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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 18-24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787504

RESUMO

Since 1996 till 2018, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 113-fold, making biotech crops one of the fastest adopted crop technology in the past decades. In the European Union, only two countries still cultivate one available transgenic crop event on minor hectarage. Moreover, the number of notifications for confined field trials has dramatically dropped in the last decade. All these are happening while the EU legislation on GM crops has come under severe criticism. The percentage of EU citizens concerned about the presence of GMOs in the environment has decreased from 30% (in 2002) to 19% (in 2011), while the level of concern about the use of GM ingredients in food or drinks has decreased from 63% (in 2005) to 27% (in 2019). The steadily increasing acceptance of the EU citizens of GMOs in the environment and food, as it was recorded by Eurobarometers, should additionally ease the way and support a positive change of the legal framework that regulates the GM crops' testing and commercial cultivation in the EU.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , União Europeia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 75, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented outbreak affecting all aspects of human lives which is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the virus novelty, healthcare systems are challenged by a high rate of patients and the shortage of medical products. To address an increased need for essential medical products, national authorities, worldwide, made various legislative concessions. This has led to essential medical products being produced by automotive, textile and other companies from various industries and approved under the emergency use authorizations or legal concessions of national regulatory bodies. This paper presents a narrative commentary of the available documentation on emergency use authorizations and legal concessions for medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The basis for narrative commentary includes scientific articles published in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase databases, official publications of international organizations: Food and Drug Agency (FDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank and United Nations (UN), and national regulatory agency reports in native languages (English, German, Bosnian, and Croatian) published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2020. This paper focuses on three types of essential medical products: mechanical ventilators, personal protective equipment (PPE) and diagnostic tests. Evidence-informed commentary of available data and potential identified risks of emergency use authorizations and legal concessions is presented. DISCUSSION: It is recognized that now more than ever, raising global awareness and knowledge about the importance of respecting the essential requirements is needed to guarantee the appropriate quality, performance and safety of medical products, especially during outbreak situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations for production, import and approval of medical products should be strictly specified and clearly targeted from case to case and should not be general or universal for all medical products, because all of them are associated with different risk level. CONCLUSION: Presented considerations and experiences should be taken as a guide for all possible future outbreak situations to prevent improvised reactions of national regulatory bodies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Manufatureira/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Falha de Equipamento , União Europeia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas
3.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 75, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented outbreak affecting all aspects of human lives which is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the virus novelty, healthcare systems are challenged by a high rate of patients and the shortage of medical products. To address an increased need for essential medical products, national authorities, worldwide, made various legislative concessions. This has led to essential medical products being produced by automotive, textile and other companies from various industries and approved under the emergency use authorizations or legal concessions of national regulatory bodies. This paper presents a narrative commentary of the available documentation on emergency use authorizations and legal concessions for medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The basis for narrative commentary includes scientific articles published in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase databases, official publications of international organizations: Food and Drug Agency (FDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank and United Nations (UN), and national regulatory agency reports in native languages (English, German, Bosnian, and Croatian) published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2020. This paper focuses on three types of essential medical products: mechanical ventilators, personal protective equipment (PPE) and diagnostic tests. Evidence-informed commentary of available data and potential identified risks of emergency use authorizations and legal concessions is presented. DISCUSSION: It is recognized that now more than ever, raising global awareness and knowledge about the importance of respecting the essential requirements is needed to guarantee the appropriate quality, performance and safety of medical products, especially during outbreak situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations for production, import and approval of medical products should be strictly specified and clearly targeted from case to case and should not be general or universal for all medical products, because all of them are associated with different risk level. CONCLUSION: Presented considerations and experiences should be taken as a guide for all possible future outbreak situations to prevent improvised reactions of national regulatory bodies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Manufatureira/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Falha de Equipamento , União Europeia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas
4.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 167-182, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910670

RESUMO

In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comissão de Ética , União Europeia , Liberdade , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/ética , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Espanha , UNESCO
6.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 189-194, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965273

