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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMO

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análise , Política Nutricional , Grão Comestível , União Europeia , Fast Foods/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
2.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109756, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677424

RESUMO

Biogas is mainly discussed in the context of renewable energy, digestate is playing a minor role. However, in the upcoming EU Fertilizer Product Regulation digestate as eligible component material is in line with the circular economy action plan. This article discusses the quality of raw digestate based on analysis data from Austrian biogas plants regarding to the current Austrian as well as the European fertilizer regulatory framework. Therefore, a survey among Austrian biogas plant operators for results of digestate analysis and substrate input and energy output is used. The results show, that the legislative framework applies to a minimum of 1.5 million tonnes of digestate. Austrian digestate is of high quality with regards to the nutrient content, required limit values for heavy metals and is also safe with respect to their hygienic parameters. The following European fertilizer product function categories are available for international trade of digestate: "organic soil improver", "growing medium", and "organic, non-microbial plant biostimulant". Establishing legal criteria determining End-of-Waste and subsequently the product status for digestate is another important step in the European circular economy.


Assuntos
Comércio , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Anaerobiose , Áustria , Biocombustíveis , União Europeia , Internacionalidade
3.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 721-735, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705204

RESUMO

The alteration of natural flows due to water withdrawals and the presence of hydraulic infrastructure poses significant threats to the integrity of riverine ecosystems. The establishment of environmental flows (EF) has been conceived as a water management tool to mitigate the impact of in-stream flows alteration. To date, a large body of literature has focused on methods to define EF, but less attention has been paid to documenting and assessing their actual implementation on the ground. This article provides a framework to describe and assess the process of design, application, and monitoring of EF at a river basin level. The framework is applied to Spain, where significant efforts have been made during the past decade to define and implement EF across the country. The goal of the paper is to identify strengths and opportunities for improving the implementation of EF at country level. The Spanish legislation establishes that EF should contribute to the achievement of the good ecological status of surface water bodies as required by the European Union Water Framework Directive. Several pitfalls in the design, application, and monitoring of this important river management measure constrain the ability of the existing EF to deliver that fundamental outcome.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , União Europeia , Rios , Espanha
6.
BMJ ; 367: l5815, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582424
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020418, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656606

RESUMO

Background: There has been a growing interest in the economic burden of mortality; however, a majority of evidence is concerned with particular diseases. Less is known on the overall cost of all-cause early deaths, principally in international context. Therefore, this study aims to estimate production losses of premature mortality across 28 European Union (EU-28) countries in 2015. Methods: The human capital method was applied to estimate the production losses (indirect costs) of all-cause deaths occurring at working age. The sex- and age-specific data on the number of deaths were taken from Eurostat's database and a set of labour market measures was used to determine time of work during whole lifespan in particular countries. Results: The total production losses of all-cause premature mortality in EU-28 in 2015 were €174.6 billion, adjusted for purchasing power parity. The per capita production losses associated with early deaths were €342.39 for the whole EU-28 population on average; Lithuania experienced the highest per capita burden (€643.68), while the average costs were lowest in Greece (€188.69). These figures translated to an economic burden of 1.179% of gross domestic product in EU-28 and this share ranged from 0.679% in Luxembourg to 3.176% in Latvia. Most of the losses were due to men's deaths and the proportion of losses associated with male mortality ranged from 64.7% in the Netherlands to 81.2% in Poland. Conclusions: Premature mortality is a considerable economic burden for European societies; however, the production losses associated with early deaths vary notably in particular countries.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , União Europeia/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(11): 1027-1032, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608706

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, a significant decrease in the number of clinical trials was observed among EU countries. This decline could be attributed to several factors, including the financial crisis of EU countries, the requirements introduced by the Directive 2001/20/EC and the increased market attractiveness of not EU countries.Areas covered: The EU Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR) 536/2014 was adopted in April 2014 by the European Parliament. The main changes arising from the CTR, including but not limited to the activation of a new EU portal, the potentiation of the already existing EU database and the requirement to provide plain language summaries of clinical trials, are aimed to improve the competitiveness of Europe in clinical research scenario and promote a faster approval of clinical trials. In this review, data related to the CTR 536/2014 and its potential implications in terms of transparency are based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by the PubMed database and the internet.Expert opinion: The full implementation of the CTR 536/2014 requires close cooperation between EU member states and regulatory agencies. Some aspects should be carefully considered such as the interaction with ethics committees, the insurance coverage and the protection of personal data issues.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Global Health ; 15(1): 53, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481126

