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1.
Theriogenology ; 141: 113-119, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536860

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to develop a system for piglet production by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up (OPU), in vitro production (IVP) of embryos and embryo transfer. First, to establish a culture system for a small number of oocytes or embryos, we evaluated the effect of different incubation volumes and culture densities on fertilizing ability and developmental competence in vitro. Porcine oocytes derived from slaughterhouse ovaries were matured, fertilized and then cultured in vitro in groups as follows: 50 oocytes in 500 µL medium for IVM, 20 oocytes in 100 µL medium for IVF and 20 embryos in 40 µL medium for IVC (Group I); 20 in 100 µL for IVM, 20 in 100 µL for IVF and 20 in 40 µL for IVC (Group II); and 10 in 100 µL for IVM, 10 in 100 µL for IVF and 10 in 40 µL for IVC (Group III). Percentages of sperm penetration, cleavage and blastocyst formation did not differ among the groups. Second, to increase the collection efficiency of porcine oocytes by transvaginal ultrasound-guided OPU, the effects of aspiration pressure on follicular oocyte collection were assessed. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of live sows using 80 or 100 mmHg. The recovered oocytes were divided into four categories according to the surrounding cumulus cells and quality of oocytes. The number of oocytes recovered using 100 mmHg pressure was significantly higher than with 80 mmHg pressure. However, there were no significant differences in the population of oocytes grouped by the morphological criteria, number of blastocysts per session and the total cell number in blastocysts between the two vacuum pressures. Finally, 81 oocytes obtained by OPU from five donor sows were subjected to IVP and 47 transferable embryos (9.4 ±â€¯4.0 [mean ±â€¯SD] morulae/blastocysts per session) were obtained at 5 days after IVF. When they were transferred into five recipient gilts (5-16 embryos per recipient), three of five recipients became pregnant and farrowed a total of 12 live piglets. The present results demonstrate that porcine blastocysts can be produced by OPU-IVP and develop to full term after embryo transfer.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Óvulo/fisiologia , Suínos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doadores de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 884-889, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733859

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to validate and apply 2 different methods to record changes in teat tissue related to machine milking. Teat wall diameter was measured via B-mode ultrasound cross sectioning with a 7.5-MHz linear probe. Teat tissue thickness was measured using a cutimeter (spring-loaded caliper, spring constant 6.5 N/cm, 0.5 N at closed jaws). Both methods were applied at the teat barrel, 2 cm above the teat tip. In experiment 1, 24 teats from freshly slaughtered cows were used to perform ultrasound imaging (12 teats) or cutimeter measurements (12 teats) while the teat cisterns were filled with water to increase the intracisternal pressure from 0 to 30 kPa in steps of 1 kPa. Teat tissue thickness did not change at an intracisternal pressure from 0 to 10 kPa but increased with intracisternal pressure at levels >10 kPa. In contrast, teat wall diameter decreased with intracisternal pressure between 0 and 7 kPa but did not significantly change at a pressure ≥7 kPa up to 30 kPa. Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between intracisternal pressure and teat wall diameter were observed from 0 to 7 kPa (r = -0.38), and between intracisternal pressure and teat tissue thickness from 10 to 30 kPa (r = 0.45). In experiment 2, ultrasound and cutimeter measurements were performed in 12 lactating Holstein cows. Measurements before and during milking, immediately after cluster removal, with normal milking or with a 5-min overmilking, were performed and continued at 5-min intervals for 60 min and at 10-min intervals until 120 min. Additionally, with the 5-min overmilking treatment, measurements were continued at 60-min intervals up to 10 h after milking. Teat wall diameter decreased in response to milk ejection, followed by a continuous increase during the course of milking, with highest values after 5 min overmilking. Teat tissue thickness did not change during milking but was significantly increased after overmilking. Teat wall diameter and teat tissue thickness recovered to premilking levels within 35 min after normal milking and within 60 min after overmilking. Until 10 h after overmilking, the teat wall diameter decreased steadily, whereas teat tissue thickness was unfluctuating. In the physiologically relevant range of intramammary pressure, ultrasound measurements of the teat wall were affected by both intramammary pressure and mechanical forces, whereas cutimeter measurements were not affected by the intramammary pressure.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite , Ejeção Láctea , Pressão , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
3.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 131-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759444

RESUMO

Reptiles can develop various diseases of the urinary tract, including, but not exclusively, urolithiasis, gout, acute and chronic kidney injury, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism. Diagnostic imaging is instrumental in differentiating and diagnosing these ailments. This article describes the current diagnostic imaging approaches used in reptile medicine for evaluation of urinary tract disease. The use of radiographs, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MRI, and endoscopy is discussed and compared for the evaluation of urinary tract disease in reptiles.


