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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746072

RESUMO

The use of face masks is one of the behavioral measures used to prevent COVID-19 infection. Despite the positive contribution of face masks, there is uncertainty surrounding face mask wearing in low-income countries. Using data from 1,054 respondents in Greater Kampala Metropolitan area, we investigate the variation in face mask wearing inside and outside public spaces. Results indicate that more than three quarters of the respondents wore a face mask always outside public spaces and slightly more than half wore a face mask sometimes inside public spaces. Irrespective of location (inside or outside public spaces), respondents were more likely to wear facemasks sometimes or always to prevent COVID-19 infection. There is need to raise awareness about face mask wearing and its efficacy to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 239, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that contraceptive side-effects are a major deterrent to consistent use of contraception but few studies in low- or middle-income countries explore the role of specific side-effects on contraceptive use dynamics. This study used population-based, longitudinal data to explore the effect of specific side-effects on contraceptive continuation, discontinuation, and switching in Uganda. METHODS: Data for this study come from two rounds of survey data collection in Uganda: PMA2020's sixth cross-sectional survey and a follow-up survey conducted 1 year later. The main outcomes of interest were discontinuation and switching among users of hormonal contraceptive methods (implants, injectables and oral pill) and the IUD at baseline (n = 560). Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the association of experiencing specific side-effects (more bleeding, less bleeding, irregular bleeding, increased dryness/reduced libido, and physical discomfort) with discontinuation and switching 1 year later, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, type of method, and length of use. We also examined the differential effects of side-effects between discontinuation and switching risks. RESULTS: About 23% of hormonal and IUD contraceptive users reported experiencing side-effects at baseline survey. Overall, discontinuation and switching were higher among injectables and pill users, compared to IUD and implants users. Reporting more bleeding or less bleeding increased the odds of discontinuation and switching by 2.74 (95% CI 1.00-7.51) and 1.86 (1.04-3.34), respectively. There was no significant difference in discontinuation and switching by side-effects. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention should be paid to understanding the unique contributions of side-effects to contraceptive behavior using population-based data. While about a quarter of women reported experiencing side effects, those who experienced bleeding specific side effects were at higher risk of contraceptive discontinuation and switching. Providing greater individualized care that includes information and counseling about common side-effects, how they may impact daily life, and how tolerable these effects may be is necessary.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1252, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis disproportionately affects children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families in low-resource settings, where care seeking may consume scarce family resources and lead to financial hardships. Those financial hardships may, in turn, contribute to late presentation or failure to seek care and result in high mortality during hospitalization and during the post discharge period, a period of increasingly recognized vulnerability. The purpose of this study is to explore the out-of-pocket costs related to sepsis hospitalizations and post-discharge care among children admitted with sepsis in Uganda. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was comprised of focus group discussions (FGD) with caregivers of children admitted for sepsis, which then informed a quantitative cross-sectional household survey to measure out-of-pocket costs of sepsis care both during initial admission and during the post-discharge period. All participants were families of children enrolled in a concurrent sepsis study. RESULTS: Three FGD with mothers (n = 20) and one FGD with fathers (n = 7) were conducted. Three primary themes that emerged included (1) financial losses, (2) time and productivity losses and (3) coping with costs. A subsequently developed cross-sectional survey was completed for 153 households of children discharged following admission for sepsis. The survey revealed a high cost of care for families attending both private and public facilities, although out-of-pocket cost were higher at private facilities. Half of those surveyed reported loss of income during hospitalization and a third sold household assets, most often livestock, to cover costs. Total mean out-of-pocket costs of hospital care and post-discharge care were 124.50 USD and 44.60 USD respectively for those seeking initial care at private facilities and 62.10 USD and 14.60 USD at public facilities, a high sum in a country with widespread poverty. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that families incur a substantial economic burden in accessing care for children with sepsis.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Sepse , Assistência ao Convalescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Sepse/terapia , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 763, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home delivery has been associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV and remains high among HIV-infected women. Predictors for home delivery in the context of HIV have not been fully studied and understood in Northern Uganda. We therefore aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors for home delivery among women living with HIV in Lira, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2018 and January 2020 in Lira district, Northern Uganda. A total of 505 HIV infected women receiving antenatal care at Lira regional referral hospital were enrolled consecutively and followed up at delivery. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on exposures which included: socio-demographic, reproductive-related and HIV-related characteristics. Data was analysed using Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.). We estimated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain risk factors for the outcome of interest which was home delivery (which is delivering an infant outside a health facility setting under the supervision of a non-health worker). RESULTS: The incidence of home delivery among women living with HIV was 6.9% (95%CI: 4.9-9.5%). Single women were more likely to deliver at home (adjusted risk ratio = 4.27, 95%CI: 1.66-11). Women whose labour started in the night (night time onset of labour ARR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.18-0.86) and those that were adherent to their ART (ARR = 0.33, 95%CI: 0.13-0.86) were less likely to deliver at home. CONCLUSION: Home delivery remains high among women living with HIV especially those that do not have a partner. We recommend intensified counselling on birth planning and preparedness in the context of HIV and PMTCT especially for women who are: separated, divorced, widowed or never married and those that are not adherent to their ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1179, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the top ten threats to global health according to the World Health Organization. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and main reason for antibiotic prescription. The incidence of UTIs appears to be high among people living with HIV. We sought to determine the most common UTI pathogens among HIV infected patients and evaluate their susceptibility towards antibiotics. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting at an HIV care specialized clinic with symptoms suggestive of a urethritis. Urine cultures were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The data was analyzed using STATA, we performed Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare differences between proportions. RESULTS: Out of the 200 patients, 123 (62%) were female. The median age was 41.9 years (IQR 34.7-49.3). Only 32 (16%) urine cultures showed bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen (72%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9%). E. coli was completely resistant to cotrimoxazole and ampicillin; resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone was 44% and 35% respectively; 9% to gentamicin; no resistance detected to nitrofurantoin and imipenem. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are congruent with the Uganda national clinical guidelines which recommends nitrofurantoin as the first line antibiotic for uncomplicated UTI. Significant ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone resistance was detected. In the era of emerging antibiotic resistance, understanding the local susceptibilities among sub-populations such as HIV infected patients is crucial. Further investigation is needed to address reasons for the low bacterial growth rate observed in the urine cultures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções por HIV , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Uganda/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 542, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762182

RESUMO

Proper implementation of biosecurity is currently the only control measure of African swine fever (ASF) in the absence of an effective vaccine or drug against the disease. Despite the efforts that Uganda's local and central governments have invested to reduce livestock diseases, ASF outbreaks still persist in the country. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of community-led initiatives in the control of ASF in Mukono District, central Uganda. In Mukono district, a community-led pilot program was initiated where stakeholders in the pig value chain organized themselves into an ASF control task force to enforce on-farm and pig value chain activities intended to limit the spread of ASF. Semi-structured interviews with pig famers (n = 211) were conducted in two areas with contrasting practices: one with active community-initiated and monitored ASF control initiatives since 2016 (Kasawo and Namuganga) and the other without such initiative as the control (Mpunge and Ntenjeru). A significant decline (Wilcoxon ranked sign test: Z = - 5.412, p = 0.000) in the annual frequency of ASF outbreaks in both Kasawo and Namuganga sub-counties was observed after the implementation of community-led initiatives. The level of practice of most ASF control measures was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in sub-counties that instituted community-led ASF control initiatives than in the control sub-counties. The results of this study demonstrate the power of community-led initiatives in reducing ASF disease outbreaks in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Gado , Suínos , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1061, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many places, health workers at the sub-national level are on the frontlines of disseminating information about coronavirus (COVID-19) to communities. To ensure communities are receiving timely and accurate information, it is vital health workers are kept abreast of the most recent recommendations, and guidance. METHODS: An electronic survey was implemented to provide insights about the dissemination and utilisation of information and evidence related to the COVID-19 pandemic by health workers engaged at sub-national levels of the Ugandan health system. The aim of this survey was to provide insights about the dissemination and utilisation of information and evidence related to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic by individuals engaged at sub-national levels of the health system. RESULTS: Mass media and public health campaigns and outreach activities were deemed the most suitable means to reach communities with COVID-19 information. Given the reported disruption to public outreach campaigns, this is a particularly important consideration for the provision of information to communities. All materials should be adapted to the local context. The need for information on homecare of COVID-19 patients was highlighted, along with the need for updated local statistics as to COVID-19 cases to be relayed for health workers at sub-national levels. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the sources of information used by health workers can facilitate the transfer of relevant and timely information, which in turn increases the use of such information by the Ugandan population. It is vital that these issues are continued to be monitored, and communication modes and content are actively responsive to the time- and place-specific needs of health workers and community members.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disseminação de Informação , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603574

RESUMO

Introduction: in the recent past, cities in sub-Saharan Africa have reported serious cholera outbreaks that last for several months. Uganda is one of the African countries where cities are prone to cholera outbreaks. Studies on cholera in Bangladesh show increased risk of cholera for the immediate household members (contacts) yet the control interventions mainly target cases with little or no focus on contacts. This study aimed to describe the rapid control of cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities, Uganda, using, "Cases and Contacts Centered Strategy (3CS)" that consisted of identification and treatment of cases, promotion of safe water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and selective chemoprophylaxis for the contacts. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-2016 in the Kampala and Mbale cities during cholera outbreaks. Cholera cases were treated and 816 contacts from 188 households were listed and given cholera preventive packages. Data were collected, cleaned, analysed and stored in spreadsheet. Comparison of categories was done using Chi-Square test. Results: a total of 58 and 41 confirmed cholera cases out of 318 and 153 suspected cases were recorded in Kampala and Mbale cities respectively. The outbreaks lasted for 41 days in both cities. Case fatality rates were high; 12.1% (5/41) for Mbale city and 1.7% (1/58) for Kampala city. Fifty-five percent (210/379) of stool samples were tested by culture to confirm V. choleraeO1. No contacts listed and given cholera preventive package developed cholera. Both sexes and all age groups were affected. In Kampala city, the males were more affected than the females in the age groups less than 14 years, p-value of 0.0097. Conclusion: this study showed that by implementing 3CS, it was possible to rapidly control cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities and no cholera cases were reported amongst the listed household contacts. The findings on 3CS and specifically, selective antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for cholera prevention, could be used in similar manner to oral cholera vaccines to complement the core cholera control interventions (disease surveillance, treatment of cases and WaSH). However, studies are needed to guide such rollout and to understand the age-sex differences in Kampala city.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1060, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health concern in Uganda. Prior to 2013, MDR-TB treatment in Uganda was only provided at the national referral hospital and two private-not-for profit clinics. From 2013, it was scaled up to seven regional referral hospitals (RRH). The aim of this study was to measure interim (6 months) treatment outcomes among the first cohort of patients started on MDR-TB treatment at the RRH in Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which a descriptive analysis of data collected retrospectively on a cohort of 69 patients started on MDR-TB treatment at six of the seven RRH between 1st April 2013 and 30th June 2014 and had been on treatment for at least 9 months was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients, 21 (30.4%) were female, 39 (56.5%) HIV-negative, 30 (43.5%) resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin and 57 (82.6%) category 1 or 2 drug susceptible TB treatment failures. Median age at start of treatment was 35 years (Interquartile range (IQR): 27-45), median time-to-treatment initiation was 27.5 (IQR: 6-89) days and of the 30 HIV-positive patients, 27 (90.0%) were on anti-retroviral treatment with a median CD4 count of 206 cells/microliter of blood (IQR: 113-364.5). Within 6 months of treatment, 59 (85.5%) patients culture converted, of which 45 (65.2%) converted by the second month and the other 14 (20.3%) by the sixth month; one (1.5%) did not culture convert; three (4.4%) died; and six (8.8%) were lost-to-follow up. Fifty (76.8%) patients experienced at least one drug adverse event, while 40 (67.8%) gained weight. Mean weight gained was 4.7 (standard deviation: 3.2) kilograms. CONCLUSIONS: Despite MDR-TB treatment initiation delays, most patients had favourable interim treatment outcomes with majority culture converting early and very few getting lost to follow-up. These encouraging interim outcomes indicate the potential for success of a scale-up of MDR-TB treatment to RRH.