RESUMO

The aim of the article is a comprehensive analysis of the possibility of realizing the human right to health protection based on the practice of the European Court of Human Rights.; To achieve this goal, general scientific and special methods of cognition were used, chosen taking into account the purpose of the work. The epistemological method was used to study the general prerequisites, means and patterns of development of mechanisms for protecting the human right to health protection, including in the ECHR. The dialectical method - when searching for the right approaches to solving theoretical and legal problems that arise in the legal regulation of the human right to health protection. Using the method of legal analysis, the scope of medical human rights is determined. The statistical method was used to study the dynamics in the processes associated with the realization of the human right to health at the ECHR. The comparative legal method made it possible to compare the norms of the national legislation of Ukraine and other countries with the practice of the ECHR in the field of ensuring the human right to health protection. The structural method is used to study the types of medical human rights that are protected by the ECHR.; The article concludes that the right to health protection ensures the natural existence of an individual, is of great importance in the system of rights, and is an integral, natural achievement of mankind. It is emphasized that it is advisable for states to pay attention to the practice of the ECHR to ensure medical human rights in order to prevent violations of these rights and provide effective mechanisms for their implementation. The article notes that the ECHR does not recognize abortion and euthanasia as violations of the Convention. It is noted that the practice of the ECHR in dealing with cases of violation of the human right to health has become a guideline for health care reform in most countries of the European Union and has made it possible to achieve significant changes in the work of healthcare systems for the better. It has been determined that the main task of the ECHR and international organizations in resolving issues related to the protection of the human right to health care is the observance by the participating states of the Convention in this area.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , União Europeia , Humanos , Ucrânia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881890

RESUMO

After the United Kingdom has left the European Union it remains unclear whether the two parties can successfully negotiate and sign a trade agreement within the transition period. Ongoing negotiations, practical obstacles and resulting uncertainties make it highly unlikely that economic actors would be fully prepared to a "no-trade-deal" situation. Here we provide an economic shock simulation of the immediate aftermath of such a post-Brexit no-trade-deal scenario by computing the time evolution of more than 1.8 million interactions between more than 6,600 economic actors in the global trade network. We find an abrupt decline in the number of goods produced in the UK and the EU. This sudden output reduction is caused by drops in demand as customers on the respective other side of the Channel incorporate the new trade restriction into their decision-making. As a response, producers reduce prices in order to stimulate demand elsewhere. In the short term consumers benefit from lower prices but production value decreases with potentially severe socio-economic consequences in the longer term.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Participação da Comunidade , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores de Tempo , União Europeia , Geografia , Modelos Econômicos , Reino Unido
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22374, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of conspiracy theories have emerged. A popular theory posits that the pandemic is a hoax and suggests that certain hospitals are "empty." Research has shown that accepting conspiracy theories increases the likelihood that an individual may ignore government advice about social distancing and other public health interventions. Due to the possibility of a second wave and future pandemics, it is important to gain an understanding of the drivers of misinformation and strategies to mitigate it. OBJECTIVE: This study set out to evaluate the #FilmYourHospital conspiracy theory on Twitter, attempting to understand the drivers behind it. More specifically, the objectives were to determine which online sources of information were used as evidence to support the theory, the ratio of automated to organic accounts in the network, and what lessons can be learned to mitigate the spread of such a conspiracy theory in the future. METHODS: Twitter data related to the #FilmYourHospital hashtag were retrieved and analyzed using social network analysis across a 7-day period from April 13-20, 2020. The data set consisted of 22,785 tweets and 11,333 Twitter users. The Botometer tool was used to identify accounts with a higher probability of being bots. RESULTS: The most important drivers of the conspiracy theory are ordinary citizens; one of the most influential accounts is a Brexit supporter. We found that YouTube was the information source most linked to by users. The most retweeted post belonged to a verified Twitter user, indicating that the user may have had more influence on the platform. There was a small number of automated accounts (bots) and deleted accounts within the network. CONCLUSIONS: Hashtags using and sharing conspiracy theories can be targeted in an effort to delegitimize content containing misinformation. Social media organizations need to bolster their efforts to label or remove content that contains misinformation. Public health authorities could enlist the assistance of influencers in spreading antinarrative content.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Betacoronavirus , União Europeia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Software , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(Supplement_4): iv22-iv27, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745827

RESUMO

The present study explores the situation of migrant carers in long-term care (LTC) in European Union Member States and the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic from a public health perspective. The aim is to bring LTC migrant carers into health workforce research and highlight a need for trans-sectoral and European heath workforce governance. We apply an exploratory approach based on secondary sources, document analysis and expert information. A framework comprising four major dimensions was developed for data collection and analysis: LTC system, LTC health labour market, LTC labour migration policies and specific LTC migrant carer policies during the COVID-19 crisis March to May 2020. Material from Austria, Italy, Germany, Poland and Romania was included in the study. Results suggest that undersupply of carers coupled with cash benefits and a culture of family responsibility may result in high inflows of migrant carers, who are channelled in low-level positions or the informal care sector. COVID-19 made the fragile labour market arrangements of migrant carers visible, which may create new health risks for both the individual carer and the population. Two important policy recommendations are emerging: to include LTC migrant carers more systematically in public health and health workforce research and to develop European health workforce governance which connects health system needs, health labour markets and the individual migrant carers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Assistência de Longa Duração , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Governo , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública
13.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 167-182, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761283

RESUMO

In this paper present, from a bioethical perspective, a reflection on how to reconcile efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic with the safeguard of human rights. To do this, I develop three points. First, the regulatory framework that justifies the restriction or suspension of rights in the face of serious threats to public health. Second, the declarations of the international bioethics committees on the way in which human rights should be protected during public health crisis. And third, a review of the main rights threatened both by the public health crisis and by the means adopted to combat it. Before going into each of these points, I offer a preliminary note to clarify certain legal concepts and underline the need to overcome disjunctive approaches in considering human rights.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comissão de Ética , União Europeia , Liberdade , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/ética , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Espanha , UNESCO
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(Supplement_4): iv22-iv27, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894300

RESUMO

The present study explores the situation of migrant carers in long-term care (LTC) in European Union Member States and the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic from a public health perspective. The aim is to bring LTC migrant carers into health workforce research and highlight a need for trans-sectoral and European heath workforce governance. We apply an exploratory approach based on secondary sources, document analysis and expert information. A framework comprising four major dimensions was developed for data collection and analysis: LTC system, LTC health labour market, LTC labour migration policies and specific LTC migrant carer policies during the COVID-19 crisis March to May 2020. Material from Austria, Italy, Germany, Poland and Romania was included in the study. Results suggest that undersupply of carers coupled with cash benefits and a culture of family responsibility may result in high inflows of migrant carers, who are channelled in low-level positions or the informal care sector. COVID-19 made the fragile labour market arrangements of migrant carers visible, which may create new health risks for both the individual carer and the population. Two important policy recommendations are emerging: to include LTC migrant carers more systematically in public health and health workforce research and to develop European health workforce governance which connects health system needs, health labour markets and the individual migrant carers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Assistência de Longa Duração , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Governo , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(31)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762795

RESUMO

The number of measles cases declined in European Union/European Economic Area countries and the United Kingdom in 2020. Reported cases to The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control decreased from 710 to 54 between January and May. Epidemic intelligence screening observed a similar trend. Under-diagnoses and under-reporting during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic should be ruled out before concluding reduced measles circulation is because of social distancing and any community control measures taken to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111219, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858266

RESUMO

One of the solutions for the problems regarding increasing water scarcity and pollution of water resources can be wastewater reuse. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a sustainable and cost-effective technology for wastewater treatment. If they are able to produce effluent of a needed quality, they can be a valuable addition for wastewater reuse schemes. This review studied 39 treatment systems based on CWs, and it assessed their characteristics and performance on pollutant removal. Moreover, their potential to reach the new European Union standards for agricultural wastewater reuse was evaluated. The results showed that the combination of CWs with additional technologies (e.g. UV treatment, anaerobic reactors) can further increase their performance and provide better removal efficiencies in comparison with conventional horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CWs. Particularly, hybrid systems showed a better removal of organic matter and bacterial indicators than single-stage CWs. For most of the systems considered, the concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids in treated effluent were below the limits for agricultural reuse. However, that was often not the case with Escherichia coli and therefore it is recommended to add a disinfection unit to the systems in order to achieve the levels required in the case of agricultural reuse.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Agricultura , União Europeia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Áreas Alagadas
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