Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 231
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 4309-4324, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832952

RESUMO

The use of trees to immobilise potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a low-cost and effective method of soil remediation. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the content of total and bioavailable As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil samples, as well as their levels in the roots and leaves of elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.) in order to evaluate its potential for the phytostabilisation of PTEs in the riparian zone of the Sava River. Analysis of soils showed that the availability of PTEs ranged from low to medium, while the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that the examined soil fell into the category of uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, as well as into the category of low risk of PTEs contamination. However, the levels of Cr, Cu and Ni in soils were above the critical range for plants. The content of As and Cr measured in roots and leaves was in the toxic range for plants, while the content of Cd and Ni was elevated but not in the toxic range. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors indicated that U. glabra is suitable for the phytostabilisation of As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. Additionally, this species displayed the ability to transport most of the acquired Cu and Zn to the leaves. Correlation analysis showed that PTE content in U. glabra roots was significantly positively correlated to their respective levels in soil (total and DTPA-extractable), except for Cu, indicating that PTE levels in soil strongly influence those in plants. This research into a successful phytoremediating species provides new possibilities when selecting PTE-tolerant native trees in riparian zones of large regional rivers such as the Sava.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ulmus , Croácia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Rios , Sérvia , Eslovênia , Solo
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3350-3360, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845267

RESUMO

Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana var. japonica) is a native species in cool-temperate forests in Japan. We investigated growth, physiological reactions, and leaf defense capacity of Japanese elm seedlings under nitrogen (N) loading (45.3 kg N ha-1 year-1) and seasonal insect dynamics in a free-air ozone (O3)-enriched environment (about 54.5 nmol O3 mol-1) over a growing season. Higher leaf N content and lower condensed tannin content in the presence of N loading and lower condensed tannin content in elevated O3 were observed, suggesting that both N loading and elevated O3 decreased the leaf defense capacity and that N loading further enhanced the leaf quality as food resource of insect herbivores. Two major herbivores were observed on the plants, elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta maculicollis) and elm sawfly (Arge captiva). The peak number of observed insects was decreased by N loading. Visible foliar injury caused by N loading might directly induce the reduction of number of the observed elm sawfly individuals. While elevated O3 slightly suppressed the chemical defense capacity, significantly lower number of elm leaf beetle was observed in elevated O3. We conclude that N loading and elevated O3 can alter not only the leaf defense capacity of Japanese elm seedlings but also the dynamics of elm leaf beetle and sawfly herbivores.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Ulmus/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Herbivoria , Insetos , Japão , Nitrogênio , Plântula
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2059-2064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813871

RESUMO

Phytochemical study of the EtOAc fraction (active extract) of the fruits of Ulmus pumila L. resulted in the isolation of thirteen flavane derivatives, and they were identified by their precise spectral data and literature. All the compounds (1-13) were obtained from the fruits of U. pumila L. for the first time. Meanwhile, the compounds (1-13) were assayed for their hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 (10µM) exhibited remarkable hepatoprotective activities, and compounds 9, 10, and 13 showed significant neuroprotective activities with IC50 values of 4.08, 5.34, and 2.02µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ulmaceae/química , Ulmus/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química
4.
Genes Genomics ; 41(12): 1505-1516, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To study the essential molecular mechanism of gall formation is very important. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential gene expression in leaves fed on by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki and to provide a basis for the better understanding of the essential molecular mechanism of gall formation. METHODS: The infected leaves of the elm were divided into three periods: initial formation period (T2), growth and differentiation period (T3), and cracking period (T4). The untouched leaves were used as the control (T1). RNA-Seq was performed, and the high-quality sequences were mapped to the reference genome and the elm gene database to obtain the gene expression profiles. The expression level of each gene was calculated by the RPKM method. A combination of FDR ≤ 0.01 and the absolute value of |log2 ratio (T/CK)| ≥ 2 was used as the threshold to determine the significance of gene expression. Finally, GO and pathway enrichment analyses were used to identify the significantly enriched functional classification and metabolic pathways in DEGs. RESULTS: The results revealed that approximately 244 mRNAs were detected between T1 and T2, including 192 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated mRNAs; approximately 175 mRNAs were detected between T1 and T3, including 145 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated mRNAs; and approximately 372 mRNAs were detected between T1 and T4, including 360 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated mRNAs. Approximately 34 differentially expressed genes were identified by Venn analysis. Comparing the three infection periods to the control, there were 28 up-regulated and six down-regulated mRNAs. Additionally, 562 genes were used for cluster analysis, which revealed that the gene expression in T2 and T3 changed greatly. Genes related to cell proliferation and respiration, such as microtubulin and 6-phosphoric acid fructose kinase were mainly up-regulated during the T2 period. Genes encoding lipoxygenase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and protease inhibitor were up-regulated during T2 and T3. Genes encoding lignocellulose synthase were up-regulated during T4, which suggests the reinforcement of the cell wall to improve the resistance to the damage of the Tetraneura akinire Sasaki. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the feeding of Tetraneura akinire Sasaki caused the differential expression of elm genes and influenced cellular energy metabolism. These changes in physiological response and gene expression of the elm compose the physiological and molecular basis of the gall formation and may improve the resistance of elm to Tetraneura akinire Sasaki.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Tumores de Planta/genética , Ulmus/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ulmus/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470529