RESUMO

Health security in the European Union (EU) aims to protect citizens from serious threats to health such as biological agents and infectious disease outbreaks- whether natural, intentional or accidental. Threats may include established infections, emerging diseases or chemical and radiological agents. Co-ordinated international efforts attempt to minimize risks and mitigate the spread of infectious disease across borders.We review the current situation (March 2019) with respect to detection and management of serious human health threats across Irish borders- and what may change for Ireland if/when the United Kingdom (UK) withdraws from the EU (Brexit).Specifically, this paper reviews international legislation covering health threats, and its national transposition; and EU legislation and processes, especially the relevant European Decision No. 1082/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on serious cross border threats to health with repeal of Decision No 2119/98/EC. We enumerate European surveillance systems and agencies which relate to port health security; we consider consortia and academic arrangements within the EU framework and established collaboration with the World Health Organization. We describe current Health Services Executive port health structures in Ireland which address preparedness and management of human health threats at points of entry. We appraise risks which Brexit could bring, reviewing literature on shared concerns about these risks, and we evaluate post-Brexit challenges for the EU, and potential opportunities to remain within current structures in shared health threat preparedness and response.It is imperative that the UK, Ireland and the EU work together to mitigate these risks using some agreed joint coordination mechanisms for a robust, harmonised approach to global public health threats at points of entry.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , União Europeia/organização & administração , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Humanos , Irlanda , Reino Unido
14.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109460, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521038

RESUMO

Globalization as a mechanism to connect people at distance and share knowledge has been flourishing. Simultaneously, environmental degradation has been increasing, as reflected in global warming. Through three dimensions, the economic, the social and political, and two measures, de jure and de facto, this study provides a disaggregated analysis of the effect of globalization on the critical issue of global warming for 25 European Union countries from 1990 to 2016. To emphasize globalization, the countries analysed were evaluated by two measures of globalization, de jure and de facto, resulting in their classification as high or low globalized countries de jure and de facto. Furthermore, energy consumption, economic growth and efficiency were included in an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model performed with the Driscoll-Kraay estimator. Robustness was checked using a Feasible Generalized Least Squares estimator. The results revealed that, overall, globalization increases environmental degradation, with the de jure measure having greater influence on high-globalized countries and the de facto measure having greater influence on low-globalized countries. Bearing in mind the increase in worldwide emissions driven by globalization, practices such as the relocation of polluting industries from high globalized countries should be discouraged. Incentives to harmonize global environmental restrictions could contribute to decarbonization worldwide.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , União Europeia , Aquecimento Global , Internacionalidade
15.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1055-1063, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500468

RESUMO

Introduction: Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin belong to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics and are amongst the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. In 2018 and 2019, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA) requested that manufacturers harmonize FQ safety information related to neuropsychiatric, aortic dissection, and long-term disability. The authors hypothesize that FDA and EMA epidemiologists support a strong association between these drugs and the three toxicities. Areas covered: Studies of FQ-associated neuropsychiatric toxicity, long-term disability, and aortic ruptures/dissections. Clinical sources include FDA Advisory Committee documents, a 2014 Citizen Petition filed with the FDA requesting safety information additions to FQ labels for neuropsychiatric toxicities (partially granted in 2018), an under-review Citizen Petition under review by the FDA requesting a FQ Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, and safety notifications from the EMA. Expert opinion: FDA and the EMA report state that neuropsychiatric toxicity, long-term disability, and aortic dissections//aneurysms occur with all FQs. Disability and neuropsychiatric toxicity can occur after one dose or several months after FQs. United States' and European' regulators warn physicians not to prescribe FQs for uncomplicated acute urinary tract infection, sinusitis, or bronchitis, unless other possible choices are tried first, as risks outweigh benefits in these settings.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Levofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Moxifloxacina/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Dissecante/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Aórtico/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Aórtica/induzido quimicamente , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Avaliação da Deficiência , União Europeia , Humanos , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Moxifloxacina/administração & dosagem , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109352, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493686

RESUMO

One of the most popular policy mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions regulation is cap-and-trade which is a market-based approach that has come to dominate partially because of its flexibility. With flexibility, however, comes the potential for the clustering of greenhouse gas emissions. To understand whether emissions trading leads to localized clustering of emissions changes, we perform a systematic, spatio-economic assessment of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). We analyze the spatial pattern of emissions changes from individual plants across the EU as well as how the pattern changes during the first two phases of the ETS implementation. Our findings indicate that there was clustering of emissions changes at the EU and country level which peaked at the start of the second phase but declined as the EU ETS matured. We also found that iron and steel, coke ovens, and refining have greater clustering and volatility compared to other industries. Based on the air quality implications of these clustered emissions, certain countries and industry types might need additional attention during the ETS design or redesign process. This study makes a novel contribution by systematically evaluating the spatio-temporal and equity implications of emissions distribution in cap-and-trade systems.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Gases de Efeito Estufa , União Europeia , Indústrias , Análise Espaço-Temporal
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397641

RESUMO

This work is focused on separation and determination of amygdalin and its unnatural form neoamygdalin in natural food supplements. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a high-stability silica-based column with C18 functional group has been used for solving this problem. The effect of the mobile phase composition as well as the column temperature on the separation of the amygdalin epimers has been investigated. Isocratic elution using a mobile phase composed of 0.05% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile achieved the required separation within 17 min. Under optimum chromatographic conditions, the developed method was validated and was applied for the determination of amygdalin epimers in natural food supplements containing apricot or peach kernels. A simple extraction method using methanol as an extractant supported by an ultrasonic bath was used with recovery in the range of 94.8% to 104.3%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for R-amygdalin were 0.13 mg/L and 0.40 mg/L, respectively. The developed method proved to be precise with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values less than 2.23%.


