cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Biologia Computacional , Dano ao DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Células MCF-7 , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polinucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7537-7553, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197600

RESUMO

The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous structure that mediates homolog engagement and genetic recombination during meiosis. In budding yeast, Zip-Mer-Msh (ZMM) proteins promote crossover (CO) formation and initiate SC formation. During SC elongation, the SUMOylated SC component Ecm11 and the Ecm11-interacting protein Gmc2 facilitate the polymerization of Zip1, an SC central region component. Through physical recombination, cytological, and genetic analyses, we found that ecm11 and gmc2 mutants exhibit chromosome-specific defects in meiotic recombination. CO frequencies on a short chromosome (chromosome III) were reduced, whereas CO and non-crossover frequencies on a long chromosome (chromosome VII) were elevated. Further, in ecm11 and gmc2 mutants, more double-strand breaks (DSBs) were formed on a long chromosome during late prophase I, implying that the Ecm11-Gmc2 (EG) complex is involved in the homeostatic regulation of DSB formation. The EG complex may participate in joint molecule (JM) processing and/or double-Holliday junction resolution for ZMM-dependent CO-designated recombination. Absence of the EG complex ameliorated the JM-processing defect in zmm mutants, suggesting a role for the EG complex in suppressing ZMM-independent recombination. Our results suggest that the SC central region functions as a compartment for sequestering recombination-associated proteins to regulate meiosis specificity during recombination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Troca Genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Meiose/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo , Cromossomos Fúngicos , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Deleção de Genes , Recombinação Genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
9.
Life Sci ; 282: 119817, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273374

RESUMO

R-spondins 2 (RSPO2) protein is a member of RSPO family which plays an essential role in stem cell survival, development and tumorigenicity. There has several evidence suggested that RSPO2 involved in breast, gastric, liver and colorectal cancer. However, the specific function and mechanism of RSPO2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown. In the present study, we first observed that RSPO2 expression was elevated in NPC cell lines SUNE-6-10B, SUNE-5-8F, and CNE-1 compared with the normal laryngeal epithelia cell line NP69. Knockdown of RSPO2 significantly inhibits SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cell survival and proliferation by using CCK-8 assay and Edu assay, respectively. Further studies verified that RSPO2 silence suppressed migration and invasion of SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Further studies suggested that RSPO2 silence suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related protein E-cadherin expression and promoted Vimentin and N-cadherin expression both in SUNE-6-10B and CNE-1 cells. Molecular mechanism explorations showed that RSPO2 deletion increased ZNRF3 expression and inhibited Gli1 expression. Additionally, knockdown ZNRF3 expression or overexpression Gli1 both reversed the effects of RSPO2 silence on NPC growth and metastasis. Finally, RSPO2 depletion was impaired NPC tumor growth in vivo animal experiments. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that RSPO2 silence inhibits the tumorigenesis of NPC via ZNRF3/Hedgehog-Gli1 signal pathway.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/biossíntese , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4427, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285233

RESUMO

The membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins are E3 ligases that regulate the stability of various cellular membrane proteins. MARCH8 has been reported to inhibit the infection of HIV-1 and a few other viruses, thus plays an important role in host antiviral defense. However, the antiviral spectrum and the underlying mechanisms of MARCH8 are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that MARCH8 profoundly inhibits influenza A virus (IAV) replication both in vitro and in mice. Mechanistically, MARCH8 suppresses IAV release through redirecting viral M2 protein from the plasma membrane to lysosomes for degradation. Specifically, MARCH8 catalyzes the K63-linked polyubiquitination of M2 at lysine residue 78 (K78). A recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus carrying the K78R M2 protein shows greater replication and more severe pathogenicity in cells and mice. More importantly, we found that the M2 protein of the H1N1 IAV has evolved to acquire non-lysine amino acids at positions 78/79 to resist MARCH8-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Together, our data support the important role of MARCH8 in host anti-IAV intrinsic immune defense by targeting M2, and suggest the inhibitory pressure of MARCH8 on H1N1 IAV transmission in the human population.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Células A549 , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Camundongos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ubiquitinação/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299248

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence of approximately 0.5-1% among those aged 65-70 years. Although most of its clinical manifestations are due to a loss of dopaminergic neurons, the PD etiology is largely unknown. PD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and the exact interplay between genes and the environment is still debated. Several biological processes have been implicated in PD, including mitochondrial or lysosomal dysfunctions, alteration in protein clearance, and neuroinflammation, but a common molecular mechanism connecting the different cellular alterations remains incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence underlines a significant role of lipids in the pathological pathways leading to PD. Beside the well-described lipid alteration in idiopathic PD, this review summarizes the several lipid alterations observed in experimental models expressing PD-related genes and suggests a possible scenario in relationship to the molecular mechanisms of neuronal toxicity. PD could be considered a lipid-induced proteinopathy, where alteration in lipid composition or metabolism could induce protein alteration-for instance, alpha-synuclein accumulation-and finally neuronal death.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Glucosilceramidase/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/metabolismo , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
12.
J Immunol ; 207(3): 868-877, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282001