RESUMO

Ulmus pumila 'Jinye', the colorful leaf mutant of Ulmus pumila L., is widely used in landscaping. In common with most leaf color mutants, U. pumila 'Jinye' exhibits growth inhibition. In this study, U. pumila L. and U. pumila 'Jinye' were used to elucidate the reasons for growth inhibition at the physiological, cellular microstructural, and transcriptional levels. The results showed that the pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) content of U. pumila L. was higher than that of U. pumila 'Jinye', whereas U. pumila 'Jinye' had a higher proportion of carotenoids, which may be the cause of the yellow leaves. Examination of the cell microstructure and RNA sequencing analysis showed that the leaf color and growth inhibition were mainly due to the following reasons: first, there were differences in the structure of the thylakoid grana layer. U. pumila L. has a normal chloroplast structure and clear thylakoid grana slice layer structure, with ordered and compact thylakoids. However, U. pumila 'Jinye' exhibited the grana lamella stacking failures and fewer thylakoid grana slice layers. As the pigment carrier and the key location for photosynthesis, the close stacking of thylakoid grana could combine more chlorophyll and promote efficient electron transfer promoting the photosynthesis reaction. In addition, U. pumila 'Jinye' had a lower capacity for light energy absorption, transformation, and transportation, carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, auxin synthesis, and protein transport. The genes related to respiration and starch consumption were higher than those of U. pumila L., which indicated less energy accumulation caused the growth inhibition of U. pumila 'Jinye'. Finally, compared with U. pumila 'Jinye', the transcription of genes related to stress resistance all showed an upward trend in U. pumila L. That is to say, U. pumila L. had a greater ability to resist adversity, which could maintain the stability of the intracellular environment and maintain normal progress of physiological metabolism. However, U. pumila 'Jinye' was more susceptible to changes in the external environment, which affected normal physiological metabolism. This study provides evidence for the main cause of growth inhibition in U. pumila 'Jinye', information for future cultivation, and information on the mutation mechanism for the breeding of colored leaf trees.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/genética , Ulmus/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fotossíntese/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tilacoides/genética , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Tilacoides/ultraestrutura , Ulmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulmus/metabolismo
6.
Endocr Regul ; 53(3): 146-153, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and multifactorial disease associated with female factor infertility. Ulmus minor bark (UMB) is one of the medicinal plants used in Persian folklore as a fertility enhancer. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of UMB hydro-alcoholic extract on histological parameters and testosterone condition in an experimental model of PCOS rats. METHODS: Thirty female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control, (2) vehicle, (3) PCOS/50 mg [6 mg/kg dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) + 50 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract], (4) PCOS/150 mg (6 mg/kg DHEA + 150 mg/kg UMB hydro-alcoholic extract), and (5) PCOS (6 mg/kg DHEA). All interventions were performed for 21 days. Afterwards, stereological analysis was done for determination of ovarian volume and follicle number. The serum level of testosterone was measured by ELISA kit. RESULTS: UMB hydro-alcoholic extract improved the total number of the corpus luteum in the treatment groups when compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). PCOS/150 mg and PCOS/50 mg groups showed significantly lower total number of the primordial, primary, and secondary follicles as well as testosterone level compared to the PCOS group (p<0.05). The total number of antral follicles and volume of ovary did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSION: UMB extract may be an effective and good alternative in improving PCOS histo-logical and testosterone disturbances although further studies are warranted to confirm the safety of UMB plant in human.