Assuntos
Amigdalina/análise , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Dióxido de Silício/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , União Europeia , Conformação Molecular
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) obliges manufacturers and importers of tobacco products and related to notify Member States the commercialization of these products through the EU Common Entry Portal (EU-CEG). The objective of this study is to describe the main data available in EU-CEG in Spain and analyze its implications for smoking control policies. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the data obtained in EU-CEG for Spain. The access is done through .xml or .pdf files, downloaded from the portal or consulted through its interface. It describes the distribution of products, manufacturers, presence of priority ingredients, Slim cigarettes and concentration of nicotine in liquids. RESULTS: In the EU-CEG portal for Spain there are currently 42,736 records. 83.7% corresponds to the devices susceptible to nicotine release (67% of refill liquids, mainly with concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 18 mg). In tobacco products, cigarettes (5%), cigars (5.9%) and water pipe tobacco (2.8%) stand out. Herbal products for smoking account for 0.1%. 5 of the priority ingredients for surveillance are present in more than 75% of cigarettes and rolling tobacco. There are 44 records of Slim cigarettes and 9 novel tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: The EU-CEG portal has become a powerful tool in tobacco control. We highlight challenges that require a joint and comprehensive approach in aspects such as labeling and ingredients, Slim cigarettes and new forms of consumption.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , União Europeia , Humanos , Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 126-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418745

RESUMO

The article examines the issue of public procurement in the healthcare sector through the prism of the Association Agreement with the EU. The emphasis is on the ensuring mutual access to the markets of public procurement of the EU and Ukraine on the basis of planned and consistent approximation of Ukrainian legislation in the field of public procurement to the EU acquis in the field of public procurement. The purpose of this article is to identify the peculiarities of the reform in the field of public procurement in Ukraine, to search for drawbacks in the administrative legislation of Ukraine, which is governing public procurement in the healthcare sector in the context of Ukraine's implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU, and to justify its improvement. The subject of research is the social relations that arise in the implementation of public procurement in the field of health. The methodological basis of the conducted research is the general methods of scientific cognitivism as well as concerning those used in legal science: methods of analysis and synthesis, formal logic, comparative law, statistical methods etc The following main directions of reforming the system of public procurement were established. It has been proved that CPO functioning on the national level of government in the form of a state-owned enterprise under the control of one of the relevant ministries is non-feasibility. The advantages of the ProZorro electronic procurement system and the state of implementation of the provisions of the EU Directives on 2014/23/ EU, 2014/24/ EU, 2014/25/EU, 2014/55/EU into the administrative legislation of Ukraine have been identified. It has been found that in March, 2015 centralized procurement system for medicines and medical products was changed in Ukraine to use the funds of the State Budget of Ukraine for the purchase of medicines and medical products with the involvement of international specialized organizations. On December 21, 2018 the Verkhovna Rada (Supreme Council) of Ukraine put amendments into the Law of Ukraine "On Public Procurement". The attention is paid to the novelties of this Law. It has been found that the legislation of Ukraine has such shortcomings: 1) in Ukraine the issue of clear distribution of functions of the authorities authorized to carry out control in the field of public procurements remains unresolved; 2) the norms of the Law contradict each other; 3) the problems of creating effective mechanisms for the formation of the nomenclature of medicines still remain, as well as their supplies to healthcare institutions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Ucrânia
20.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 130-136, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418746

RESUMO

The objective of the article is a comparative and legal study of the models for the organization of public procurements in the healthcare field in the EU and Ukraine. Theoretical and empirical methods of cognition were used to achieve this goal, namely, methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, as well as comparative and legal method in analyzing the experience of the EU countries in organizing public procurements. The conducted study suggests that the public procurement mechanism in the healthcare sector exists in most states. However, the legal regulation in this area differs significantly in different states. It has been established that a significant part of the states use centralized procurements. The shortcomings of the legal regulation of public procurements in Ukraine have been revealed and the ways to solve them have been offered. The authors have indicated the necessity of using international experience in organizing public procurements in the healthcare sector, in particular, with respect to: centralized procurements with the introduction of procurement groups or consortia (Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy); activities of specially created centralized organizations (Austria, Belgium, Spain, Hungary, Portugal) decentralized procurements (Sweden). In order to improve the legal regulation of public procurements in the healthcare field, the authors have proved the necessity of making amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Public Procurements".


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Humanos , Ucrânia
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