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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(7): 1559-1565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine trend of legal induced surgical abortion and to assess the frequency of infection complications after termination of pregnancy in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study was based on surveillance data of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) after legal induced surgical abortion in women's from January 2017 to 2019 in Ukraine. Definitions of HAI after induced abortion were used from the CDC/ NHSN. RESULTS: Results: The number of surgical abortions in Ukraine increased by 32.8%. A total of 25.9% HAIs were identified after surgical abortion. Of these HAIs, 25.9 were Endometritis, 21.8% Bacterial Vaginitis, 14.3% Parametritis, 13.1% Cervicitis, 9.9% Adnexa utery, 7.8% Salpingitis, 6.3% Chorioamnionitis, and 0.9% other reproductive tract infections. E.coli were most commonly reported, accounting for 25.9% of all organisms, followed by Enterococcus spp. (16.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.5%), P. aeruginosa (10.9%), and Enterobacter spp. (10.1%). Antimicrobial resistance in the isolates associated with HAIs showed, among the gram-positive bacteria, that 19.1% and 3.6% of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were b-lactam (oxacillin) - and glycopeptide-resistant, respectively. Meticillin resistance was reported in 23.2% of S aureus isolates. Vancomycin resistance was reported in 3.7% of isolated enterococci. Among the gram-negative bacteria, third-generation cephalosporins resistance was found in 33.1% of Klebsiella spp and in 24.1% of E.coli isolates. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The results of this study revealed high rates of HAIs after surgical abortion and most causing pathogens were associated with resistant to antibiotic strains. This knowledge is essential to develop targeted strategies to surveillance and reduce the incidence of post-abortion infections.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Infecção Hospitalar , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ucrânia
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(7): 1628-1633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To improve epidemiological monitoring of pertussis by analyzing the disease morbidity during 1995-2017 in Ukraine, to make a prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Analysis of the pertussis morbidity during 1995-2017 using the data of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The cyclicity was determined by Fourier spectral analysis. The models of prognosis were constructed using polyharmonic regression and an exponential smoothing algorithm. Cartographic analysis and integrated indicators (multiyear index of the prevalence rate, mean square deviation, mean the multiyear pace of the gain in the prevalence rate) were used to determine the areas of risk. Summarized data were used to calculate the generalized coefficient. RESULTS: Results: The pertussis morbidity cycle has 5 years intervals in Ukraine. The prognosis is for increasing the pertussis morbidity from 4.91-5.54 to 5.48-7.06 per 100.000 people. The generalized coefficient was significantly higher in western part (83.3%) than in central (50.0%) and eastern (16.6%) parts. The study showed that population reproduction rates, natural population increase, and the proportion of people against vaccination were higher in the western part than in other parts of the country. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The pertussis cyclicity depends on the internal mechanisms of interaction in the ecological system. There is a prognosis of worsening the epidemic situation of pertussis spreading. The risk area is the western part of Ukraine, which is characterized by active demographic processes and a greater number of people who are negative about vaccination.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Humanos , Morbidade , Prevalência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
3.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 189-195, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365449

RESUMO

A little is known about healthcare sector within Strategic plan of Kyiv, which is capital of Ukraine and a city in transition. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate implementation of strategic plan for Kyiv with the focus on healthcare sector. There were evaluated Strategic plan for Kyiv, Concept for healthcare development from the Department of Healthcare, City's target program "Health of Kyivers". Data analyses showed 13 (45%) out of 29 strategic initiatives were not implemented for healthcare sector. Data from statistical analyses indicated that low performance from Department of Healthcare was similar for all operational goals. Our findings demonstrated low implementation rate of strategic initiatives within the healthcare sector of city's Strategic plan. Possible causes of low strategic performance could be due to weak institutional relations between top and low executive levels, as well as inconsistency in strategic documents, stuff turnover.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Planejamento Estratégico , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Ucrânia
4.
Georgian Med News ; (314): 70-77, 2021 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248030