RESUMO

Candida albicans is the most common cause of fungal infections in humans, and disseminated candidiasis has become one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections with a high mortality rate. However, little is known about the host-pathogen interactions and the mechanisms of antifungal immunity. Here, we report that Nedd4 (neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated 4) is essential for signaling through Dectin-1 and Dectin-2/3. We showed that mice that lack Nedd4 globally or only in the myeloid compartment are highly susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection, which correlates with heightened organ fungal burden, defective inflammatory response, impaired leukocyte recruitment to the kidneys, and defective reactive oxygen species expression by granulocytes. At the molecular level, Nedd4 -/- macrophages displayed impaired activation of TGF-ß-activating kinase-1 and NF-κB, but normal activation of spleen tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C-δ on C. albicans yeast and hyphal infections. These data suggest that Nedd4 regulates signaling events downstream of protein kinase C-δ but upstream of or at TGF-ß-activating kinase-1.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candidíase , Animais , Candida albicans , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
13.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102058, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218200

RESUMO

Tripartite motif (TRIM) 31 has been implicated in diverse biological and pathological conditions. However, whether TRIM31 plays a role in ischemic stroke progression is not clarified. Here we demonstrated that TRIM31 was significantly downregulated in the ischemic brain and the deficiency of TRIM31 alleviated brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion by reducing reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Mechanistically, we found that TRIM31 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR), which confers protection against brain ischemia by increasing the pentose phosphate pathway flux and preserving mitochondria function. TRIM31 interacted with TIGAR and promoted the polyubiquitination of TIGAR, consequently facilitated its degradation in a proteasome-dependent pathway. Furthermore, TIGAR knockdown effectively abolished the protective effect of TRIM31 deficiency after cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, we identified that TRIM31 was a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for TIGAR, played a critical role in regulating its protein level, and subsequently involved in the ischemic brain injury, suggesting TRIM31 as a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Glicólise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 339-357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258747

RESUMO

Posttranslational modifications of targeted substrates alter their cellular fate. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved and ubiquitous covalent modifier protein that tags substrates with a single molecule or with a polyubiquitin chain. Monoubiquitination affects trafficking and signaling patterns of modified proteins. In contrast, polyubiquitination, particularly K48-linked polyubiquitination, targets the protein for degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) resulting in a committed fate through irreversible inactivation of substrate. Given the diversity of cellular functions impacted by ubiquitination, it is no surprise that the wily pathogenic viruses have co-opted the UPS in myriad ways to ensure their survival. In this review, I describe viral exploitation of nondegradative ubiquitin signaling pathways to effect entry, replication, and egress. Additionally, viruses also harness the UPS to degrade antiviral cellular host factors. Finally, I describe how we can exploit the same proteolytic machinery to enable PROTACs (Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras) to degrade essential viral proteins. Successful implementation of this modality will add to the arsenal of emerging antiviral therapies.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Ubiquitina , Antivirais/farmacologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299205

RESUMO

Gain and loss of DNA methylation in cells is a dynamic process that tends to achieve an equilibrium. Many factors are involved in maintaining the balance between DNA methylation and demethylation. Previously, it was shown that methyl-DNA protein Kaiso may attract NCoR, SMRT repressive complexes affecting histone modifications. On the other hand, the deficiency of Kaiso resulted in reduced methylation of ICR in H19/Igf2 locus and Oct4 promoter in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, nothing is known about how Kaiso influences DNA methylation at the genome level. Here we show that deficiency of Kaiso led to whole-genome hypermethylation, using Kaiso deficient human renal cancer cell line obtained via CRISPR/CAS9 genome editing. However, Kaiso serves to protect genic regions, enhancers, and regions with a low level of histone modifications from demethylation. We detected hypomethylation of binding sites for Oct4 and Nanog in Kaiso deficient cells. Kaiso immunoprecipitated with de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3a/3b, but not with maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1. Thus, Kaiso may attract methyltransferases to surrounding regions and modulate genome methylation in renal cancer cells apart from being methyl DNA binding protein.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Impressão Genômica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Edição de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4442, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290256

RESUMO

The forward genetic screen is a powerful, unbiased method to gain insights into biological processes, yet this approach has infrequently been used in vivo in mammals because of high resource demands. Here, we use in vivo somatic Cas9 mutagenesis to perform an in vivo forward genetic screen in mice to identify regulators of cardiomyocyte (CM) maturation, the coordinated changes in phenotype and gene expression that occur in neonatal CMs. We discover and validate a number of transcriptional regulators of this process. Among these are RNF20 and RNF40, which form a complex that monoubiquitinates H2B on lysine 120. Mechanistic studies indicate that this epigenetic mark controls dynamic changes in gene expression required for CM maturation. These insights into CM maturation will inform efforts in cardiac regenerative medicine. More broadly, our approach will enable unbiased forward genetics across mammalian organ systems.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutagênese , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
17.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297037