Assuntos
Répteis , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Endoscopia/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 195-214, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759447

RESUMO

Radiographs can be used to easily visualize common types of urinary calculi in all parts of the urinary tract. Positive-contrast excretory urography and cystourethrography are sensitive to diseases within the ureters and urethra, most commonly obstruction. Ultrasound is widely available and noninvasive and can be used to evaluate renal architecture, ureteral dilation, urinary bladder wall disease, and urolithiasis. Computed tomography is increasing in availability and provides a large amount of cross-sectional information quickly and noninvasively. Multiple imaging modalities can be used to estimate or quantify glomerular filtration rate.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Animais , Furões , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/veterinária , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais de Estimação , Coelhos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Urografia/veterinária
5.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 59-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759452

RESUMO

Due to the special anatomy and physiology of the avian urinary system, the value of diagnostic imaging techniques differs from the use in mammals. The diagnostic imaging methods regularly used in practice to evaluate the avian kidneys are often limited to traditional radiography and ultrasonography, whereas other imaging modalities (urography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, MRI) are rarely used. Furthermore endoscopy may be performed and taking a renal biopsy may be considered. The article describes common indications for imaging techniques used to diagnose urinary tract disease as well as its anatomic and pathologic demonstration.


Assuntos
Aves , Animais , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Sistema Urinário/diagnóstico por imagem , Urografia/veterinária
6.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 653-659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867937

RESUMO

Asthma is one of the most common non-infectious respiratory diseases in horses. Ultrasound examination is a widely available non-invasive additional diagnostic tool. To date, there are no studies focusing on ultrasonographic findings in horses with asthma. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and severity of ultrasound lesions in lung tissue in horses with asthma. Lung ultrasonography was carried out on six healthy horses (controls) and 12 horses with asthma (six with mild and six with severe asthma). The sonographic changes in three lung sections were assessed using a scoring system. The most common changes present in all the animals were comet- tail artefacts. More advanced lesions were present in horses with severe asthma. Statistically significant differences in the overall average intensity of the ultrasound changes were seen between the controls and the study group and between the horses with mild and severe asthma. The lesions were usually located in the caudal lung regions, but they were also present in other areas as the disease progressed. Ultrasonography is a useful additional diagnostic tool enabling an assessment of the stage of the asthma progression. It is a very sensitive technique that visualizes minor lesions in the lung tissue even in clinically healthy animals. Due to its low specificity, it cannot replace endoscopy and the bronchoalveolar lavage in horses with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Asma/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Masculino
7.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e51, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565894

RESUMO

In ultrasound/computed tomography (CT) fusion images, ultrasound allows visualization of the target in real time. CT provides a navigation for ultrasound scanning and improves the overview in areas of limited visualization with ultrasound. This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound/CT fusion based on an electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers for canine ocular and periocular regions. In 7 Beagle dogs, contrast-enhanced CT images of the head were obtained with placing external fiducial markers over the frontal region and both sides of the forepaws of the dog. Ultrasonography was performed under a magnetic field by installing a position sensor in the linear probe, without changing the dog's position. The positions of the external fiducial markers were adjusted and matched, based on the CT images. The execution time of co-registration and the distance between the regions of interest and the co-registration points, the frontal bone, cornea, retina, and optic nerve, were estimated. Approximately 60% of external fiducial markers were properly recognized in all dogs. After adjustment, all external fiducial markers were precisely matched. The co-registration execution time was less than 1 min. The distances between the regions of interest and co-registration points were less than 3 mm in all dogs. The electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers was a simple and applicable method for fusion imaging of a canine head using real-time ultrasonography and CT. This technique can be useful for interventional procedures of retrobulbar and periorbital lesions.