RESUMO

Diseases of the oral cavity are considered as a health problem for the population of the whole world, in particular, Ukraine. Purpose of the study - to analyze the risk factors, legislative, financial, personnel support for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases of the population of Ukraine; to develop a national conceptual model for the organization of dental care. State statistics data, regulatory documents, scientific sources; methods of systems approach and analysis, conceptual modeling, graphic. A low standard of living is typical for 23.1% of the population of Ukraine; high levels of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, sugar consumption, insufficient amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet are common in the population. Low fluoride content in drinking water is a threat to the development of caries. The legal regulation of oral health needs improvement. A national conceptual model of the organization of dental care has been developed on the basis of an analysis of world experience and WHO recommendations, the main components of the model are determined: improving geographical and financial accessibility; improving quality; preventive focus; state regulation. The world experience in the provision of dental care and the national characteristics of the health care system made it possible to substantiate and develop a conceptual model for organizing dental care for the population of Ukraine.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Cárie Dentária , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Ucrânia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208879

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a revival of the term "structural violence (SV)" which was coined by Johan Galtung in the 1960s in the context of Peace Studies. "Structural violence" refers to social structures-economic, legal, political, religious, and cultural-that prevent individuals, groups and societies from reaching their full potential. In the European context, very few studies have investigated health and well-being using an SV perspective. Therefore, this paper sought to systematically and descriptively review studies that used an SV framework to examine health-related outcomes across European countries. The review included two studies each from Spain and France, one each from the UK, Ukraine and Russia, and another study including the three countries Sweden, Portugal and Germany. With the exception of one mixed-method study, the studies used a qualitative design. Furthermore, the eight studies in the review used different conceptualizations of SV, which indicates the complexity of using SV as a concept in public health in the European context. Future research that attempts to identify and standardize measures of SV is needed; the knowledge gained is hoped to inform appropriate interventions aiming to reduce the effects of SV on population health.


Assuntos
Violência , Europa (Continente) , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Portugal , Federação Russa , Espanha , Suécia , Ucrânia
6.
Georgian Med News ; (314): 184-189, 2021 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248052

RESUMO

The purpose of the article is to reveal the essence and specific features of public control as a mean of ensuring the realization of the right to health care, taking into account the existing scientific points of view and reasoning. The research materials were scientific works of Ukrainian scholars, analytical materials, political and legal opinion-based journalism, Internet resources and Ukrainian legislation regulating the activities of public control (supervision) in the health care sector. Generally scientific (systemic, structural and functional, comparative, etc.) and specially legal methods of scientific cognition (formal and legal, comparative and legal, method of studying legal practice, etc.) were used in the course of the study. The author has provided characteristics of public control in the health care sector and has formulated own definition of such a control. The author has studied the powers of the subjects of public control in the health care sector, where control over the observance of legislation in the activities of a certain authority or health institution is the main one. It has been noted that the activities of subjects, exercising public control, have the organizational nature and do not lead to legally significant consequences, although they contribute to the implementation of legal forms of ensuring relations in the health care sector. It has been emphasized that the subjects, exercising public control, do not have authoritative powers, but contribute to the realization of civil right to participate in the healthcare management.


Assuntos
Direito à Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Ucrânia
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 502, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292412