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 456, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) frequently experience chronic pain. The burden and severity of such pain is often underestimated in relation to their other impairments. Recognition and awareness of this chronic pain among children with CP constitute the cornerstone for caretakers and clinicians to improve the quality of life of those children. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain among children with CP, and the factors associated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of children with CP, aged 2-12 years, attending the CP rehabilitation clinic and Pediatric Neurology Clinic at Mulago Hospital, Uganda from November 2017 to May 2018. A detailed history and clinical examination were performed and the co-morbidities were determined. CP was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS) and documented with the level of impairment in the different domains. Pain was assessed by using the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Consolability, Cry pain scale. RESULTS: A total of 224 children with CP were enrolled. The prevalence of chronic pain was 64.3%. The majority had spastic bilateral CP (77.8%), moderate pain lasting over 6 months, and none of them was on long-term pain management. Epilepsy (60.9%), behavioral problem (63.2%), hearing impairment (66,7%), learning problem (67,6%), dental caries (75%), gastro-esophageal reflux (75%), sleep disorders (79.5%), vision impairment (80%), and malnutrition (90%) were co- morbid conditions of chronic pain in children with CP in this study. The factors independently associated with chronic pain among children with CP were the GMFCS level IV & V, CFCS level IV & V, EDACS level IV & V, female children, and caretaker aged more than 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of children with CP attending rehabilitation in this hospital had chronic pain. None was receiving pain management. Chronic pain was associated with the presence of multiple co-morbidities and more severe disability. Rehabilitation and care programs for children with CP should include assessment of pain in routine care and provide interventions for pain relief in children with CP even at an early age.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Dor Crônica , Cárie Dentária , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Criança , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1093, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender differences among patients with drug resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) and HIV co-infection could affect treatment outcomes. We compared characteristics and treatment outcomes of DRTB/HIV co-infected men and women in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with DRTB from 16 treatment sites in Uganda. Eligible patients were aged ≥ 18 years, had confirmed DRTB, HIV co-infection and a treatment outcome registered between 2013 and 2019. We compared socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and tuberculosis treatment outcomes between men and women. Potential predictors of mortality were determined by cox proportional hazard regression analysis that controlled for gender. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Of 666 DRTB/HIV co-infected patients, 401 (60.2%) were men. The median (IQR) age of men and women was 37.0 (13.0) and 34.0 (13.0) years respectively (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to be on tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), high-dose isoniazid-containing DRTB regimen and to have history of cigarette or alcohol use. They were also more likely to have multi-drug resistant TB, isoniazid and streptomycin resistance and had higher creatinine, aspartate and gamma-glutamyl aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels. Conversely, women were more likely to be unemployed, unmarried, receive treatment from the national referral hospital and to have anemia, a capreomycin-containing DRTB regimen and zidovudine-based ART. Treatment success was observed among 437 (65.6%) and did not differ between the genders. However, mortality was higher among men than women (25.7% vs. 18.5%, p = 0.030) and men had a shorter mean (standard error) survival time (16.8 (0.42) vs. 19.0 (0.46) months), Log Rank test (p = 0.046). Predictors of mortality, after adjusting for gender, were cigarette smoking (aHR = 4.87, 95% CI 1.28-18.58, p = 0.020), an increase in alanine aminotransferase levels (aHR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07, p < 0.001), and history of ART default (aHR = 3.86, 95% CI 1.31-11.37, p = 0.014) while a higher baseline CD4 count was associated with lower mortality (aHR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p = 0.013 for every 10 cells/mm3 increment). CONCLUSION: Mortality was higher among men than women with DRTB/HIV co-infection which could be explained by several sociodemographic and clinical differences.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1023, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tuberculosis disease (TB) is more common among males than females. Recent research proposes that differences in social mixing by sex could alter infection patterns in TB. We examine evidence for two mechanisms by which social-mixing could increase men's contact rates with TB cases. First, men could be positioned in social networks such that they contact more people or social groups. Second, preferential mixing by sex could prime men to have more exposure to TB cases. METHODS: We compared the networks of male and female TB cases and healthy matched controls living in Kampala, Uganda. Specifically, we estimated their positions in social networks (network distance to TB cases, degree, betweenness, and closeness) and assortativity patterns (mixing with adult men, women, and children inside and outside the household). RESULTS: The observed network consisted of 11,840 individuals. There were few differences in estimates of node position by sex. We found distinct mixing patterns by sex and TB disease status including that TB cases have proportionally more adult male contacts and fewer contacts with children. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis used a network approach to study how social mixing patterns are associated with TB disease. Understanding these mechanisms may have implications for designing targeted intervention strategies in high-burden populations.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Social , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054284, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among nurses during COVID-19 in central Uganda. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. SETTING: Nurse from one referral and four general hospitals. These were reception centres and cared for patients with COVID-19 in central Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: 395 nurses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Burnout scores. RESULTS: Of the total 395 participants, 65.1% (n=257) were female; 40% (n=158) had a diploma; 47.1% (n=186) were single; and 39.2% (n=155) had worked for 11-15 years. The results show that 40% (n=158), 41.77% (n=165) and 18.23% (n=77) reported high, average and low levels of burnout, respectively. The results show that the predictors of nurses' burnout were personal protective equipment (PPE) (OR: 7.1, 95% CI 4.08 to 12.31) and increased workload (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.43 to 7.93). CONCLUSION: This study of nurses working in hospitals dealing with patients with COVID-19 in central Uganda reported high rates of burnout, and it was associated with PPE and workload. Interventions like contracting new nurses to reduce workload, the WHO guidelines on PPE, adjusting working hours and ensuring hours of effective rest should be adapted.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707762

RESUMO

Introduction: low- and middle-income countries are currently faced with a double burden of malnutrition. There has, however, been little focus on research and interventions for women with over-nutrition. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with over-nutrition among 20 to 49-year-old women in Uganda. Methods: we used the Uganda demographic and health survey (UDHS) 2016 data of 4,640 women. We analysed data using SPSS (version 25), and we used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with over-nutrition among 20 to 49-year-old women in Uganda. Results: the prevalence of over-nutrition was 28.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8-29.4) with overweight at 19.3% and obesity at 8.9%. Women belonging to the poorer (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.63; 95% CI: 1.17-2.28), middle (AOR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.61-3.13), richer (AOR=3.02; 95% CI: 2.14-4.25) and richest (AOR=6.35; 95% CI: 4.52-8.93) wealth index quintiles were more likely to be over-nourished compared to women in the poorest wealth index quintile. Married women (AOR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.26-1.83) were more likely to be over-nourished compared to non-married women. Older women were more likely to be over-nourished compared to younger women. Women in the Western (AOR=2.12; 95% CI: 1.66-2.71), Eastern (AOR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.04-1.88) and Central (AOR=2.25; 95% CI: 1.69-2.99) regions were more likely to be over-nourished compared to women in the Northern region. Conclusion: the design of multi-faceted over-nutrition reduction programs with an emphasis on older, married, financially stable women, and those living in the Western, Eastern and Central regions of the country is needed.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1160, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost all maternal deaths and related morbidities occur in low-income countries. Childbirth supervised by a skilled provider in a health facility is a key intervention to prevent maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to establish the factors associated with health facility utilization during childbirth in Uganda. METHODS: We used the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data of 10,152 women aged 15 to 49 years. The study focused on their most recent live birth in 5 years preceding the survey. We applied multistage stratified sampling to select study participants and we conducted multivariable logistic regression to establish the factors associated with health facility utilization during childbirth, using SPSS (version 25). RESULTS: The proportion of women who gave birth at a health facility was 76.6% (7780/10,152: (95% confidence interval, CI, 75.8-77.5). The odds of women aged 15-19 years giving birth at health facilities were twice as those of women aged 40 to 49 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.71-3.07). Residing in urban areas and attending antenatal care (ANC) were associated with health facility use. The odds of women in the northern region of Uganda using health facilities were three times of those of women in the central region (AOR = 3.13; 95% CI: 2.15-4.56). Women with tertiary education (AOR = 4.96; 95% CI: 2.71-9.11) and those in the richest wealth quintile (AOR = 4.55; 95% CI: 3.27-6.32) had higher odds of using a health facility during child birth as compared to those with no education and those in the poorest wealth quintile, respectively. Muslims, Baganda, women exposed to mass media and having no problem with distance to health facility had higher odds of utilizing health facilities during childbirth as compared to Catholic, non Baganda, women not exposed to mass media and those having challenges with distance to access healthcare. CONCLUSION: Health facility utilization during childbirth was high and it was associated with decreasing age, increasing level of education and wealth index, urban residence, Northern region of Uganda, ANC attendance, exposure to mass media, tribe, religion and distance to the nearby health facility. We recommend that interventions to promote health facility childbirths in Uganda target the poor, less educated, and older women especially those residing in rural areas with less exposure to mass media.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Promoção da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 77, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prelacteal feeding hinders early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding but is understudied in Uganda. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with prelacteal feeding among postpartum mothers in Kamuli district in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2020 and January 2021 at four large healthcare facilities and randomly sampled mother-baby pairs attending postnatal care and immunization clinics. Prelacteal feeding was defined as giving anything to eat or drink to a newborn other than breast milk within the first 0-3 days of life. Data were collected using a researcher-administered questionnaire and summarized using frequencies and percentages. The Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and Student's t-tests were used for comparison while the factors independently associated with prelacteal feeding were determined using modified Poisson regression analysis, reported as an adjusted prevalence risk ratio (aPRR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 875 participants enrolled, 319 (36.5%) practiced prelacteal feeding. The likelihood of prelacteal feeding was lower among participants who were unemployed (aPRR 0.70; 95% CI 0.5, 0.91), married (aPRR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58, 0.87), had received health education on infant feeding practices (aPRR 0.72; 95% CI 0.60, 0.86), had a spontaneous vaginal delivery (aPRR 0.76; 95% CI 0.61, 0.95), had delivered in a health facility (aPRR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60, 0.89), and who knew that prelacteal feeding could lead to difficulties in breathing (aPRR 0.70; 95% CI 0.57, 0.86). Conversely, prelacteal feeding was more likely among participants who had attended antenatal care at a public health facility during the most recent pregnancy (aPRR 2.41; 95% CI 1.71, 3.39) and those who had travelled more than 5 km to a health facility for postnatal care services (aPRR 1.46; 95% CI 1.23, 1.72). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of prelacteal feeding among postpartum mothers in rural eastern Uganda is slightly higher than the national average. Accordingly, there is a need to continuously educate mothers and staff on infant feeding practices to tackle the factors influencing prelacteal feeding and promote appropriate infant and young child feeding practices as emphasized in the baby-friendly health facility initiative policy.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Parto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-level private health facilities (LLPHFs) handle a considerable magnitude of sick children in low-resource countries. We assessed capacity of LLPHFs to manage malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, and, possible severe bacterial infections (PSBIs) in under-five-year-olds. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 110 LLPHFs and 129 health workers in Mbarara District, Uganda between May and December 2019. Structured questionnaires and observation forms were used to collect data on availability of treatment guidelines, vital medicines, diagnostics, and equipment; health worker qualifications; and knowledge of management of common childhood infections. RESULTS: Amoxicillin was available in 97%, parental ampicillin and gentamicin in 77%, zinc tablets and oral rehydration salts in >90% while artemether-lumefantrine was available in 96% of LLPHF. About 66% of facilities stocked loperamide, a drug contraindicated in the management of diarrhoea in children. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests and microscopes were available in 86% of the facilities, timers/clocks in 57% but only 19% of the facilities had weighing scales and 6% stocked oxygen. Only 4% of the LLPHF had integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) booklets and algorithm charts for management of common childhood illnesses. Of the 129 health workers, 52% were certificate nurses/midwives and (26% diploma nurses/clinical officers; 57% scored averagely for knowledge on management of common childhood illnesses. More than a quarter (38%) of nursing assistants had low knowledge scores. No notable significant differences existed between rural and urban LLPHFs in most parameters assessed. CONCLUSION: Vital first-line medicines for treatment of common childhood illnesses were available in most of the LLPHFs but majority lacked clinical guidelines and very few had oxygen. Majority of health workers had low to average knowledge on management of the common childhood illnesses. There is need for innovative knowledge raising interventions in LLPHFs including refresher trainings, peer support supervision and provision of job aides.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação/normas , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/terapia , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Instalações Privadas/tendências , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29954, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging public health crisis in Uganda. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan recommends that countries should develop and implement National Action Plans for AMR. We describe the establishment of the national AMR program in Uganda and present the early microbial sensitivity results from the program. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe a national surveillance program that was developed to perform the systematic and continuous collection, analysis, and interpretation of AMR data. METHODS: A systematic qualitative description of the process and progress made in the establishment of the national AMR program is provided, detailing the progress made from 2015 to 2020. This is followed by a report of the findings of the isolates that were collected from AMR surveillance sites. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the bacterial isolates were performed using standard methods at both the surveillance sites and the reference laboratory. RESULTS: Remarkable progress has been achieved in the establishment of the national AMR program, which is guided by the WHO Global Laboratory AMR Surveillance System (GLASS) in Uganda. A functional national coordinating center for AMR has been established with a supporting designated reference laboratory. WHONET software for AMR data management has been installed in the surveillance sites and laboratory staff trained on data quality assurance. Uganda has progressively submitted data to the WHO GLASS reporting system. Of the 19,216 isolates from WHO GLASS priority specimens collected from October 2015 to June 2020, 22.95% (n=4411) had community-acquired infections, 9.46% (n=1818) had hospital-acquired infections, and 68.57% (n=12,987) had infections of unknown origin. The highest proportion of the specimens was blood (12,398/19,216, 64.52%), followed by urine (5278/19,216, 27.47%) and stool (1266/19,216, 6.59%), whereas the lowest proportion was urogenital swabs (274/19,216, 1.4%). The mean age was 19.1 (SD 19.8 years), whereas the median age was 13 years (IQR 28). Approximately 49.13% (9440/19,216) of the participants were female and 50.51% (9706/19,216) were male. Participants with community-acquired infections were older (mean age 28, SD 18.6 years; median age 26, IQR 20.5 years) than those with hospital-acquired infections (mean age 17.3, SD 20.9 years; median age 8, IQR 26 years). All gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp) bacteria with AST showed resistance to each of the tested antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Uganda is the first African country to implement a structured national AMR surveillance program in alignment with the WHO GLASS. The reported AST data indicate very high resistance to the recommended and prescribed antibiotics for treatment of infections. More effort is required regarding quality assurance of laboratory testing methodologies to ensure optimal adherence to WHO GLASS-recommended pathogen-antimicrobial combinations. The current AMR data will inform the development of treatment algorithms and clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 20(3): 238-243, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635017

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the current study was to explore correlations between continuous physical activity (PA) levels and HIV-related stigma and differences in HIV-related stigma between those who meet versus those who do not meet the international PA recommendation of 150 min of PA per week at moderate intensity.Methods: 295 people living with HIV (PLHIV) (median [interquartile range] age = 37.0 [16.0]; 67.8% [n = 200] female) from central Uganda completed the Internalised AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS).Results: There was a significant correlation between the PAVS and IA-RSS scores correcting for GAD-7, PHQ-9 and AUDIT scores (r = -0.15, p = 0.009). The IA-RSS score was also significantly different between those meeting versus not meeting PA guidelines.Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that higher internalised HIV-related stigma is associated with lower levels of physical activity. The current evidence demonstrates the need to explore whether HIV stigma-reduction interventions could improve physical activity participation and consequently physical and mental health outcomes in PLHIV.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Alcoolismo , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Estigma Social , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1875, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy in Uganda declined from 31% in 2000-01 to 25% in 2006 but thereafter stalled at 25% from 2006 to 2016. This paper investigates the factors associated with the recent stall in the rate of decline of adolescent pregnancy in Uganda. METHODS: We used logistic regression models for 4 years (2000-01, 2006, 2011 and 2016) of data from the Uganda Demographic Health Survey to explore proximate and distal factors of adolescent pregnancy in Uganda. We carried out Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition models to explore the contributions of different factors in explaining the observed decline in adolescent pregnancy between 2001 and 2006, and the subsequent stall between 2006 and 2016. RESULTS: We found that marriage among women aged 15-19 years, and early sexual debut, were strongly associated with adolescent pregnancy. These declined substantially between 2000 and 01 and 2006, leading to a decline in adolescent pregnancy. Their decline was in turn associated with rising levels of female education and household wealth. After 2006, education levels and household wealth gains stalled, with associated stalls in the decline of marriage among women aged 15-19 years and sexual debut, and a stall in the decline of adolescent pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The stall in the decline of adolescent pregnancies in Uganda was linked to a stall in the reduction of adolescent marriage, which in turn was associated with limited progress in female educational attainment between 2006 and 2016. We emphasize the need for a renewed focus on girl's education and poverty reduction to reduce adolescent pregnancy in Uganda and subsequently improve health outcomes for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pobreza , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
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