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1.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1274-1280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Several studies has shown that rotaviruses play a leading role in the structure of acute intestinal infections (AII) of viral etiology in children. In the National vaccination calendar of Ukraine, vaccination against rotavirus infection (RVI) is classified as recommended, with the expected goal of reducing the number of severe RVI cases among under five-year-old children. Nevertheless, despite the positive epidemiological and clinical effects of vaccination against RVI, it remains unclear how appropriate the introduction of rotavirus vaccines is in terms of potential costs and benefits, as well as determining the optimal level of subsidy required to cover part of the costs of voluntary vaccination of the population. The aim: Study of optimal subsidy level of rotavirus vaccine in Ukraine using epidemiological and pharmacoeconomic modeling. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The retrospective epidemiological data of the monthly RVI incidence in Ukraine as well as the population number from 2010 to 2016 formed the information basis for determining the transmission parameter of the viral agent. The scenario of RVI epidemic process as an acute intestinal infection from the point of view of mathematical epidemiology is best described by developed mathematical model. Cost-benefit of rotavirus vaccination was studied with the use of developed pharmacoeconomic criteria. RESULTS: Results and conclusions: Prediction of possible implications of RVI vaccination and finding optimal level of vaccine supply involves a comprehensive study of the epidemic process peculiarities of this infection with development of an adequate epidemiological model. We have proposed a model of RVI epidemiological process in Ukraine, determining its main parameters with the use of available retrospective data of anual number of RVI cases for the period from 2010 to 2016. The developed model was used as an analytical tool for analyzing influence of different levels of vaccine supply on vaccination cost-benefit. The results of research showed that the use of epidemiological modeling in pharmacoeconomic analysis of rotavirus vaccination made it possible to determine analytically optimal level of vaccination subsidy level.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Farmacoeconomia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas
2.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1324-1330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The article reviews issues of legal regulation of patients' rights in Ukraine, analyzes the patient-doctor relationship, proposes the legislative approval of new patients' rights and the need of adoption of a single legislation of these rights. The aim of this work is to conduct a detailed study of legal regulation of patients' rights in Ukraine and the EU countries, to identify the areas for further improvement of the legislative regulation of patients 'rights in Ukraine, ways of harmonization of national legislation with international standards, which regulate patients' rights. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: we analyzed national and international regulation of patients' rights, case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), national court judgments. We also used historical, comparative-legal methods, and instruments of analytical research and empirical study. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In Ukrainian law many patient rights are not defined, but are applied in medical practice, therefore, they require legal regulation. In particular, they include: the right to convene a consilium; the right to refuse medical interference; the right to terminate treatment, etc. In addition, with the development of medicine, scientific and technological progress, there are some issues, which arise and need to be legally defined, among them: the rights and responsibilities of the patient during transplantation, artificial insemination, medical research, etc. When making health policy, the concept of trust and respect for patients, their autonomy or constructive partnership with them should be taken into account. Doctors need to take a more active part in discussions and debates with patients. Independence of patients in decision making processes must be provided by law, and the rights and obligations of all parties must be clearly reflected in the relevant documents.