RESUMO

Political instability and economic crises may trigger informal, unsustainable and often illegal land use, leading to land degradation. One of the most recent and striking examples of such a phenomenon within Europe is demonstrated by the Polissia region in Northern Ukraine, famous for its amber deposits. Amid severe political disturbances and subsequent economic recession in Ukraine in 2014 and 2015, amber mining flourished in the region. However, the extent and spatial pattern of degraded land caused by amber mining over the entire region has remained unknown. To fill this gap and track land surface changes, we used multi-source satellite imagery. We found a gradual decrease of the area without vegetation cover, as a proxy for degraded land, from the late Soviet period until 2014 in most of the analysed administrative districts of Polissia. In contrast to this, we identified substantial conversion of forest and agricultural land to bare soil that occurred between 2014 and 2016, which can be attributed to the rush of illegal amber mining in the region. The estimated total area of affected land on the produced Landsat-based map for 2016 was 1066 ha, 60% of which occurred in 2014-2016. Land cover classification within a key study area suggests that utilization of very high-resolution images from the WorldView-2 satellite enables more accurate mapping of land degradation and identification of small mining sites. Further monitoring of land-use change caused by amber mining is essential to improving understanding of long-lasting environmental impacts on regional ecosystems and biodiversity.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , Ucrânia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding is the first step towards achieving recommended breastfeeding behaviours. Delayed breastfeeding initiation harms neonatal health and survival, including infection associated neonatal mortality. Eighty percent of neonatal deaths occur in the low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), where delayed breastfeeding initiation is the highest. Place and mode of childbirth are important factors determining the time of initiation of breastfeeding. In this study, we report the prevalence of delayed breastfeeding initiation from 58 LMICs and investigate the relationship between place and mode of childbirth and delayed breastfeeding initiation in each country. METHODS: We analysed data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) collected between 2012 and 2017 and reported by 2019. The study sample comprised all women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the survey. 'Delayed' initiation of breastfeeding was defined using WHO recommendations as starting breastfeeding after one hour of birth. We coded the stratifying variable for the place and mode of childbirth as "vaginal birth at a facility (VBF)", "caesarean section birth (CSB) ", and "vaginal birth at home (VBH)". We used respondent-level sampling weights to account for individual surveys and de-normalised the standard survey weights to ensure the appropriate contribution of data from each country. We report the prevalence and population attributable fractions with robust standard errors. The population attributable risk identifies the proportion of delayed initiation that we could avert among VBH and CSB if everyone had the same risk of delaying breastfeeding as in VBF. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of delayed initiation of breastfeeding was 53.8% (95% CI 53.3, 54.3), ranging from 15.0% (95% CI 13.8, 16.2) in Burundi to 83.4% (95% CI 80.6, 86.0) in Guinea. The prevalence of delayed initiation of breastfeeding was consistently high among women who experienced caesarean section births; however, there was no direct association with each country's national caesarean section rates. The prevalence of delayed initiation among women who experienced VBF was high in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, even though the CSB rates were low. In some countries, women who give birth vaginally in health facilities were more likely to delay breastfeeding initiation than women who did not. In many places, women who give birth by caesarean section were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation. Population attributable risk percent for VBH ranged from -28.5% in Ukraine to 22.9% in Moldova, and for CSB, from 10.3% in Guinea to 54.8% in Burundi. On average, across all 58 countries, 24.4% of delayed initiation could be prevented if all women had the same risk of delaying breastfeeding initiation as in VBF. DISCUSSION: In general, women who give birth in a health facility were less likely to experience delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Programs could avert much of the delayed breastfeeding initiation in LMICs if the prevalence of delayed initiation amongst women who experience CSB were the same as amongst women who experience VBF. Crucial reforms of health facilities are required to ensure early breastfeeding practices and to create pro-breastfeeding supportive environments as recommended in intervention packages like the Baby-friendly hospital initiative and Early essential newborn care. The findings from this study will guide program managers to identify countries at varying levels of preparedness to establish and maintain a breastfeeding-friendly environment at health facilities. Thus, governments should prioritise intervention strategies to improve coverage and settings surrounding early initiation of breastfeeding while considering the complex role of place and mode of childbirth.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Burundi , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Moldávia , Parto , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 4372, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186696

RESUMO

Six species of harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) are documented from the Eocene Rovno amber in Ukraine. From the suborder Eupnoi we record Caddo dentipalpus (C. L. Koch Berendt, 1854) (Caddidae), Amilenus deltshevi Dunlop Mitov, 2009 (Phalangiidae) and Dicranopalpus ramiger (C. L. Koch Berendt, 1854) (family incertae sedis). To these we add a new phalangiid, Metaphalangium martensi sp. n., which is the oldest representative of the Recent genus Metaphalangium Roewer, 1911 and new genus for the amber fauna. From Dyspnoi we record Sabacon claviger (Menge, 1854) (Sabaconidae) and propose Parahistricostoma gen. n. (Nemastomatidae), to accommodate Nemastoma tuberculatum C. L. Koch Berendt, 1854, yielding Parahistricostoma tuberculatum (C. L. Koch Berendt, 1854) comb. n. The Rovno harvestman fauna is briefly compared to both Baltic and Bitterfeld amber. The fossil species, C. dentipalpus, A. deltshevi, D. ramiger and P. tuberculatum occur in all three ambers, and S. claviger is found in Baltic and Rovno amber. The only genus and species unique to Rovno amber is thus our new taxon M. martensi. The composition of the Rovno opilionid fauna is discussed in the context of late Eocene palaeoenvironment and ecological preferences and the fossils are compared to the distribution of extant harvestman taxa. The oribatid mite Platyliodes ensigerus Sellnick, 1919 (Acari: Neoliodidae) is reported from Rovno amber for the first time.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Aracnídeos/classificação , Animais , Fósseis , Ucrânia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 113015, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119987