Assuntos
Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Marcadores Fiduciais/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
8.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 298-312, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571731

RESUMO

Conventional geometric formulas for estimating bladder volume assume that bladders have a perfectly uniform spheroid geometry. Bladders are often irregularly shaped, however, especially when under-filled or distorted by a full colon, which results in inaccurate ultrasonographic linear measurements and volume estimation. This pilot study investigates the feasibility, inter-observer reliability (reproducibility), robustness, and agreement of a novel 3-dimensional bladder volume computation method using bladder circumference tracing compared to a published feline linear bladder dimension formula. Paired sets of longitudinal and transverse B-mode bladder ultrasound images (n = 228) were acquired by 2 observers with different point-of-care ultrasonography skills using 10 healthy purpose-bred cats positioned in dorsal recumbency at various time points. Using strict criteria for Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, inter-observer agreements (n = 223) were found to be substantial (0.95 to 0.99) with statistically significant but clinically non-significant median differences (biases) of 0.96 mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.16 to 2.46, P < 0.001] and 0.23 mL (IQR: 0.88 to 1.97, P = 0.006) when bladder circumference tracings were made on similar sets of ultrasound images respectively. Inter-observer agreements improved from substantial (0.95 to 0.99) to almost perfect (> 0.99) strength-of-agreement as the quality of ultrasound images improved. The bladder circumference tracing method showed moderate (0.90 to 0.95) strength-of-agreement with the recently published feline linear bladder dimension formula, with significant additive median differences (biases) of -6.76 mL (IQR: -9.06 to -3.88, P < 0.001) and -6.44 mL (IQR: -11.41 to -3.81, P < 0.001) recorded by each observer (n = 111, n = 83), respectively. Data obtained from orthogonal ultrasonographic bladder circumference tracings justify further investigation into use of this method for estimating bladder volume in cats.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 1012-1019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities. ANIMALS: 10 client-owned male dogs. PROCEDURES: Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared. RESULTS: Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 343, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) is the recommended imaging technique to evaluate jugular veins. This prospective randomized clinical study was designed to collect a series of B-mode US measurements of manually distended jugular veins in healthy Italian Standardbreds and to find possible correlations between ultrasound measurements and animal morphometric characteristics. Forty-two horses, eight males and 34 females (range 3-22 years; bodyweight 494.4 ± 41.7 kg), were included in the study. The diameters and wall thicknesses of both jugular veins were measured at three different sites of the neck. The differences in ultrasound measurements based on scans, age, gender, side, and site of the neck were evaluated by ANOVA or by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The effects of the morphometric measures on each ultrasound parameter were evaluated by MANOVA (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The ultrasound measurements did not differ significantly between the three different sites or between genders; hence, they were pooled together in the results. On the transverse scan, the mean dorsoventral and lateromedial diameters were 1.58 ± 0.23 and 2.20 ± 0.25 cm, respectively; the mean superficial and deep wall thicknesses (SWT and DWT) were 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.01 cm, respectively. On the longitudinal scan, the mean dorsoventral diameter was 1.59 ± 0.26 cm, and the SWT and DWT were both 0.08 ± 0.01 cm. Neck length, from the caudal edge of the mandible to the thoracic inlet, was related to the dorsoventral diameter in both longitudinal and transverse scan and to the SWT and DWT in transverse scan, whereas height at the withers (measured with tape) and estimated weight were related to the wall thickness. Dividing the subjects into groups by age in years ("young" 3-7, "mature" 8-14, "old" > 14), differences were found for the lateromedial diameter in the transverse scan and the SWT on the longitudinal scan. The main limitation of this study was that only one operator performed the measurements. CONCLUSION: The US measurements of the jugular veins and their relationship with morphometric measures reported in this manuscript might be considered as guidelines both for early diagnosis and monitoring jugular vein abnormalities in healthy Italian Standardbred horses.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Veias Jugulares/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 643-646, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the donation of 1 unit of blood results in a significant decrease in the caudal vena cava diameter (CVCd) and the caudal vena cava diameter to aortic diameter (CVCd:Aod) ratio measured at the iliac location. INTERVENTIONS: Eight healthy client-owned Greyhounds underwent ultrasound of their caudal vena cava and aorta before and after blood donation. The principal investigator obtained M-mode images of the blood vessels from all dogs and a secondary investigator measured the CVCd and aortic diameter in a blinded manner from stored images. The ratio of CVCd:Aod was then calculated. After assessing for normality, paired-sample t-tests were performed to compare mean values before and after donation. MAIN RESULTS: The mean (±SD) CVCd before and after blood donation were 15.84 mm (±5.06 mm) and 15.82 mm (±5.42 mm) and the CVCd:Aod ratios were 0.93 (±0.23) and 1.00 (±0.27), respectively. There was no statistical difference between pre- and postdonation values for CVCd (P = 0.99) or CVCd:Aod (P = 0.34). CONCLUSION: The measurement of CVCd and CVCd:Aod ratio with ultrasound at the iliac location failed to detect mild-to-moderate blood loss produced by the donation of 1 unit of blood in Greyhounds.