Assuntos
Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Ulmus/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/química , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Fitoterapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Ratos , Água/química
7.
J Sep Sci ; 42(18): 2888-2899, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282097

RESUMO

Elm fruits were once an important food source in the years of famine. Research on the functional compounds in elm fruits was almost unavailable. In this study, we established an efficient high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous separation of eight chlorogenic acids and 28 flavonoids in elm fruits for the first time. Total flavonoid contents ranged from 286 mg/100 g (Ulmus laciniata) to 1228 mg/100 g (U. pumila). High concentrations of rutin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol derivatives were present in U. laevis, U. castaneifolia, and U. pumila, respectively. Furthermore, the fruit extracts of U. americana, U. castaneifolia, U. davidiana, and U. pumila showed higher antioxidant activity. These results suggest that fruits of these species can be used as bioresources for the extraction of the corresponding functional compounds. This work provides informative data and can be an important reference for future research on elm fruits as a renewed food resource.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Ulmus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 21(8): 39, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289950

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Popular remedies are of ongoing interest to patients experiencing common esophageal symptoms, particularly as typical pharmacologic interventions have been subject to increased scrutiny. Herein we summarize the available data regarding potential risks and benefits of several such remedies. RECENT FINDINGS: With emphasis on reflux and non-cardiac chest pain, research is ongoing into the clinical utility and diverse physiologic mechanisms underlying a variety of complementary and alternative modalities, including dietary manipulation, apple cider vinegar, melatonin, acupuncture, and various herbal products (rikkunshito, STW 5, slippery elm, licorice, and peppermint oil, among others). A substantial gap persists between anecdotal and empirical understandings of the majority of non-pharmacologic remedies for esophageal symptoms. This landscape of popular treatments nevertheless raises several interesting mechanistic hypotheses and compelling opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Ácido Acético , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Dor no Peito/terapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/dietoterapia , Glycyrrhiza , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ulmus
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(8): 1724-1727, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241802

RESUMO

In March 2017, 26 American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) were found dead following a drench application of imidacloprid in California (USA). Identical seed fragments were present in the digestive tracts. Imidacloprid was detected in 4 separate pooled samples from 18 birds, in crop/gizzard contents (4.8 ± 1.3 ppm; range 2.2-8.5 ppm) and liver tissues (3.9 ± 0.6 ppm; range 2.1-4.8 ppm). We suspect that fallen elm (Ulmus sp.) seeds were contaminated with imidacloprid during the drench application and subsequently ingested, resulting in acute toxicity and death. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1724-1727. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/envenenamento , Neonicotinoides/envenenamento , Nitrocompostos/envenenamento , Aves Canoras , Animais , California , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Sementes/química , Ulmus/química
10.
Tree Physiol ; 39(9): 1512-1524, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211377

RESUMO

The Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogens, Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and the more aggressive Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier, have decimated European elm populations in the last 100 years. Today, the number of tolerant elm varieties available on the market is limited, partly due to the long breeding cycles and expensive facilities they require. Developing a low-cost technique to allow early screening of elm tolerance based on simple morphological and/or biochemical traits would considerably boost elm breeding and research. Within this general aim, we developed an in vitro plant culture system to (i) characterize stress responses to O. novo-ulmi-root inoculation in two Ulmus minor Mill. clones of contrasting susceptibility level to DED (termed 'tolerant' and 'susceptible') and (ii) compare the upward dispersal rate of the pathogen in the two clones. Constitutive xylem anatomy was similar in both clones, indicating that differences in plant responses to the pathogen are not attributable to anatomical factors (e.g., conduit size). Susceptible plantlets suffered a significant delay in apical growth and a decrease in chlorophyll content at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). The rate of pathogen dispersal from roots to aerial tissues was similar in both clones. However, the tolerant clone showed a marked increase in lipid peroxidation at 1 dpi, while the susceptible clone showed enhanced values of lipid peroxidation during most of the experimental period (1-21 dpi). Despite wide stem colonization by the pathogen, the tolerant clone effectively regulated the oxidative stress levels and showed remarkable resilience to inoculation. These results extend current knowledge on elm defense mechanisms, and the proposed in vitro plant culture system emerges as a promising early screening method for tolerance to improve elm breeding.