RESUMO

The European-wide environmental obstacles of inefficient and unsustainable recycling systems and flows constrain household waste (HW) management, endangering the circular economy. The European 2020 strategy and ongoing environmental disasters indicate the ineffectiveness of the current HW sustainability practices. This paper introduces an artificial intelligence (AI) approach for calculating urban residual waste, based on its generation level. It reforms the current diverse and high discrepancy levels of HW residual for EU-countries and Ukraine. Adopting a k-means clustering method with a multi-criteria taxonomic development level index (TIDL), it produces uniform clusters with higher accuracy and manageability. Findings discover and remedy opaque managerial practices, enabling sustainable and environment-friendly development at national and regional levels for EU-countries. Results reveal an increased number of clusters in crisis, contributing to a methodological reference for environmental planning. In conclusion, this AI approach could have a European-wide impact on sustainable economic value-chain, converging toward an eco-friendly economy.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Ucrânia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4985(4): 595597, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186782

RESUMO

The soft scale insect genus Scythia (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) was established by Kiritchenko (1938) with the type species Scythia craniumequinum Kiritchenko, 1938 from Ukraine. Later, Borchsenius (1957) placed Mohelnia Sulc, 1941 (type species: Mohelnia festuceti Sulc, 1941) as a junior subjective synonym of Scythia Kiritchenko, 1938, and proposed new combination: Scythia festuceti (Sulc, 1941). Ben-Dov (1993) followed Borchsenius (1957) in treating Mohelnia as a junior synonym of Scythia.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/classificação , Animais , Ucrânia
12.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 782-787, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with disabilities (PWD) are at increased risk of poor mental health. However, this association and the pathways involved remain under-researched in many parts of the world. This study examined the association between disability and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). METHODS: Data were analysed from 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. Information was obtained on disability status, the severity of the disability and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations. RESULTS: In a fully adjusted combined country analysis, disability was associated with over two times higher odds for psychological distress (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86-2.58). The strength of the association varied across the individual countries. Among PWD more severe disability was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress (OR: 2.12, 95%CI: 1.26-3.55). LIMITATIONS: The data were cross-sectional and disability status was self-reported, possibly resulting in underreporting. CONCLUSIONS: Disability is associated with worse psychological health in FSU countries, especially among those with more severe disabilities. As poor mental health may also increase the risk of negative outcomes in PWD, this finding highlights the importance of the early detection and treatment of mental disorders in PWD in these countries.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Armênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Georgia , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , U.R.S.S. , Ucrânia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4985(2): 173193, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186660

RESUMO

The holotypes of the seventeen Palaearctic species of the genus Exochus described by Dr Valentyna Tolkanitz and stored at the Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv) are revised. Diagnoses and illustrations for each species are provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros/classificação , Animais , Ucrânia
14.
Wiad Lek ; 74(4): 891-895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to substantiate the expediency of performing physical exercises by representatives of the security and defence sector to reduce the negative impact of management activities factors on their state of health. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The peculiarities of professional activities of 82 officers of the National Police and the Armed Forces of Ukraine, who had military and special ranks of "lieutenant colonel", "colonel" and held senior positions (heads of faculties, departments, divisions, services and other units) were studied. Research methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of literature sources, pedagogical observation, interviews, questionnaires. RESULTS: Results: It was found that management activities are characterized by a number of negative factors, which negatively affect the body of management level officers. With systematic interference, they significantly worsen the state of officers' health and negatively affect the effectiveness of their management activities. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Physical education has significant potential in improving the efficiency of professional activities of management level officers, strengthening their health and enhancing working ability. The direction of improving physical training of management level personnel is determined as increasing the amount of general physical training, conducting classes with different orientations taking into account the age group, service load and training within the working time pattern.


Assuntos
Militares , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
15.
Wiad Lek ; 74(4): 902-905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: the analysis of spectrum of causatively relevant aeroallergens of southern Ukraine which provoke allergic reaction in patients with pollinosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: ambulatory medical records data and skin prick-testing results of 477 patients afflicted with pollinosis in Kherson (250 women - 52,41 % and 227 men - 47,59 %) aged from 19 to 66 years old (38,05±0,45) have been analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Results: all patients revealed clinical implications mainly during the September-October period. Clinically 151 patients (31,66%) showed severe and 326 (68,34%) moderate to severe clinical progression. Composite family plants (composites) proved to be the most widespread plants (69,76 %) among all pollen aeroallergens of Kherson region. Weeds and sunflower showed the highest percentage among composites: Ambrosia topped to 79,87 %, Helianthus (sunflower)- 75,68 %, Artemisia - 42,98 %, and Cyclachaena (sump weed) - 36,48 %. Wild and cultivated grains' aeroallergens toped to 28,22 %. Among them the sensibility to Lolium perenne (19,28 %), Festuca pratensis (17,82 %), Dactylis glomerata (17,82 %) has been noticed more often. Tree aeroallergens topped to 2,03 %. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The third wave of pollen formation (September-October period) appeared to be the most significant and clinically hard for Kherson region. According to the specific allergologic research data, allergens of the composite family plants, among which pollen of Ambrosia, Helianthus, Artemisia and Cyclachaena cause more frequent sensibility, turned to be the most widespread causatively relevant aeroallergens in Kherson region which provoke allergic reaction in patients with pollinosis. The second place was taken by wild and cultivated grains' aeroallergens, among which sensibility to Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Dactylis glomerata proved to be the most common.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Testes Cutâneos , Ucrânia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Wiad Lek ; 74(4): 929-933, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to give a morphological characteristic of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the salivary glands in the course of a comprehensive analysis of the surgical material. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study used surgical material from 67 patients with various pathologies of the salivary glands. The patients were treated at Kyiv City Clinical Hospital No. 12 (Ukraine, Kiev) from 2014 to 2018. The resulting material was fixed in a 10% solution of neutral formalin (pH 7.4) for 24-48 hours, carried out according to the generally accepted technique and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections 2 µm thick were made from paraffin blocks and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microspecimens were studied, using Olympus BX-41 microscope (Japan). RESULTS: Results: A comprehensive morphological study of the surgical material of patients with salivary gland pathology undergoing treatment at Kyiv City Clinical Hospital No. 12 (Ukraine, Kiev) for the period from 2014 to 2018 revealed benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of these glands. Pleomorphic adenomas and adenolymphomas represented benign tumors of the salivary glands, while cysts represented tumor-like lesions. Different ratios of parenchymal and stromal components characterized pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. On this basis, we identified three tumor variants (mesenchymal (15 cases, 50.0 %); mixed or classic (10 cases, 33.3 %); epithelial (5 cases, 16.7 %)). A characteristic microscopic feature of salivary gland adenolymphomas was a pronounced predominance of the parenchyma over the stroma. A well-defined wall, represented by connective tissue fibers and epithelial lining, characterized the cysts of the salivary glands. The connective tissue capsule separating the tumor tissue from the intact tissue of the salivary gland was clearly pronounced in adenolymphomas, and in pleomorphic adenomas it could be clearly expressed, intact, with tumor invasion or absent. In mesenchymal and mixed variants of pleomorphic adenomas, in comparison with the epithelial variant, there was a frequent tumor invasion of the capsule, thinning of the capsule or its absence. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Morphological examination of the surgical material allows us to diagnose tumors (pleomorphic adenomas and adenolymphomas) and non-tumor lesions (cysts) of the salivary glands. This, of course, is of great therapeutic, diagnostic and prognostic value. Among the identified pathology of the salivary glands, pleomorphic adenomas cause certain difficulties in morphological diagnosis due to their structural diversity and heterogeneity, sometimes requiring morphometric, immunohistochemical or genetic research.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo , Cistos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Adenoma Pleomorfo/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/cirurgia , Glândulas Salivares/cirurgia , Ucrânia
17.
Wiad Lek ; 74(4): 934-939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To obtain the first national estimates of the current prevalence rate of SSI after CSEC and antimicrobial resistance of causing pathogens in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective multhicentre cogort study based surveillance data was conducted from May 2017 to December 2019. The study population consisted of all women who had a cesarean section in 11 regional women hospitals of Ukraine. Definitions of SSI after cesarean section were used from the CDC/ NHSN. RESULTS: Results: A total of 2 326 CSEC operations and 14.7% SSI were identified within 30 days of the operation. Of these, 44.4% were superficial incisional SSI, 28.9% were deep incisional SSI, and 26.6% were organ/space SSI, 25.7% of which were classed as endometritis. Of all cases 70.5% of infections were detected post discharge. The most commonly identifed pathogen were Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%), Escherichiacoli (20%), Coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.1%), Enterococcus spp. (7.7%), Pseudomonasaeruginosa (7.7%), Enterobacter spp. (6.4%), and Streptococcus spp. (5.6%). The overall proportion of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among Enterobacteriaceae was 18.3% and of methicillin-resistance in S. aureus(MRSA) 13.9%. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was observed in 15.2% E.coli and 7.9% Klebsiellapneumoniae isolates. Carbapenem resistance was identified in 7.3% of P.aeruginosa isolates. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The results of this study revealed high rates of SSI after CSEC and most causing pathogens were associated with resistant to antibiotic stranis. This knowledge is essential to develop targeted strategies to surveillance and reduce the incidence of postoperative infections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Assistência ao Convalescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Ucrânia
18.
Wiad Lek ; 74(4): 1019-1023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Was to study the dynamics of the incidence of diphtheria in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the data of the state statistical reporting of the Transcarpathian region on the incidence of diphtheria, the carriage of infection, vaccination coverage and the severity of diphtheria immunity was carried out. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Low coverage of the population with vaccination against diphtheria, registration of an outbreak of diphtheria among international students of the region, and other regions of Ukraine in conditions of increased population migration, are alarming prognostic signs of the possible development of another significant epidemic rise of diphtheria morbidity in Transcarpathia.