Assuntos
Direitos do Paciente , Médicos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Ucrânia
3.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1331-1336, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The article is devoted to the research of normative regulation of human organs and tissue transplantation in Ukraine and some foreign countries. A considerable part of problem aspects of transplantology in Ukraine is hidden due to the normative and legal base shortcomings, therefore there is a necessity of considering and borrowing foreign experience of legal regulation of this process, a legal regulation of the bases and conditions of providing consent to the removal of organs or refusal of the potential donor and legal consequences of it. The question as for the possibility of consolidating the "consent presumption" on the removal of organs and tissues at the legislative level remains current, but many experts express the idea of inadmissibility of such legislative actions because of the military operations on the territory of Ukraine and the imperfection of state control for the activities of institutions performing transplantation. At the same time, it is obvious that now the legislative regulation of the sphere of transplantology does not meet modern requirements, and creates certain gaps in the Ukrainian legislation. The aim is to determine and concretize problematic issues of legal regulation of the transplantation sphere in Ukraine, to analyze the experience of the successful countries in this direction and to develop an integrated approach to the solution of certain problems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: During the research, international normative acts, national legislation acts and scientific works of scholars were used. The article is based on the dialectical, legal, historical, comparative, systematic methods of research. RESULTS: Review: The analysis of the current situation of legal regulation of the sphere of transplantology in Ukraine has been carried out, the main problems and gaps, which must be eliminated as soon as possible for the real possibility of organ and tissue transplantation operations, are identified. The experience of the most progressive countries that are leaders in the number of transplantation operations is analyzed and their experience has been taken. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The solution of this problem is possible only after the transformation of the transplant coordination system, the introduction of the Unified State Information System for transplantation, the training of specialized personnel, the improvement of the technical equipment of medical institutions, and the creation of an effective mechanism for regulating of the human anatomical materials' transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Ucrânia
4.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1350-1353, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The analysis of the administrative and legal enforcement of health care in Ukraine indicates the lack of sufficient regulatory and legal acts due to the lack of and deficiencies in conceptual documents, doctrinal developments, strategic planning in this area. The modern administrative-legal management is historically due, since during the Soviet period health care regulation was determined by the high centralization of governance, the imperative of decision-making, the precise regulation of the activities of its subjects, the lack of overall control and supervision. The Conceptual Frameworks in this area, as shown by the analysis of scientific literature and legal documents, should include general provisions, goals, objectives, principles, legal framework, subject and object, priority areas of implementation, phases and stages, terms, amount of financial, material and technical resources, expected results. Each component of the Conceptual Frameworks should be scientifically verified, confirmed by practical experience and statistical data, and also to correspond to the real state of health care in Ukraine. Interconnectivity and intersectionality of the structural parts of the Conceptual Frameworks will ensure its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Ucrânia
5.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1354-1358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Corruption, as a socio-economic problem, is characteristic of every society. The aim: To study relevant issues of criminal liability of the private doctors for committing corruption crimes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the article general scientific and special-scientific methods of cognition wer eused which provided an objective analysis of the research purpose. RESULTS: Review: The article analyzes actual questions of relenant issues of criminal liability of the private doctors for committing corruption crimes. The authors propose to research the criminal responsibility of this specific subject through the prism of the crime, as well as it's elements. Thus, special attention is focused on the analysis of thees sence of the object of the crimes, the responsibility for which provided in. Art. 365-2 and 368-4 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Inaddition, the concept of "unlawful profit" is investigated, in the context of comparison with the "bribe". Thees sence of the objective side of corruption crimes, the subject of which is a private doctor, is explained in detail. In particular, the concepts of "authority", "offer", "promise", etc. Particul arattention is paid to analyzing the legal status of a private doctor as a person authorized to provide public services. The authors focus on the analysis of the subjective side of thes corruption crimes being studied by a private physician. All penalties that can be applied to a private doctor for committing corrupt acts are systematized. At the very end, the issue of the totality of crimes is investigated. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Bringing a private doctor in the responsibility for committing a corrupt act is difficult in there gion, because the criminalization of corruptionactions of suchpersons took place relatively recently, therefore, pre-trial investigation bodies have not yet established a well-established system of tactical and methodological actions that would facilitate this process.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Crime , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Ucrânia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 527, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367793

RESUMO

Nowadays, anthropogenic inflow of heavy metals (HM) into the environment far exceeds their natural quantities in Ukraine. The main sources of HM inflow are enterprises that use high-temperature processes in the production cycle-combustion of fuel and thermal processing of raw materials. Examples of such enterprises are Avdiivka Coke and Chemical Plant (the largest in Europe) and the Zmiiv Thermal Power Plant (the largest in Ukraine), which use high-temperature processes associated with the use of black coal that are considered as important sources of heavy metals in the soil. On the basis of analytical data of 3000 samples of surface layer of Ukrainian soils, which form the basis of the nationwide GIS "Microelements in soils of Ukraine," it was established that the spatial distribution of the content of accessible forms of copper in the upper soil layer in Ukraine varies greatly and practically does not depend on the type of soil formation and is determined mainly by geochemical factors such as saturation of parent rocks with copper, as well as anthropogenic influence. The emissions from the Avdiivka Coke and Chemical Plant resulted in the formation of a clearly defined contamination range of soil and vegetation by HM in the adjoining territories exceeding the threshold levels of copper. In the zone of influence of the Zmiiv Thermal Power Plant, the technogenic load on agricultural lands is much less and does not exceed the medical and sanitary indicators of the content of heavy metals in the soils, but due to the high pipe height (180-250 m), the toxic emissions of the enterprise dissipate to a large area and form a regional technogenic background of available copper in soils.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Cobre/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/química , Centrais Elétricas , Ucrânia
7.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 32-37, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322511

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to improve the diagnosis of structural changes in all parts of the cervix depending on the preferential localization of the inflammatory process - in the ectocervix, endocervix, and also in the stroma in women with ectopia (pseudoerosis) of the vaginal part of the cervix. The study included women of predominantly early and middle reproductive age, as these women have inflammatory processes more often than in menopause. To perform the work, a transvaginal imaging method was used, which allowed us to see the smallest structures (up to 0.5-1.0 mm) of the cervix. We have previously developed a technique for visualizing the external part of the cervix and obtained a patent of Ukraine. The results of the ultrasound were compared with laboratory data, colposcopy and cervicoscopy. Traditionally, the diagnosis of cervicitis was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, smear results to determine the presence and type of pathogen. Endoscopic methods allowed visualization of only the mucous membrane of the cervical canal and external part of the cervix. The deep layers of the ectocervix, endocervix and cervical stroma can only be visualized using high-frequency ultrasound in a transvaginal way. According to the results of the study, it was possible to determine the preferential localization of the inflammatory process, to determine the nature of changes in different layers of the cervix. These changes were expressed in the presence of calcifications and cystic cavities of various sizes (1-6 mm), an increase or decrease in echogenicity, the degree of heterogeneity of the structure of the ecto-, endocervix and stroma.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Útero/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Cervicite Uterina/etiologia , Vagina/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Colposcopia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ucrânia , Cervicite Uterina/patologia
8.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 77-85, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322520

RESUMO

The etiological structure of the acute diarrhoeal infections among the population of the Odessa region during 2015-2017 was analyzed. Based on the registered cases, an assessment of the frequency of hospitalization of sick persons from different age groups was undertaken. The most frequent pathogens from 18 detected bacterial causative agents were St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. aeruginosa, E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, Ent.cloacae. During 2016-2017 the mixed infection was detected in 54 fecal samples. Bacterial-virus associations were detected in 20 samples and were presented in St. aureus, Kl. pneumoniae, Ps. Aeruginosa and Rotavirus. During the summer period of 2016, the detection rate of rota-, noro-, adenovirus antigens in the examined fecal samples of adult patients was 13.60%. According to the results of genotyping of the circulating rotaviruses strains in 2016, strains G1P[8] (46.70%) and G3P[8] (26.70%) are most commonly detected.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Enterocolite/microbiologia , Enterocolite/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Enterocolite/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genes Microbianos , Genótipo , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 150-157, 2019 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322534