Assuntos
Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Doadores de Sangue , Cães , Veia Cava Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Aorta/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiologia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10105-10118, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521343

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of sole horn thickness (SHT) and sole horn hardness (SHD) on ultrasonographic visualization of sole structures in the inner and outer claws of 150 Holstein-Friesian cows, and to evaluate different ultrasound frequencies for this purpose. Ultrasonographic views of the sole structure were considered complete when 3 echogenic lines, representing the ventral surface of the sole horn, the borders of the sole horn and soft-tissue layer, and the ventral surface of the distal phalanx, were seen. The proportion of complete ultrasonographic views of the sole structures, designated as the ultrasonographic visualization proportion (UVP), and the measurement errors of SHT were evaluated by comparing images from computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. The latter images were generated using 3 different probes, frequencies of 6.5 and 5.0 MHz, and 2 different ultrasound machines (#1 and #2) to assess the apex, middle, and heel regions of the claws. The UVP were 60.8 to 77.9% for the 6.5-MHz probe in ultrasound machine #1 (probe A), which were lower than those (>90%) for both the 5.0-MHz probe in ultrasound machine #1 (probe B) and the 5.0-MHz probe in ultrasound machine #2 (probe C). The UVP was significantly lower in claws with an SHD ≥50 units than in claws with an SHD <40 or 40 to <50 units (UVP: 77.1% compared with 93.7 and 91.4%, respectively) when measured with probe B. In claws with an SHT <10 mm, the UVP was significantly lower when SHD was ≥50 units compared with <40 or 40 to >50 units; the values were 69.0% versus 91.3 and 85.9%, respectively, for probe A, and 89.7% versus 100 and 100%, respectively, for probe B. When SHT were measured by either probes A or B in ultrasound machine #1, the proportions of claws in which ultrasonographic values were within a ±1 mm range compared with the values obtained by CT were 84.9 to 91.3% for CT-determined SHT <5 mm, 66.7 to 71.9% for CT-determined SHT 5 to <7 mm, 28.9 to 51.2% for CT-determined SHT 7 to <10 mm, and 6.2 to 19.7% for CT-determined SHT ≥10 mm. The data indicated that increased SHT was associated with a decrease in ultrasonographic measurement accuracy. In claws with an SHT <5 mm, the high proportion of ultrasonographic values that were accurate within a ±1 mm range suggests that this imaging modality would be useful in cows with thin soles.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Casco e Garras/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Dureza , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10140-10151, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521348

RESUMO

Body condition score (BCS) is a common tool for indirectly estimating the mobilization of energy reserves in the fat and muscle of cattle that meets the requirements of animal welfare and precision livestock farming for the effective monitoring of individual animals. However, previous studies on automatic BCS systems have used manual scoring for data collection, and traditional image extraction methods have limited model performance accuracy. In addition, the radio frequency identification device system commonly used in ranching has the disadvantages of misreadings and damage to bovine bodies. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and validate an automatic system for identifying individuals and assessing BCS using a deep learning framework. This work developed a linear regression model of BCS using ultrasound backfat thickness to determine BCS for training sets and tested a system based on convolutional neural networks with 3 channels, including depth, gray, and phase congruency, to analyze the back images of 686 cows. After we performed an analysis of image model performance, online verification was used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the system. The results showed that the selected linear regression model had a high coefficient of determination value (0.976), and the correlation coefficient between manual BCS and ultrasonic BCS was 0.94. Although the overall accuracy of the BCS estimations was high (0.45, 0.77, and 0.98 within 0, 0.25, and 0.5 unit, respectively), the validation for actual BCS ranging from 3.25 to 3.5 was weak (the F1 scores were only 0.6 and 0.57, respectively, within the 0.25-unit range). Overall, individual identification and BCS assessment performed well in the online measurement, with accuracies of 0.937 and 0.409, respectively. A system for individual identification and BCS assessment was developed, and a convolutional neural network using depth, gray, and phase congruency channels to interpret image features exhibited advantages for monitoring thin cows.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Modelos Lineares , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10514-10529, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521363