Assuntos
Ophiostoma , Ulmus , Doenças das Plantas , Explosão Respiratória , Xilema
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19365-19378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073835

RESUMO

As two main factors, soil and vegetation play key roles in land rehabilitation and ecological remediation of mining areas. There is a complex interaction between soil and vegetation, and understanding the mechanisms of interaction between soil and vegetation is of great significance for land rehabilitation and ecological remediation in mining areas. This study introduced complex network method to analyze the complex interaction systematically. A survey of vegetation and soil properties in 70 reclaimed plots was carried out in the Anjialing and Antaibao opencast coal-mines in Shanxi, China. The indices of soil and vegetation acted as nodes, and the interaction between these indices as sides to establish a soil-vegetation network. Calculating the network indices to analyze the structure of a complex network and explore the mechanism of interaction between soil and vegetation. SOM (soil organic matter) was at the core of the soil-vegetation interaction network. The average path length of the soil-vegetation network was 1.8, with a faster rate of information transfer. The soil-vegetation network consisted of three clusters (soil physical property cluster, soil chemical property cluster, and vegetation cluster), in which the soil chemical property cluster owned the highest clustering coefficient and the largest number of triangles, and it was most stable and the interaction within the cluster was strongest. The soil-vegetation network was stable and the connectivity of the network had robustness to node failures. The scale of the network became larger and the network became tighter and more stable with the increase of reclamation time. Some measures should be conducted to promote vegetation restoration by improving important soil nodes, e.g., surface soil covering, applying organic fertilizer, and planting nitrogen-fixing plants.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Ulmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fixação de Nitrogênio
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120956

RESUMO

Ulmus macrocarpa Hance as an oriental medicinal plant has shown enormous potential for the treatment of several metabolic disorders in Korea. Hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by the excess accumulation of lipid contents in the bloodstream, may lead to several cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in this study, anti-hyperlipidemic potential of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) was examined in vitro and in vivo using HepG2 cells and experimental rats, respectively. The hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was induced by the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) followed by oral administration of various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) of UME for 6 weeks. As a result, the UME significantly improved the biochemical parameters such as increased the level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as reduced the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the HCD-fed rats. In addition, UME also prevented lipid accumulation through regulating AMPK activity and lipid metabolism proteins (ACC, SREBP1 and HMGCR) in the HCD-fed rats as compared to the controls. Moreover, similar pattern of gene expression levels was confirmed in oleic acid (OA)-treated HepG2 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that UME prevents hyperlipidemia via activating the AMPK pathway and regulates lipid metabolism. Thus, based on the above findings, it is estimated that UME could be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing the hyperlipidemia.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ulmus/química , Animais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Neurotoxicology ; 73: 100-111, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857974

RESUMO

Extract of Ulmus wallichiana is being used as traditional medicine used for the treatment of fractured bones however the effect of its individual flavonols is not known. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of its novel flavonol, (2S, 3S)-(+)-30, 40, 5, 7-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol-6-C-b-d-glucopyranoside named as Ulmoside A (UA), on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treated neurons. LPS treatment to neuronal cells caused significant cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, depletion in glutathione and mitochondrial impairment which were significantly inhibited with UA treatment. LPS treatment also caused significant translocation of cytochrome-c, decreased level of Bcl2, increased level of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in neuronal cells reflecting the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in neuronal death which was attenuated with UA treatment. Since LPS is a well known pro-inflammatory agent it also offered the significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factors-α & interleukin 1-beta) however, UA treatment did not exhibit significant inhibition against LPS induced inflammatory response. LPS also caused the augmented level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which was also not inhibited with co treatment of UA. We have also observed the significant DNA fragmentation and augmented level of cleaved Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 after LPS treatment which was significantly reverted with UA treatment. Findings suggested that UA acts through mitochondria and exhibited its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities in neuronal cells while no significant anti-inflammatory activity and effect on iNOS were observed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ulmus , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ulmus/química
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 233: 115-122, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508623