RESUMO

The aim of this manuscript is to identify the current issues relating to protecting the rights of a person in respect of whom the use of compulsory measures of a medical character is intended or their application is considered. The complex of general scientific and special methods of legal science was used to achieve the goal of the study, solve the problems and prove the results of the research. The comparative legal method was used for analyzing the criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine, other countries and the practice of the European Court of Human Rights. The systematic structural method gave an opportunity to describe an order of closing a pre-trial investigation in criminal proceedings for the application of compulsory measures of a medical character. The formal logical (dogmatic) method lies at the basis of the definitions' formation in the framework of the research's subject. The statistical method was used for summarizing and working on the statistical reports, materials of investigative and judicial practice. Special attention to this issue is due to the fact that there exists a separate category of people committed a socially harmful act, stipulated by the Ukrainian law on crimtinal responsibility, who were found legally insane, or committed a criminal offense in a state of sanity, but have caught a mental illness before sentencing. According to this fact, there are additional guarantees for the protection of the rights of such persons in the Chapter 39 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine, which are fully consistent with the international legal standards. Due to the conducted research, it has been proposed the following: firstly, to provide for mandatory participation of the legal representative of the person in respect of whom the use of compulsory measures of a medical character is intended or their application is considered at the legislative level; secondly, to change the name of the procedural document, which completes the pre-trial investigation in the criminal proceedings on the application of compulsory medical measures to the decision allowing the court to resolve the issue of the application of compulsory measures of a medical character; thirdly, to determine the content of this resolution by clearly specifying the list of information that should be contained in such resolution.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Transtornos Mentais , Direitos do Paciente , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Respeito , Ucrânia
10.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 157-163, 2019 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322535

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of using the capabilities of a forensic molecular genetic examination to solve the problems of criminal proceeding in Ukraine. The authors analyze the regulatory acts governing criminal procedure and forensic activities in Ukraine in context of identifying legal problems of using molecular genetic expertise in criminal proceedings. 568 sentences handed down by the courts of Ukraine in 2014-2018 in criminal cases of homicides (250 sentences), robberies (250 sentences) and road traffic accidents (68 sentences), during the investigation of which specified examinations were appointed, as well as 123 conclusions of molecular genetic examinations conducted in 2018. A summary of studied materials in context of solving the problems of establishing DNA profiles by experts, the correctness and completeness of posed questions and the conclusions made by an expert, the value of the results obtained for the defendant to establish whether the defendant was guilty or not guilty, the reasons why the expert task was impossible are conducted. It is established that the effectiveness of the application of the results of molecular genetic expertise in the criminal proceedings of Ukraine can be improved providing that a number of legal, organizational, methodological and procedural problems are solved. the need for legislative regulation of the procedure for the selection of biological samples from various categories of persons and their inclusion in automated databases of DNA profiles; substantial replenishment of these bases; establishment international cooperation of domestic bases with foreign information systems are indicated. Unification is required on a uniform methodological basis and toolkit of a system of expert institutions for carrying out molecular genetic examinations, training of employees of investigative and operational-search units to work at the crime scene with traces of biological origin. Further development and improvement of DNA analysis methods should include the development of new and improvement of existing methods of molecular genetic examination, especially in the study of mixed and micro-amounts of biological traces. It is necessary to develop criteria (standards) for assessing the coincidence of DNA profiles so that not only could experts determine the likelihood of such a coincidence, but also formulate conclusions about identity that are available to the court.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Patologia Legal , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Ucrânia
11.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 115-126, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While some countries of the WHO European Region are global leaders in tobacco control, the Newly Independent States (NIS) have the highest tobacco-smoking prevalence globally and a relatively low overall level of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) implementation. An abridged version of the SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model has been developed to project the health impact of implementing tobacco-control policies in line with the WHO FCTC. METHODS: Data on population size, smoking prevalence, policy-specific effect sizes and formulas were applied in 11 NIS - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The aim was to project the relative reduction in smoking prevalence, number of smokers and number of smoking-attributable deaths resulting from implementing six individual and/or combined WHO FCTC measures. RESULTS: An increase in excise cigarette taxes to 75% of price yields the largest relative reduction in smoking prevalence (range 12.1-44%) for all countries. The projections show that when all six tobacco control measures are fully implemented in line with the WHO FCTC, smoking prevalence in each of the NIS countries can be reduced by at least 39% by the year 2033 (baseline 2015). CONCLUSION: The projections show that the NIS countries can expect a large number of smoking-attributable deaths just among those smokers alive today, but large reductions in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths can be achieved if the WHO FCTC demand reduction policies are implemented. The results can be used as an advocacy tool for accelerating enforcement of tobacco control laws in NIS.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Humanos , Prevalência , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
12.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 860-867, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247394

RESUMO

Lands of Ukraine are intensively used. Usage of insufficient amounts of fertilizers leads to destruction of soil organic matter, causing complete loss of soil fertility. In 2015, the total nitrogen balance in Ukraine was negative. It is -152.3 Gg or -5.8 kg N/ha/yr. In different regions, these indicators varied from -34.6-24.7 kg N/ha/yr. NUE for crop production in Ukraine in 2015 was equal to 109.1%, in some regions this indicator varied from 75.7% to 198.6%. It was a result of insufficient amounts of fertilizers applied to agricultural land. To restore the fertility of soil, it is necessary to use organic fertilizers and biological nitrogen fixation.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Solo , Ucrânia
13.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 62-67, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215881

RESUMO

Objective - to conduct an analysis and synthesis of scientific literature on the problem of overweight and obesity in children, national and foreign scientific sources, international and national statistical databases, on recommendations of international strategic documents on prevention of obesity among children, legal acts on prevention of obesity among children in Ukraine. The analysis of international research and recommendations on the prevention of obesity in children. Methods of research: bibliosemantic, epidemiological, content analysis, conceptual modeling. The current state of the system of prevention of obesity in children is characterized by imperfections and disadvantages: imperfect approaches of statistical reporting, which impedes the decisions on the prevention of diseases associated with overweight; the low level of diagnosis of obesity in children as evidenced by the significantly lower prevalence of obesity among the children of Ukraine compared to European countries, statistical processing on the prevalence of overweight in children in Ukraine is not performed. Existing approaches of obesity prevention in Ukraine do not take into account current recommendations and approaches developed on the basis of proven effectiveness. Implementation of the developed model of socio-medical monitoring of obesity in children allows screening and detection of children at risk of developing overweight and obesity, to form differentiated prevention programs, to prognose the risks of diseases associated with overweight, provide guidance on the medical care to a specialized level of schoolchildren at risk of developing of obesity, as well as conditions associated with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
14.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 168-173, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215901

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyze individual legal problems of the implementation of the human right to palliative care. To achieve this goal, statistical data on the number of palliative patients, their access to medical services were analyzed. The absence of reasons for limiting the patient's right to receive palliative care, as such a right is a fundamental human right, is substantiated. An analysis of the understanding of the legal construction of "palliative care" in the scientific literature, national and international legal documents was carried out. It was revealed that the terms "hospice care", "end-of-life-care", "respite care" are components of a precise definition - "palliative care". Two groups of subjects that ensure the human right to this type of medical care are identified, their powers are indicated. In the course of the research it was established that palliative patients, more often than other patients, need medical care, including children. This category of patients faces the following problems: incomplete providing of high-quality free medical palliative care; insufficient number of palliative and hospice departments for such patients; palliative care does not meet international standards (logistical support for palliative departments, there are no specialists of a multidisciplinary team); there is no special training for medical personnel working with incurable patients; painkillers (non-narcotic and narcotic) drugs for relieving pain syndrome of such patients are not provided in full volume; there is no cooperation of state authorities in the field of palliative care with public and charitable organizations; palliative patients do not have access to free legal services (pensions, inheritance).