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to investigate the carryover effects of differing pre- and postweaning planes of nutrition on prepubertal reproductive tract development and postpubertal estrous cycle characteristics in Holstein heifers. Heifer calves (n = 36) were randomly assigned to receive either a low or a high (5 or 10 L of whole milk/d, respectively) preweaning diet from 1 to 7 wk of age and either a low or a high (70 or 85% of concentrate dry total mixed ration, respectively) postweaning diet from 11 to 25 wk of age. Starting at wk 26 of age, heifers were subjected to weekly transrectal ultrasonography until wk 33 or until first ovulation to assess endometrial thickness and ovarian follicular count and size in the prepubertal phase. In a subset of heifers (n = 28), ovarian ultrasonography continued weekly until at least the second ovulation was confirmed; thereafter, ovarian dynamics (through ultrasonography) and blood progesterone (P4) were assessed every 2 d throughout 1 complete estrous cycle in the postpubertal phase. In the prepubertal phase, endometrial thickness (12.0 ± 0.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.3 mm) and largest follicle size (11.8 ± 0.3 vs. 10.9 ± 0.2 mm) were greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet. Furthermore, the number of class 2 (6-9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high preweaning diet than in those fed the low preweaning diet (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1), whereas the number of class 3 (>9 mm) follicles was greater in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1). In the postpubertal phase, overall corpus luteum and P4 dynamics did not differ among pre- or postweaning treatments; however, P4 at 4 d preceding luteolysis was lesser in heifers fed the high postweaning diet than in those fed the low postweaning diet (6.1 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 ng/mL). In addition, compared with heifers fed the low postweaning diet, those fed the high postweaning diet had a greater number of antral follicles (31.4 ± 2.2 vs. 21.4 ± 2.3) and tended to have more class 3 follicles (3.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.7 ± 0.3). Results indicate positive carryover effects of increasing the preweaning plane of nutrition from 5 to 10 L of whole milk/d on prepubertal follicular growth in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, an increased postweaning plane of nutrition (85 vs. 70% of concentrate dry total mixed ration) advanced reproductive development through greater endometrial thickness and follicular growth in the prepubertal phase and increased the population of antral follicles in the postpubertal estrous cycle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Leite/fisiologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Lúteo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estado Nutricional , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
15.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 36: 22-24, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472725

RESUMO

A 4-month-old, intact male, domestic longhair cat was admitted with a 2-month history of abdominal distention. Physical examination revealed a mild inspiratory distress and a large palpable intraabdominal mass, in an otherwise bright and alert cat. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a large hypoechoic cystic structure compatible with hydronephrosis or a renal cyst. On exploratory celiotomy, hydronephrosis of the right kidney was documented and ureteronephrectomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissues revealed severe stenosis in the proximal ureteral lumen without evidence of obstructive material, a normal ureteral epithelium and severe atrophy of the renal cortex and medulla, supporting the diagnosis of congenital unilateral ureteral stenosis. The cat recovered uneventfully and 8 months later was in excellent clinical condition. Congenital ureteral stenosis with secondary hydronephrosis may occur rarely in cats and should be included in the differential diagnosis of progressive abdominal distention in young cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/congênito , Hidronefrose/veterinária , Obstrução Ureteral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos , Hidronefrose/congênito , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Obstrução Ureteral/congênito , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2057-2066, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder mucoceles (GBM) typically are treated by cholecystectomy. Medical management rarely has been reported and medical and surgical management have not been compared. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare survival of dogs treated for GBM by medical management or cholecystectomy or both. ANIMALS: Eighty-nine client-owned dogs diagnosed with GBM that received cholecystectomy or medical treatment or both from 2011 to 2017. METHODS: Potential cases were identified by searching the medical records database. Data collected included signalment, clinicopathologic results, treatments, and ultrasonographic images and reports. Dogs were grouped according to the treatment received (medical management, surgical treatment, or both) that was chosen at the discretion of the attending veterinarian. Survival analysis was performed and prognostic variables identified and compared between treatment groups. RESULTS: Of dogs surviving at least 14 days after diagnosis, median survival times were 1802 (95% confidence interval [CI], 855-not reached) days, 1340 (95% CI, 444-1340) days, and 203 (95% CI, 18-525) days, for the surgical, medical, and medical then surgical treatment groups, respectively, and differed significantly (P < .0001). Gallbladder mucocele type (P = .05), serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P = .0001), and serum creatinine (P = .002) and phosphorus (P = .04) concentrations were associated with decreased survival across groups. Suspicion of biliary rupture on abdominal ultrasound (AUS) examination was correlated with increased survival in the surgical group (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Cholecystectomy for the treatment of GBM results in the best long-term survival in dogs surviving the immediate postoperative period (14 days) compared to medical management. Although medical management is associated with shorter survival compared to surgical treatment, it is a reasonable alternative when surgery cannot be pursued.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/veterinária , Mucocele/veterinária , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/veterinária , Creatinina/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Masculino , Mucocele/cirurgia , Mucocele/terapia , Fósforo/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(10): 931-942, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize physical examination, plasma biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings in aquarium-housed, managed semiwild, and wild southern stingrays (Hypanus americanus) with and without reproductive disease. ANIMALS: Southern stingrays from aquarium (n = 48), lagoon (managed semiwild; 34), and wild (12) habitats. PROCEDURES: Limited, opportunistic prosections were performed of presumed anatomically normal wild southern stingrays and compared with findings for aquarium-housed stingrays with reproductive disease. Ultrasonographic video data from both groups were used to assign a score (1 to 5) indicating increasing severity of ovarian and uterine reproductive disease. Plasma total 17ß-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone concentrations were measured with enzyme immunoassays validated for use in southern stingrays. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic ovarian scores were significantly correlated with uterine scores. No reproductive disease was detected in semiwild or wild stingrays, but 65% (31/48) of aquarium-housed stingrays had developing or advanced reproductive disease (ie, ultrasonographic ovarian or uterine score of 4 or 5). Significant correlations were identified between ovarian and uterine disease status and plasma concentrations of all steroid hormones except testosterone. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that ultrasonography and plasma hormone concentrations may be useful in the identification of reproductive disease and determination of disease severity in southern stingrays.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ovarianas/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Pesqueiros , Doenças Ovarianas/sangue , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Progesterona/sangue , Reprodução , Saúde Reprodutiva , Testosterona/sangue , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/sangue , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1326-1333, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391383

