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1.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1888-1896, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656472

RESUMO

Background: Adolescents experience high rates of depression, initiation of sexual activity, and substance use. Objectives: To better understand the demographics of adolescents presenting to an adolescent clinic in Uganda, and to elucidate which factors are associated with depressive symptoms, sexual initiation, and substance use. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on intake forms obtained during interviews with adolescents presenting to the Makerere/Mulago Columbia Adolescent Health Clinic (MMCAH) in Kampala, Uganda. Results: Depressive symptoms in adolescents were correlated with having a chronic illness (p=.026), and reported poor quality of home life (p<.001). Initiation of sexual activity was also correlated with chronic illness (p=.008) and poor quality of home life (p=.006). Substance use was correlated with maternal death (p=.041), chronic illness (p=.038), and substance use among family members (p<.001) and friends (p<.001). Conclusions: Knowing the aforementioned risk factors can help us better understand the needs of adolescents presenting to MMCAH, and allows us to develop targeted interventions aimed at decreasing health risks in Kampala's adolescent population.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1978-1987, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656480

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic pain classification in HIV positive patients is essential for diagnosis and treatment. However, this is rarely done despite association with poor outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 345 consented patients at a specialized HIV care center in Uganda was conducted. Chronic pain was defined as pain of more than two weeks duration. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire, the IASP classification of chronic pain; the StEP; Mini Mental Status Examination, Patient Health Questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the World Health Organization quality of life instrument brief version. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, t-test and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with chronic pain. Results: Description of pain aetiology was difficult. Chronic pain was reported in 21.5% of the participants. Non-neuropathic (92.0%) was more common than neuropathic pain (8.0%). Chronic pain was found to be associated with feeling ill [OR=6.57 (3.48 - 12.39)], and worse scores in the quality of life domain for physical health [OR=0.71 (0.60 - 0.83)]. Conclusion: People living with HIV/AIDS commonly have chronic pain that is associated with poor quality of life. More sensitive tools are needed to accurately describe chronic pain in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/classificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489077

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of brucellosis among smallholder farmers is poorly-documented in Uganda. The disease burden is likely to be high, given the high levels of endemicity, lots of exposures and due to lack of control measures. In order to designate appropriate control measures, the magnitude and risk factors for brucellosis need to be known. We established the burden of and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle, goats, and humans in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in Kigulamo Parish, Iganga District. We enrolled 226 households and administered a structured questionnaire to heads of households to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, human brucellosis-related risk factors, and livestock farming practices. Human, cattle, and goat blood samples were collected and tested serologically using commercial indirect-ELISA kits manufactured by USDA, USA. Results: Of 451 human blood samples, 20 (4.4%) were positive. Among 345 cattle blood samples, 4 (1.2%) were positive and among 351 goat blood samples, one (0.3%) was positive. Persons who reported consuming locally-made dairy products had 4 times higher odds of Brucella seropositivity (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.14-14.03, p = 0.031) than those who did not. None of the risk factors we asked about were significantly associated with seropositivity in cattle and goats. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in smallholder households in Kigulamo was relatively low and associated with consumption of locally made dairy products. No risk factors were significantly associated with seropositivity in livestock, likely due to the small number of seropositive animals. We recommend a One Health approach to control brucellosis simultaneously in animals and humans needed to sustainably reduce the burden of brucellosis in Uganda and beyond.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489090