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Direitos Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Cuidados Paliativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Ucrânia
15.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1038-1042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Stress is considered to be a very common pathology among primary care doctors, since practically any professional activity requires significant emotional, mental and practical efforts. The aim has determined the factors associated with occupational stress and compare the difference of behavior patterns which is used to reduce stress among primary care doctors in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The authors used medical-statistical methods as well as analyzed questionnaires of the sociological survey conducted among general practitioners and family doctors of the primary care level from various regions of Ukraine. RESULTS: Results: Occupational stress is a common symptom among primary care physicians of different ages and genders in Ukraine. For primary care doctors the most common symptoms related to occupational stress were found to be burnout (n=93), poor night's sleep (n=84) and tiredness (n=84). Female doctors experience more often symptoms such as frequent headaches tiredness, burnout, whilst for male doctors feelings of irritation and anxiety are more common indicators of occupational stress. Work experience also has a strong association with experiencing stress related to "unrealistic expectations from their patients with complex medical and social problems" (s.df=.082). Young doctors with work experience of less than 5 years and those who have worked for more than 20 years in the industry similarly find it stressful to deal with such "complex patients". CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Primary care doctors in Ukraine, from many different demographic backgrounds, experience high levels of occupational stress; this is a common health condition, which can have devastating personal and professional consequences.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Estresse Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia , Local de Trabalho
16.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1079-1082, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Such sciences as differential physiology, differential psychology, differential anatomy and chemistry are developed greatly nowadays. They deal to human typologies. The scientific works big amount concerning dentistry in this aspect allows speaking about differentiated dentistry. The aim: To assess control locus in the UMSA Ukrainian students dependently on their dominant extremity as well as to assess and to compare face asymmetry expression in the guys and girls from Egypt and Ukraine studying at different courses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 50 Ukrainian students from dental faculty different courses in the 1st series of the experiments, 18 girls and 18 guys from Egypt and Ukraine in the 2nd series. Methods: - determining the dominant extremity and control locus by survey; - computer modeling for facial expression assessment. RESULTS: Results: 43 students (85%, p<0,01) independently on dominant extremity demonstrate control internal locus and only 7 people (comprising 15%, p<0,01), 6 people (90%, p<0,01) from which were left-handers and all ambidexters) - the external one. These were the 1st experimental series results. We received following results in the experiment second part. Faces of the students from Egypt, guys in bigger extent, were more asymmetrical. We were taking photos of the students and then were measuring longitudinal and transversal sizes of face right and left halves. 10 guys from Egypt (55,6%, p<0,01) and 5 girls from Ukraine (27,78%, p<0,01) were distinguished by bigger longitudinal and transversal sizes as well as looked less harmonic while coinciding the face left halves than the right ones that can be explained in part by primary usage of left side while masticating as well as left hand usage at writing (in part in the Egyptian guys). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: We consider that our work can have significance in Maxillary-Facial and Plastic Surgery, Transplantology, Orthopedy, Prosthetic Dentistry, Neurology as well as Cosmetology and Psychology.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Estudantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
17.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1083-1086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Due to introduction of new forms of agriculture and transformation of the treatment and preventive service in recent years, there has been a false impression of a sharp decrease in the level of occupational morbidity among agricultural workers 30 % to 25 % in the structure of general occupational morbidity in the 80-90s down to 0.2-0.4 %. The aim: Summarize data on the prevalence, causes, structure of acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers at the current stages of its reform in order to improve preventive measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Data on the prevalence, causes and structure of 647 cases of acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers over the past 25 years have been summarized; staff of the Scientific Toxicology Center took part in the sanitary-hygienic investigation and establishment of the diagnosis. RESULTS: Results: The causes for the development, aetiology and structure of 647 cases of acute pesticide poisoning, among which 522 cases of acute poisoning of field beet growers with 2,4-D-based herbicides (80.7 %), 60 cases (9.3 %) of OPC poisoning, 36 cases of beet growers poisoning with sulphonylurea-based herbicides, 14 patients with acute synthetic pyrethroid poisoning, and isolated cases (15 patients) of intoxication with aluminium phosphide, dithiocarbamates, Vitavax, and Fipronil were analysed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Analysis of the causes of the development and structure of poisoning has allowed to optimize the complex of preventive measures to strengthen sanitary control over the implementation of individual and public safety hygienic regulations during storage and use of pesticides.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Ucrânia
18.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1087-1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Saving and improvement of population' health is one of the main priorities of the policy in any country. Studying of the level and causes of mortality is a powerful tool for assessing the effectiveness of health care systems. WHO recommends using of the European classification of preventable causes of death that based on three levels of prevention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of this study is to compare the level and structure of mortality of the population of Ukraine and the Poltava region, to substantiate scientific approaches to the study and identification of those causes of death that can be prevented in order to formulate prevention programs at different level. Materials and methods: In research are used the information from the State Statistics Service of Ukraine and from the Center for Medical Statistics of the MoH of Ukraine. RESULTS: Review: Despite the positive dynamics of mortality in recent years, both in the Poltava region and in Ukraine, the indicators remain extremely negative. About 73.3% of all fatalities in Ukraine are three main types of causes cardiovascular diseases, external causes of death and neoplasms. In the Poltava region, 70.56% of all causes of death are due to cardiovascular disease; neoplasms occupy 13.88%; external causes - 4.87%; diseases of the digestive system - 3,06%; respiratory diseases - 1.31% of the causes of death. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The mortality rate both in the Poltava region and in Ukraine has tendency for declines, but remains rather high. General trends in the structure of causes of death: in the first place are diseases of the cardiovascular system, the second - neoplasms, the third -external causes. Structuring of the causes of death that based on the principle of prevention in Ukraine do not conduct.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Mortalidade , Ucrânia
19.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1092-1097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Worldwide, there is a tendency to an increase in the number of patients with diabetes mellitus. After cardiovascular disease and oncology, this disease takes the third place, being ahead of HIV and tuberculosis. The aim of the research was to study and analyze the dynamics of the prevalence, incidence and disability of diabetes mellitus among children aged 0-17 years in the Poltava region over the period of 2008-2017. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The data of statistical reports of medical institutions and the Center of Medical Statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine over the period of 2008-2017 was analyzed. The obtained data was processed using using the MS Office 2010 software package. RESULTS: Review: We have found that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among children under the age of 17 in the Poltava region is constantly growing. In 2008, the prevalence of diabetes among children aged 0-17 years was 1.11. In 2017, the index was 1.32. Regarding the incidence, the indicator also gradually increased, in 2017 it was 0.21 versus 0.12 in 2008. Having analyzed the disability of diabetes among children, it is evident that the total disability is gradually increasing. If in 2008 there were 185children with diabetes mellitus, then in 2017 there were 256 people (disability index 0.72 and 1.09, respectively). The primary disability among children in 2017 was 0.19, in 2008 it was 0.09, respectively. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The presented research allowed to study and analyze the incidence, prevalence and disability of diabetes mellitus among children from 0 to 17 years old in the Poltava region over the period of 2008-2017.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Ucrânia
20.
Wiad Lek ; 72(5 cz 2): 1098-1102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: In today's conditions, the aggravation of health and demographic problems in Ukraine arose the urgent need for physical rehabilitation and restoration of the health of our citizens by means of a non-medical nature. Under such conditions, specialists in physical therapy and ergotherapy become subjects of medical, social and psychological assistance, associates of the improvement of physical qualities, psycho-emotional stability and adaptation reserves. The aim of the study is to develop and substantiate the medical aspects of training a specialist in physical therapy and ergotherapy in the system of higher education in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To achieve the goal, a set of research methods, in particular theoretical ones, is used: historical-comparative and logical, terminological, quantitativequalitative (bibliometry), generalization, abstraction, analysis and synthesis, modeling, studying documents; empirical: observation, survey, analysis of products of activity, complex pre-nasol diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The theoretical synthesis of domestic and foreign experience is carried out and the author's approach to solving an important and actual scientific problem of forming the medical competence of future specialists in physiotherapy and ergotherapy is proposed. An analysis of the international experience of training physical rehabilitation specialists has made it possible to identify the most promising American and European models that have a number of significant differences in the principles of organization and financing of pedagogical processes, professional etiquette and self-discipline of specialists.


Assuntos
Medicina , Especialização , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Ucrânia
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