RESUMO

The three classes of interferons (IFNs) share the ability to inhibit viral replication, activating cell transcriptional programs that regulate both innate and adaptive responses to viral and intracellular bacterial challenge. Due to their unique potency in regulating viral replication, and their association with numerous autoimmune diseases, the tightly orchestrated transcriptional regulation of IFNs has long been a subject of intense investigation. The protective role of early robust IFN responses in the context of infection with SARS-CoV-2 has further underscored the relevance of these pathways. In this viewpoint, rather than focusing on the downstream effects of IFN signaling (which have been extensively reviewed elsewhere), we will summarize the historical and current understanding of the stepwise assembly and function of factors that regulate IFNß enhancer activity (the "enhanceosome") and highlight opportunities for deeper understanding of the transcriptional control of the ifnb gene.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Interferon beta/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Transcrição Genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3171-3186.e8, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171297

RESUMO

Accurate control of innate immune responses is required to eliminate invading pathogens and simultaneously avoid autoinflammation and autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrate that arginine monomethylation precisely regulates the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated antiviral response. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) forms aggregates to catalyze MAVS monomethylation at arginine residue 52 (R52), attenuating its binding to TRIM31 and RIG-I, which leads to the suppression of MAVS aggregation and subsequent activation. Upon virus infection, aggregated PRMT7 is disabled in a timely manner due to automethylation at arginine residue 32 (R32), and SMURF1 is recruited to PRMT7 by MAVS to induce proteasomal degradation of PRMT7, resulting in the relief of PRMT7 suppression of MAVS activation. Therefore, we not only reveal that arginine monomethylation by PRMT7 negatively regulates MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling in vitro and in vivo but also uncover a mechanism by which PRMT7 is tightly controlled to ensure the timely activation of antiviral defense.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Arginina/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Animais , Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
19.
Mol Cell ; 81(13): 2765-2777.e6, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102105

RESUMO

The BRCA1-BARD1 complex directs the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice to error-free homologous recombination (HR) during the S-G2 stages. Targeting BRCA1-BARD1 to DSB-proximal sites requires BARD1-mediated nucleosome interaction and histone mark recognition. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of BARD1 bound to a ubiquitinated nucleosome core particle (NCPUb) at 3.1 Å resolution and illustrate how BARD1 simultaneously recognizes the DNA damage-induced mark H2AK15ub and DNA replication-associated mark H4K20me0 on the nucleosome. In vitro and in vivo analyses reveal that the BARD1-NCPUb complex is stabilized by BARD1-nucleosome interaction, BARD1-ubiquitin interaction, and BARD1 ARD domain-BARD1 BRCT domain interaction, and abrogating these interactions is detrimental to HR activity. We further identify multiple disease-causing BARD1 mutations that disrupt BARD1-NCPUb interactions and hence impair HR. Together, this study elucidates the mechanism of BRCA1-BARD1 complex recruitment and retention by DSB-flanking nucleosomes and sheds important light on cancer therapeutic avenues.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/química , Histonas/química , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Nucleossomos/química , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Proteínas de Xenopus/química , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Mutação , Nucleossomos/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Xenopus laevis
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3291, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078905

RESUMO

The formation of hyperphosphorylated intracellular Tau tangles in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau hyperphosphorylation destabilizes microtubules, promoting neurodegeneration in AD patients. To identify suppressors of tau-mediated AD, we perform a screen using a microRNA (miR) library in Drosophila and identify the miR-9 family as suppressors of human tau overexpression phenotypes. CG11070, a miR-9a target gene, and its mammalian orthologue UBE4B, an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase, alleviate eye neurodegeneration, synaptic bouton defects, and crawling phenotypes in Drosophila human tau overexpression models. Total and phosphorylated Tau levels also decrease upon CG11070 or UBE4B overexpression. In mammalian neuroblastoma cells, overexpression of UBE4B and STUB1, which encodes the E3 ligase CHIP, increases the ubiquitination and degradation of Tau. In the Tau-BiFC mouse model, UBE4B and STUB1 overexpression also increase oligomeric Tau degradation. Inhibitor assays of the autophagy and proteasome systems reveal that the autophagy-lysosome system is the major pathway for Tau degradation in this context. These results demonstrate that UBE4B, a miR-9 target gene, promotes autophagy-mediated Tau degradation together with STUB1, and is thus an innovative therapeutic approach for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/patologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteólise , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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