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (UMH), of the family Ulmaceae, is a deciduous tree, widely distributed throughout Korea. UMH has been used as a traditional oriental medicine in Korea for the treatment of urological disorders, including bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), diuresis, and hematuria. To date, its possible protective effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been analyzed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of UMH on the development of BPH using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP) for four weeks. UMH was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed, and their prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination, TUNEL assay, and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment of BPH-model rats with UMH significantly reduced prostate weight, serum testosterone concentration and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration in prostate tissue. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly attenuated in UMH-treated rats. In addition, UMH administration markedly induced the activation of caspases-3, - 8, and - 9 in prostate tissues of BPH rats, accompanied by upregulation of expression of Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), and Fas ligand (FasL) and a reduction in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). CONCLUSIONS: UMH effectively inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of prostate cells, suggesting it may be useful for the treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Ulmus , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/fisiologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue , Propionato de Testosterona
15.
Mol Ecol ; 27(23): 4901-4915, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329187

RESUMO

Plant responses to insect egg depositions are known to shape subsequent defensive responses to larvae hatching from the eggs. Elm (Ulmus minor) leaves, on which elm leaf beetles laid their eggs, mount a more efficient defence against larvae hatching from the eggs. However, the molecular mechanisms of this egg-mediated, improved defence are insufficiently understood and have so far only been studied in annual plants. We analysed the dynamics of transcriptomic changes in larval feeding-damaged elm leaves with and without prior egg deposition using de novo assembled RNA-seq data. Compared to egg-free leaves, egg deposition-treated leaves showed earlier and/or faster transcriptional regulations, as well as slightly enhanced differential transcriptional regulation after the onset of larval feeding. These early responding transcripts were overrepresented in gene ontology terms associated with post-translational protein modification, signalling and stress (defence) responses. We found evidence of transcriptional memory in initially egg deposition-induced transcripts whose differential expression was reset prior to larval hatching, but was more rapidly induced again by subsequent larval feeding. This potential memory effect of prior egg deposition, as well as the earlier/faster and enhanced feeding-induced differential regulation of transcripts in egg deposition-treated leaves, may contribute to the egg-mediated reinforcing effect on the elm's defence against larvae. Hence, our study shows that a plant's experience of a stress-indicating environmental cue (here: insect eggs) can push the dynamics of the plant's transcriptomic response to subsequent stress (here: larval feeding). Such experience-mediated acceleration of a stress-induced plant response may result in improved stress resistance.


Assuntos
Besouros , Herbivoria , Oviposição , Transcriptoma , Ulmus/genética , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Folhas de Planta , Estresse Fisiológico
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 120(Pt A): 245-254, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138663

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and structural properties of pectic polysaccharide extracted from Ulmus davidiana (UDP) and to determine the physicochemical, structural, and rheological properties of esterified UDP with succinic acid (ES-UDP). The results indicated that UDP had high amounts of galacturonic acids and various neutral sugars, such as galactose, rhamnose, and glucose. UDP was identified as a low methoxyl pectin, consisting of 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA (the main backbone chain), supported by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, and 1D Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In the FT-IR and XRD, no difference was detected between UPD and ES-UDPs. However, 1H and 13C NMR spectra revealed that the new ester bonds were formed between a hydroxyl group of UDP and a carboxyl group of succinic acid during esterification. In the steady shear rheological analysis, the consistency index (K) of ES-UDP was significantly higher than that of UDP and increased significantly with increasing concentration of succinic acid. In the dynamic rheological analysis, the tan δ values of all ES-UDP solutions were significantly lower than those of the UDP solution.


Assuntos
Pectinas/química , Ácido Succínico/química , Ulmus/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Esterificação
17.
J Exp Bot ; 69(21): 5141-5155, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053069

RESUMO

Seed ageing is a major problem in the conservation of germplasm resources. The involvement of possible signalling molecules during seed deterioration needs to be identified. In this study, we confirmed that nitric oxide (NO), a key signalling molecule in plants, plays a positive role in the resistance of elm seeds to deterioration. To explore which metabolic pathways were affected by NO, an untargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted, and 163 metabolites could respond to both NO and the ageing treatment. The primary altered pathways include glutathione, methionine, and carbohydrate metabolism. The genes involved in glutathione and methionine metabolism were up-regulated by NO at the transcriptional level. Using a biotin switch method, proteins with an NO-dependent post-translational modification were screened during seed deterioration, and 82 putative S-nitrosylated proteins were identified. Eleven of these proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and the activities of the three enzymes were regulated by NO. In combination, the results of the metabolomic and S-nitrosoproteomic studies demonstrated that NO could activate glycolysis and inhibit the pentose phosphate pathway. In summary, the combination of these results demonstrated that NO could modulate carbohydrate metabolism at the post-translational level and regulate glutathione and methionine metabolism at the transcriptional level. It provides initial insights into the regulatory mechanisms of NO in seed deterioration.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ulmus/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Sementes/fisiologia
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 29(7): 2286-2294, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039667