Assuntos
Difteria , Difteria/epidemiologia , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1209, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hardcore smoking behaviours and test of hardening are seldom reported from low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We report country-wise changes in smoking behaviors between two sequential surveys and explored ecologically the relationship between MPOWER scores and smoking behaviors including hardcore smoking. METHODS: We analysed sequential Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data done at least at five years interval in 10 countries namely India, Bangladesh, China, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. We estimated weighted prevalence rates of smoking behaviors namely current smoking (both daily and non-daily), prevalence of hardcore smoking (HCS) among current smokers (HCSs%) and entire surveyed population (HCSp%), quit ratios (QR), and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). We calculated absolute and relative (%) change in rates between two surveys in each country. Using aggregate data, we correlated relative change in current smoking prevalence with relative change in HCSs% and HCSp% as well as explored the relationship of MPOWER score with relative change in smoking behaviors using Spearman' rank correlation test. RESULTS: Overall daily smoking has declined in all ten countries lead by a 23% decline in Russia. In India, Bangladesh, and Philippines HCSs% decreased as the smoking rate decreased while HCSs% increased in Turkey (66%), Vietnam (33%) and Ukraine (15%). In most countries, CPD ranged from 15 to 20 sticks except in Mexico (7.8), and India (10.4) where CPD declined by 18 and 22% respectively. MPOWER scores were moderately correlated with HCSs% in both sexes (r = 0.644, p = 0.044) and HCSp% (r = 0.632, p = 0.05) and among women only HCSs% (r = 0.804, p = 0.005) was significantly correlated with MPOWER score. CONCLUSION: With declining smoking prevalence, HCS had also decreased and quit rates improved. Ecologically, a positive linear relationship between changes in smoking and HCS is a possible evidence against 'hardening'. Continued monitoring of the changes in quitting and hardcore smoking behaviours is required to plan cessation services.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Bangladesh , China , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Filipinas , Prevalência , Federação Russa , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Turquia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Uruguai , Vietnã
20.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134442

RESUMO

Historical use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Republic of Moldova could pose a potential risk for the aquatic environment due to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties of these environmental pollutants. However, knowledge on environmental concentrations of legacy OCPs in Moldova is limited. In this study, surface sediment from the two main rivers; Dniester (8 sites, n = 15) and Prut (6 sites, n = 12), and two tributary rivers; Bîc (11 sites, n = 11) and Raut (6 sites, n = 6), were collected during 2017-2018 and analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their transformation products (DDDs and DDEs) using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Sediment concentrations of Æ©6DDX (1.9-140 ng g-1 dry weight (dw)) and Æ©4HCHs (n.d-2.5 ng g-1 dw) were found. In the big rivers, the average Æ©6DDX concentration (18 ng g-1 dw) were 35 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.51 ng g-1 dw). Whereas, in the small rivers the average Æ©6DDX concentration (32 ng g-1 dw) was approximately 41 times higher than Æ©4HCHs (0.77 ng g-1 dw). Compared to previous studies from Eastern Europe, the sediment levels were generally similar as found in Moldova's neighboring countries (Romania and Ukraine). Overall, the contamination profile indicates long-term ageing of OCPs used in the past in the agricultural sector. Less than half of the sites (45%) had levels that pose a potential risk for benthic organisms. Hence, further work is needed to determine the bioaccumulation of OCPs in the aquatic food web in this region and the associated risks to ecosystems and human health.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa Oriental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Moldávia , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Romênia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ucrânia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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