RESUMO

This study describes the clinical presentation of superficial swellings and evaluates the utility of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of such swellings in sheep and goats. Ninety-three sheep and 73 goats were included in this study on the basis of presence of superficial swellings on the head (n=56), neck (n=16), chest wall (n=3), abdominal wall (n=40), umbilicus (n=14), scrotum (n=16), testes (n=1), udder (n=7), limbs (n=2), gluteal region (n=5), tail (n=1), and penile urethra (n=5). Ultrasonographic evaluation of these superficial swellings allowed the diagnosis of abscesses (n=54; 32.52%), cysts (n=12; 7.23%), hernias (n=57; 34.33%), hematomas (n=14; 8.44%), tumors (n=24; 14.45%), and urethral diverticula (n=5; 3.03%). Each lesion type could be precisely discriminated (sensitivity, 88-100%; specificity, 80-100%; and P=0.001). Ultrasonography was found to have a specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of hernias, urethral diverticula, and tumors, and a lower specificity of 80% for hematomas and 93% for abscesses when used for evaluation of superficial swellings in sheep and goats. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a unique, non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool that allows the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and subsequent surgical treatment of different types of superficial swellings in sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso/veterinária , Animais , Bursite/diagnóstico por imagem , Bursite/veterinária , Divertículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Divertículo/veterinária , Feminino , Cabras , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/veterinária , Hérnia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/veterinária , Ovinos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Doenças Uretrais/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 349-366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395319

RESUMO

This article reviews the use of the smartphone in exotic pet medicine. The mobile app is the most instinctive use of the smartphone; however, there are very limited software dedicated to the exotic pet specifically. With an adapter, the smartphone can be attached to a regular endoscope and acts as a small endoscopic unit. Additional devices, such as infrared thermography or ultrasound, can be connected to the smartphone through the micro-USB port. The medical use of the smartphone is still in its infancy in veterinary medicine but can bring several solutions to the exotic pet practitioner and improve point-of-care evaluation.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Cardiologia/instrumentação , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/tendências , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/veterinária , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Microscopia/instrumentação , Microscopia/métodos , Microscopia/tendências , Microscopia/veterinária , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Oftalmologia/instrumentação , Oftalmologia/métodos , Oftalmologia/tendências , Smartphone/tendências , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos , Termografia/tendências , Termografia/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
20.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 397-417, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395322

RESUMO

Diagnostic imaging relies on interpretation of interactions between the body tissue and various energies, such as x-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic or nuclear energies, to differentiate normal from abnormal tissues. Major technological improvements regarding emission and detection of the energetic waves, as well as reconstruction and interpretation of the images, have occurred. These advances made possible visualization of smaller structures, quantitative evaluation of functional processes, and development of unique imaging-guided procedures. This article reviews the technological advances that allowed development of cone beam computed tomography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which all could have applications in exotic pet medicine.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Absorciometria de Fóton/instrumentação , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton/tendências , Absorciometria de Fóton/veterinária , Animais , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/veterinária , Diagnóstico por Imagem/instrumentação , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Humanos , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
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