RESUMO

Introduction: Animal bite injuries are a common public health concern in Uganda. We sought to characterize animal bite injuries among patients presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This was a cross sectional study from 1st September to 30th November 2011. Participants were animal bite injury victims presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) unit at Mulago hospital and were consecutively enrolled into the study. Socio-demographics, severity and patterns of injury, health seeking and dog handling behaviours were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant characteristics and the animal bite injuries. Poisson regression model's incident rate ratios (IRR) was used to explore the relationship of the number of days to accessing treatment at Mulago hospital with; a) received prior first aid, b) animal bite injury sustained during day time, c) unknown dog and d) victim resident in Kampala. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12.0 and statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 25,420 patients that presented to the A&E unit during the study period, 207 (0.8%) had animal bite injuries, mean age 22.7 years (SD 14.3), 64.7% male, and 40.1% were <18 years. Majority 199 (96.1%) were bitten by a lone unrestrained and un-signaled dog that had bitten someone else in 22.2% of cases, and eight victims (0.4%) were attacked in canine gangs of 2-5 dogs. Rabies vaccination was confirmed in only 23 dogs (11.1%) as 109 (52.7%) were unknown to the victims or the communities. One hundred and eighteen victims (57.0%) sustained the dog bites within Kampala district whilst the rest occurred near or far from Kampala district, and the victims especially referred to access anti-rabies vaccine. Of 207, 189 victims (91.3%) presented within 2.6 days (SD ± 4.3). Two hundred victims (96.6%) sustained extremity injuries while the rest had injuries to other body parts. All injuries were minor and managed on out-patient basis with wound dressing, analgesics, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-rabies vaccination. Victims who received prior first aid had a rate of 1.7 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared to those that had no prior first aid. Participants who sustained the animal bite injuries during day time had a rate of 1.6 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) compared to those that sustained injuries at other times. Participants bitten by unknown dog and participants residing in Kampala had IRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 and IRR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 respectively of accessing treatment at Mulago hospital compared to bitten by known dog and not residing in Kampala. Conclusion: Dog bites injuries from unrestrained, un-signaled dogs are the commonest source of animal bite injuries especially among children (<18 years). Vaccination against rabies was only confirmed for a very small number of dogs, as majority were unknown and likely stray dogs. Government and public sensitization is urgently required to limit stray dogs, vaccinate dogs and restrain them to prevent a grave probability of a looming canine rabies epidemic.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 407-419, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: A total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P = 0.19) and by 180 days in 35 (4.5%) and 47 (6.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.15), without evidence of interaction with other randomizations (P>0.20) or evidence of between-group differences in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.9 days longer in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes over 6 months between the children who received immediate transfusion and those who did not. The triggered-transfusion strategy in the control group resulted in lower blood use; however, the length of hospital stay was longer, and this strategy required clinical and hemoglobin monitoring. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 420-431, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P = 0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS: Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION: Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Agricultura , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1176, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates are high in Uganda (6.7%), and rates are especially high among at-risk groups such as youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial correlates, particularly alcohol use, associated with HIV among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: Analyses are based on cross-sectional survey data collected in Spring of 2014. Participants comprised a convenience sample (N = 1134) of urban service-seeking youth living on the streets or in the slums, 12-18 years of age who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center (56.1% female and 43.9% male). Chi-Square Tests were used to determine differences in the proportions of alcohol use patterns between self-reported HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to determine the associated risk factors with self-reported HIV. Institutional Review Board approvals were obtained from the Georgia State University and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. RESULTS: Among the total sample of youth (N = 1103), 10.5% (n = 116) reported being HIV-positive. There were statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative youth on ever living on the streets (χ2 =10.14, df = 1, p = 0.002), past 12-month alcohol use (χ2 =16.38, df = 1, p < .0001), ever having sexual intercourse (χ2 =14.52, df = 1, p = 0.0001), ever engaging in sex work (χ2 =13.19, df = 1, p = 0.0003), inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months (χ2 =5.03, df = 1, p = 0.03), and ever being raped (χ2 =15.29, df = 1, p < 0.0001). A higher percentage of HIV-positive youth were classified as problem drinkers, defined by the CAGE scores (21.6% vs. 13.9%, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, previously being raped (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.83) and alcohol use without problem drinking (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.24, 3.69) was associated with HIV. CONCLUSION: Youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda have a high prevalence of HIV. These youth are in dire need of interventions which address both alcohol use behaviors and sexual risk behaviors to reduce further complications of their existing health conditions, including HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 159, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is associated with reduced saliva flow rate due to infiltration of HIV and proliferation of CD8 lymphocytes in salivary glands. It is unclear whether HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) increase caries risk. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries in HIV infected adults attending the Mulago Immune Suppression Syndrome (ISS) clinic in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV infected persons. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists using the WHO Radke's caries classification criteria and reported using the decayed (D), missing (M), filled (F), teeth (DMFT) index. The prevalence and factors associated with dental caries was examined through linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 748 participants (females = 491, 65.6%) with a mean age of 39 ± 9.4 years were included in the final analysis; of whom 83.7% had caries (DMFT> 0), with a significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence among females 86.6% than males 78.2%. The mean DMFT was 5.9 ± 5.5, with statistically significant differences based on gender (males 4.9 ± 4.8 and females 6.3 ± 5.9, p < 0.05) and duration on ART (< 2 years 4.8 ± 4.4, > 2 years but < 5 years 5.7 ± 5.5, > 5 years 6.6 ± 6.0 p < 0.05). The majority (67.2%) of participants reported brushing their teeth twice or more a day, and sugar intake was not associated with dental caries. CONCLUSION: Caries prevalence is high among HIV infected adults under care. Duration of ART was associated with increased risk and severity of caries. Therefore, we recommend integration of dental care in HIV treatment programs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 612, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for individuals infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conversely, HIV is the most important risk factor in the progression of TB from the latent to the active status. In order to manage this double epidemic situation, an integrated approach that includes HIV management in TB patients was proposed by the World Health Organization and was implemented in Uganda (one of the countries endemic with both diseases). To enable targeted intervention using the integrated approach, areas with high disease prevalence rates for TB and HIV need to be identified first. However, there is no such study in Uganda, addressing the joint spatial patterns of these two diseases. METHODS: This study uses global Moran's index, spatial scan statistics and bivariate global and local Moran's indices to investigate the geographical clustering patterns of both diseases, as individuals and as combined. The data used are TB and HIV case data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 obtained from the District Health Information Software 2 system, housed and maintained by the Ministry of Health, Uganda. RESULTS: Results from this analysis show that while TB and HIV diseases are highly correlated (55-76%), they exhibit relatively different spatial clustering patterns across Uganda. The joint TB/HIV prevalence shows consistent hotspot clusters around districts surrounding Lake Victoria as well as northern Uganda. These two clusters could be linked to the presence of high HIV prevalence among the fishing communities of Lake Victoria and the presence of refugees and internally displaced people camps, respectively. The consistent cold spot observed in eastern Uganda and around Kasese could be explained by low HIV prevalence in communities with circumcision tradition. CONCLUSIONS: This study makes a significant contribution to TB/HIV public health bodies around Uganda by identifying areas with high joint disease burden, in the light of TB/HIV co-infection. It, thus, provides a valuable starting point for an informed and targeted intervention, as a positive step towards a TB and HIV-AIDS free community.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Análise por Conglomerados , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1004, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection affects 80-100 million people in sub-Saharan Africa and accounts for an estimated 650,000 deaths annually. The prevalence of active hepatitis B virus infection among women aged 15-64 in mid-Northern Uganda is about 5%. Lira district is among the high prevalence areas where government embarked on mass HBV screening since 2015 as a gateway for access to prevention, treatment services, and an effective response to the hepatitis B epidemic. The current proportion of pregnant women screened and the factors associated with prenatal HBVscreening in Lira are not known despite the fact that women contribute largely to both vertical and horizontal transmission of HBV. This study aimed at determining the proportion of pregnant women screened for HBV and factors associated with prenatal HBV screening in Lira district. METHODS: This was a community based cross sectional study conducted among 423 pregnant women in the sub counties of Aromo and Agweng in Lira district. Data were collected using open data kit and analysed using STATA version 14. The outcome variable was prenatal HBV screening while predictor variables were community, individual and health facility factors associated with HBV screening. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with prenatal HBV screening. RESULTS: Thirty five women (8.3%) had been screened for HBV during the current pregnancy. Factors associated with prenatal HBV screening in Lira included perceived risk (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.78, 95% CI 1.01-6.14), respondent's age (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI 1.39-5.09), husband/partner's education (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI 1.10-5.12) and past failure to access to HBV screening services at government health facilities (AOR = 6.44, 95% CI 2.10-8.02). CONCLUSION: The level of HBV screening among pregnant women in Lira was low and is mainly associated with perceived risk, age, access to HBV screening services and spousal education level. More effort is needed in creating mass awareness on the need and importance of HBV screening most especially among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 194-200, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301929

RESUMO

Carotid artery disease which includes carotid artery stenosis, plaques, clots and increased intima media thickness, have been reported by many studies to be associated with dementia. Dementia is an end stage of usually asymptomatic cognitive impairment. Risk factors of carotid artery disease include; age, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, shorter years in school, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke and depression. This study set out to determine the prevalence of abnormal carotid ultrasound findings and their association with cognitive function among the adults ≥60 years in Wakiso district, Uganda in 2018. A total of 210 participants were included. Carotid artery stenosis, presence of plaque, stenosis and intima-media thickness were assessed by ultrasound. Cognitive status was assessed using a Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) test. The prevalence of plaque was 21.4%. Variables which included; presence of plaque, age, education, gender, marital status, whether participant stayed alone or with someone else, care for self, occupation status, division of staying and history of smoking. The presence of plaque was associated with an abnormal cognitive function at both univariate and multivariate analysis with respective OR = 3.8 (95% CI = 1.90-7.54, p-value = 0.0001) and OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.38-8.15, p-value = 0.007). The cognitive function distribution was 43.8%, 19%, 34.3% and 2.9% within the normal, mild, moderate, and severe cognitive function status respectively. This study showed that prevalence of carotid artery plaque was high in this elderly population in Wakiso district Uganda. Also, carotid artery plaque was associated with abnormal cognitive function.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/psicologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 236, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary cattle disease caused by a Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. In Uganda, documented information on the epidemiology of the disease is rare and there is no nationwide control plan, yet LSD is endemic. This study set out to investigate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease and determine the risk factors for LSD seropositivity, by carrying out a cross-sectional study in 21 districts of Uganda. RESULTS: A total of 2,263 sera samples were collected from 65 cattle herds and an indirect ELISA was used to screen for lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) antibodies. We used univariable and multivariable mixed effect logistic regression models to identify risk factors for LSD seropositivity. The overall animal and herd-level seroprevalences were 8.7% (95% CI: 7.0-9.3) and 72.3% (95% CI: 70.0-80.3), respectively. Animal-level seroprevalence in Central region (OR = 2.13, p = 0.05, 95% CI: 1.10-4.64) was significantly different from the Northern region (Reference) and Western region (OR = 0.84, p = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.39-1.81). Management type, sex, age, mean annual precipitation > 1000 mm, and drinking from communal water sources were statistically significant risk factors for occurrence of anti-LSDV antibodies in cattle. Breed, region, herd size, contact with buffalo and other wildlife and introduction of new cattle did not have a statistically significant association with being positive for LSDV. CONCLUSION: We report a high herd-level LSDV seroprevalence in Uganda with a moderate animal-level seroprevalence. Cattle with the highest risk of LSD infection in Uganda are those in fenced farms, females > 25 months old, in an area with a mean annual rainfall > 1000 mm, and drinking from a communal water source.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Vírus da Doença Nodular Cutânea , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(3): 219-229, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) with annual population testing and a multidisease, patient-centered strategy could reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and improve community health. METHODS: We randomly assigned 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya to baseline HIV and multidisease testing and national guideline-restricted ART (control group) or to baseline testing plus annual testing, eligibility for universal ART, and patient-centered care (intervention group). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence of HIV infection at 3 years. Secondary end points included viral suppression, death, tuberculosis, hypertension control, and the change in the annual incidence of HIV infection (which was evaluated in the intervention group only). RESULTS: A total of 150,395 persons were included in the analyses. Population-level viral suppression among 15,399 HIV-infected persons was 42% at baseline and was higher in the intervention group than in the control group at 3 years (79% vs. 68%; relative prevalence, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.20). The annual incidence of HIV infection in the intervention group decreased by 32% over 3 years (from 0.43 to 0.31 cases per 100 person-years; relative rate, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.84). However, the 3-year cumulative incidence (704 incident HIV infections) did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control group (0.77% and 0.81%, respectively; relative risk, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17). Among HIV-infected persons, the risk of death by year 3 was 3% in the intervention group and 4% in the control group (0.99 vs. 1.29 deaths per 100 person-years; relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.93). The risk of HIV-associated tuberculosis or death by year 3 among HIV-infected persons was 4% in the intervention group and 5% in the control group (1.19 vs. 1.50 events per 100 person-years; relative risk, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.94). At 3 years, 47% of adults with hypertension in the intervention group and 37% in the control group had hypertension control (relative prevalence, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.39). CONCLUSIONS: Universal HIV treatment did not result in a significantly lower incidence of HIV infection than standard care, probably owing to the availability of comprehensive baseline HIV testing and the rapid expansion of ART eligibility in the control group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; SEARCH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01864603.).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 145, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Welders are at an increased risk of eye disorders as a result of their occupation, leading to enormous vocational and economic consequences. With limited published studies among welders in low resource settings, we sought to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with ocular disorders among small-scale welders in Katwe, Kampala. METHODS: In a field-based cross-sectional study, we recruited 343 small-scale welders. Simple random sampling was done to select the study participants. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, ocular, general history, systemic and ocular examination. The proportion of small-scale welders with ocular disorders (defined as any abnormal finding on eye examination) was determined. The bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, using logistic regression methods at a level of significance of 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36 years (SD ± 12). The overall prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 59.9%. The common ocular disorders included conjunctiva disorders (32%) and presbyopia (27%). There was a statistically significant relationship between females (OR = 4.279, P-value = 0.007), age 35 and above (OR = 4.244, P-value< 0.001), history of foreign body removal (OR = 1.677, P-value = 0.041), and ocular disorders. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of ocular disorders among small-scale welders. Conjunctiva disorders, presbyopia and myopia were the commonest. Being female, age 35 and above and foreign body removal, were significantly associated with ocular disorders among welders. Policies should be put in place to ensure all welders use proper personal -protective equipment (welding helmets), and also receive regular eye checkup and health education.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Soldagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Oftalmoscopia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223353

RESUMO

Introduction: globally tobacco use kills more than seven million people annually, a figure expected to rise to 8 million deaths every year by 2030. Though perceived as safe, shisha smoking is reported to have the same or worse health effects as cigarette smoking yet, this practice has gained popularity especially among youths globally. We assessed shisha smoking and factors associated with shisha smoking to support public health interventions. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 663 systematically selected youths aged between 18-30 years attending bars in two divisions of Kampala city Uganda. Data was analyzed using Stata version 12 and logistic regression model run to establish factors independently associated with shisha smoking. Results: we found that 458 (86.4%) youths had low knowledge of the health effects of shisha and 193 (36.4%) smoked shisha. Majority of the respondents, 184 (97.4%) smoked flavoured and sweetened tobacco, 69 (36.5%) smoked on a weekly basis, 163 (86.2%) smoked in the company of friends, 162 (85.7%) shared shisha pipes. Factors associated with shisha smoking include smoking cigarettes adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.91, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.86-9.05); positive attitude (aOR: 3.89, 95% CI: 2.50-6.05); urban residence (aOR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.99-8.00) and older age [25-30 years] (aOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.37-3.22). Conclusion: the prevalence of shisha smoking is high with three in ten youths smoking shisha yet their knowledge about the health effects associated with shisha smoking was low. Shisha smoking ban should be implemented in all bars in Kampala as stated by the newly enacted tobacco law.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010434, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217961

RESUMO

Background: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) disproportionately affects resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but population-based prevalence estimates in SSA are rare. We aimed to estimate the population prevalence of COPD and chronic respiratory symptoms in rural southwestern Uganda. Methods: Adults at least 18 years of age who participated in a population-wide census in rural southwestern Uganda completed respiratory questionnaires and lung function testing with bronchodilator challenge at health screening events in June 2015. We defined COPD as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio less than the lower limit of normal. We fit multivariable linear and log binomial regression models to estimate correlates of abnormal lung function and respiratory symptoms, respectively. We included inverse probability of sampling weights in models to facilitate population-level estimates. Results: Forty-six percent of census participants (843/1814) completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry, of which 565 (67%) met acceptability standards. COPD and respiratory symptom population prevalence were 2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1%-3%) and 30% (95% CI = 25%-36%), respectively. Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent and lung function was lower among women and ever-smokers (P < 0.05). HIV serostatus was associated with neither respiratory symptoms nor lung function. Conclusions: COPD population prevalence was low despite prevalent respiratory symptoms. This work adds to the growing body of literature depicting lower-than-expected COPD prevalence estimates in SSA and raises questions about whether the high respiratory symptom burden in rural southwestern Uganda represents underlying structural lung disease not identified by screening spirometry.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217963

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, diarrhoea was the third leading cause of mortality among children under the age of five in 2010. To address this issue, the Ministry of Health (MOH) formed a national Diarrhoea and Pneumonia Coordination Committee (DPCC) in 2011. One of the objectives of the DPCC for reducing diarrhoea mortality was to increase the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. This study aimed to describe and evaluate efforts by the DPCC to increase ORS and zinc coverage. Methods: We conducted a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation to describe the activities conducted under the DPCC and evaluate the extent to which the committee's goal of increasing ORS and zinc use was achieved. We conducted secondary analysis using Uganda's Demographic and Health Survey from 2011 and 2016, analyzed cross-sectional private medicine outlet surveys from 2014 and 2016, analyzed ORS and zinc distribution data from the Uganda National Medical Stores, and reviewed program documents from DPCC partners. Results: Nationally, the proportion of children under five with diarrhoea treated with ORS and zinc increased from 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1%, 2%) in 2011 to 30% (95% CI = 27%, 32%) in 2016. Among private medicine outlets, the adjusted odds of having any zinc in-stock was 1.5 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.97) times higher in 2016 than in 2014, and the retail price for a complete treatment (2 ORS sachets and 10 zinc tablets) declined by $0.19 (95% CI = -0.31, -0.06), or 14%. Conclusions: Use of combined ORS and zinc for treatment of diarrhoea in children under five significantly increased in Uganda during the program period. The range of activities conducted by the various members of the DPCC likely contributed to the increase in the use of combined ORS and zinc.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1353-1360, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148961

RESUMO

Background: In 2010, Uganda Malaria Control Programme distributed cost-free mosquito bed nets to households with children under-five years and pregnant women in selected sub-counties. We assessed the factors associated with sleeping under costfree mosquito nets among children under-five years in Nyakayojo sub-county, Mbarara District, Uganda. Methods: 381 households with at least a child under-five years and benefited from cost-free bed nets in Nyakayojo were randomly selected. Caregivers of children were interviewed using a questionnaire. Results: 74% children slept under bed nets a night before the study. Children from households with ≥2 nets [aOR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.09-2.81, p=0.02], female caregiver [aOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.16-3.79, p=0.01] and children from households that did not face problems (skin irritation, torn nets, suffocation, night sweating, nasal congestion and candle fire) when sleeping under bed nets [aOR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.10-2.98, p=0.02] were more likely to use nets. Main reason for not sleeping under a net was damage to the net (47.1%). Conclusion: The proportion of children sleeping under nets was comparable to MDG target. Improvements in use of mosquito nets by children can be achieved through increasing number of nets in a household.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/provisão & distribução , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquiteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/economia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
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