RESUMO

To understand the effects of drought stress on C, N and P stoichiometry in different organs of Ulmus pumila, U. pumila seedlings were grown under suitable water level, mild, moderate and serious water stress treatment, i.e., 80%, 65%, 50% and 35% of field water holding capacity. The results showed that drought stress increased C content in leaves, stems, coarse and fine roots, N content in leaves, stems and coarse roots, and P content in fine roots, but decreased P content in leaves, stems and coarse roots. Moreover, C:N in leaves and stems decreased, while C:P and N:P in leaves, stems and coarse roots increased and in fine roots reduced in response to drought stresses. There were significant correlations of C content among different organs, while N content was not correlated with P content in all organs. Soil water content was negatively related to C content in all organs, N content in leaves, P content and C:N in fine roots, C:P and N:P in leaves, stems and coarse roots. There were positive relationships between the soil water content and N content in fine roots, P content in leaves, stems and coarse roots, C:P and N:P in fine roots. These findings indicated that the absorption and upward translocation of N and P of U. pumila seedlings were influe-nced by drought stress. Nitrogen limitation for the growth of U. pumila seedlings was found. With the increases of drought stress, however, P limitation was gradually enhanced.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Secas , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Ulmus , China , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula , Água
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(21): 21138-21148, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770939

RESUMO

In the northwest of Iran, the dust of salty and toxic metals possibly caused due to drying Urmia Lake is threatening the health of surrounding communities. This study aimed to employ leaves of local deciduous trees for biomonitoring of toxic elements and to evaluate air pollution tolerance of the trees for greenbelt application. Sampling from leaves of four dominant tree species including Vitis vinifera, Juglans regia, Ulmus umbraculifera, and Popolus alba was carried out from gardens in two radial distances (5 and 10 km) around the Urmia Lake accounting for 16 sites. The concentration of metals in the leaves were extracted according to method USEPA method 3050B and measured by ICP AES technique. According to the levels of air pollution tolerance index (APTI), Popolus alba showed to be more sensitive to air pollution and can be applied for biomonitoring. The ranks of heavy metals and sodium concentrations in the leaves gained in the order of Na > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. The mean enrichment factor for the elements was calculated from 1 to 3, suggesting minor enrichment for them. As, Pb, and Na with similar spatial distribution were dominantly observed in northwest and center-east of the Urmia Lake. Potential ecological risk (PER) index showed a moderate risk in 6% of sampling zones, where Cd and As were identified as responsible pollutants. Principle component and correlation analysis between the elements depicted human sources such as industrial activity and road traffic for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas As and Na were most likely originated from the aerosols of Urmia Lake. Our findings showed that Popolus alba can be applied as a local biomonitor and Vitis vinifera with moderate tolerance can be used as a good air pollutant sink in greenbelt development around the drying Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Juglans/química , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Populus/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Ulmus/química , Vitis/química
20.
Environ Entomol ; 47(4): 840-847, 2018 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672728

RESUMO

Gall formation is induced by an insect, which changes normal plant development and results in the formation of a new organ, following distinct stages of metabolic and developmental alterations. Research on mechanisms of recognition and responses to biotic stress may help to understand the interactions between galling aphids and their host plants. In this study, Tetraneura ulmi L. (Hemiptera: Eriosomatinae) galls and Ulmus pumila L. (Rosales: Ulmaceae) leaves were used as a model. Concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, electrolyte leakage, as well as the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase (CAT) were determined in galls and two parts of galled leaves (with and without visible damage). Biochemical analyses were performed at three stages of gall development: initial, fully developed, and mature galls. A slight increment in H2O2 content with a strong enhancement of ascorbate peroxidase and CAT activities were observed in galls and galled leaves in the first stage. In subsequent stages of gall development, a progressing increase in H2O2 production and cell membrane damage was associated with declining antioxidant enzyme activities, especially in gall tissues. The stages of gall development are likely to be part of cell death triggered by aphid feeding. It seems that the gall is the result of a biochemical struggle between the host plant and the gall inducer.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Estresse Oxidativo , Ulmus/fisiologia , Animais , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Tumores de Planta/etiologia , Ulmus/enzimologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA