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1.
Codas ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. METHODS: participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). RESULTS: the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. CONCLUSION: 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 425-432, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048784

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to measures of social isolation, labor restrictions, a strong information campaign and the suspension of scheduled medical activities. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of these measures on the number of hospitalizations in Cardiovascular Intensive Care Units, with the hypothesis that the social behavior generated by this emergency promotes a decreased demand for medical care, even when severe cardiovascular disease is involved. We compared the number of admissions in March-April 2010-2019 versus March-April 2020, based on a prospective study including six institutions (three public and three private) that use Epi-Cardio® as a multicenter registry of cardiovascular care unit discharge. Altogether, we included 6839 patients discharged during the 11-year study period (2010-2020). The average number of patient admissions on March-April 2010-19 was 595 (CI 95%: 507-683) and decreased to 348 in 2020 (fall of 46.8%, p < 0.001). The reasons for hospitalization were classified into 11 groups and a statistically significant reduction was seen in 10 of these groups: cardiovascular surgery 72.3%, electrophysiological interventions 67.8%, non-ST acute coronary syndromes 52.6%, angioplasties 47.6%, arrhythmias 48.7%, heart failure 46%, atrial fibrillation 35.7%, ST elevation myocardial infarction 34.7%, non cardiac chest pain 31.8%, others 51.6%. Although with low prevalence, hypertensive crisis increased in 89%. The abrupt decrease observed in the number of admissions due to critical pathologies may be considered an "adverse effect" related to the measures adopted, with potentially severe consequences. This trend could be reversed by improving public communication and policy adjustment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
BMJ ; 371: m3513, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with in-hospital cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Intensive care units at 68 geographically diverse hospitals across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill adults (age ≥18 years) with laboratory confirmed covid-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital cardiac arrest within 14 days of admission to an intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 5019 critically ill patients with covid-19, 14.0% (701/5019) had in-hospital cardiac arrest, 57.1% (400/701) of whom received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients who had in-hospital cardiac arrest were older (mean age 63 (standard deviation 14) v 60 (15) years), had more comorbidities, and were more likely to be admitted to a hospital with a smaller number of intensive care unit beds compared with those who did not have in-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation were younger than those who did not (mean age 61 (standard deviation 14) v 67 (14) years). The most common rhythms at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were pulseless electrical activity (49.8%, 199/400) and asystole (23.8%, 95/400). 48 of the 400 patients (12.0%) who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation survived to hospital discharge, and only 7.0% (28/400) survived to hospital discharge with normal or mildly impaired neurological status. Survival to hospital discharge differed by age, with 21.2% (11/52) of patients younger than 45 years surviving compared with 2.9% (1/34) of those aged 80 or older. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is common in critically ill patients with covid-19 and is associated with poor survival, particularly among older patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/virologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 39(3): 130-138, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077982

RESUMO

. How hospitals, Intensive Care Units and nursing care of critically ill patients have changed during the COVID-19 outbreak? Results from an exploratory research in some European countries. INTRODUCTION: During the Covid-19 outbreak, the health care institutions and the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) have been reorganized with significant consequences at both organizational and clinical levels. AIMS: To investigate (1) the organizational changes of hospitals and ICUs in dealing with the Covid-19 outbreak; (2) the characteristics of the nursing care; (3) the most important challenges perceived by nurses in caring for Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey, available from May 11th and July 10th, 2020. Participants were nurses caring for Covid-19 patients in European ICUs. RESULTS: A total of 62 nurses responded to the survey; average age 37.5 years, 31 (60.8%) were female, mostly from Italy, France and United Kingdom. All hospitals underwent many changes, such as the opening of new dedicated wards and the restriction of family visits. The number of ICU beds doubled during the pandemic (p<0.01), as well as the number of nurses per shift from 10.2 (SD 7.3) before to 17.9 (SD 13.6) during the pandemic (p<0.01). However, changes in the nurse-to-patient ratio were not significant: from 1:1.5 to 1:2 (p=0.05). Among nursing care activities, clinical risk management (n=14, 22.6%), psychological support for patients (n=22, 35.5%) and family's involvement (n=31, 50%) resulted as more challenging; 64.5% of nurses suffered from protective equipment shortages, and 66.1% experienced psychological burden. CONCLUSION: These findings can help to reflect on how to better prepare both nurses and health care institutions for other events that may threaten clinical practice and require major and innovative efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Gestão de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(18): 9698-9704, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient characteristics and factors that increase the risk of being admitted to intensive care and that influence survival in cases of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred and ninety-one SARS-CoV-2 patients were admitted to the "Fondazione Poliambulanza di Brescia" Hospital (Brescia, Lombardy, Italy) in the period 1st March 2020 to 11th April 2020. Data on demographics, clinical presentation at admission, co-morbidities, pharmacological treatment, admission to intensive care and death was recorded. Logistic regression and survival analysis were carried out to investigate the risk of being admitted to intensive care and the risk of death. RESULTS: The mean age of the study cohort was 64.6±9.9 years (range 20-88). Median BMI was 28.5±5 kg/m2. Fever (81%) and dyspnea (65%) were the most common symptoms on admission. Most of patients (63%) had at least one co-existing disease. The 157 (82%) patients admitted to intensive care were more likely to be of intermediate age (60-69 years; OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.32-8.38), overweight (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.02-7.07) or obese (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.73-21.09) and with lymphocytopenia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.17-6.89) than the 34 patients admitted to the ordinary ward. During intensive care, 50% of patients died and their death was associated with older age (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.07-3.97), obesity (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.15-4.35) and male gender (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.02-3.57). CONCLUSIONS: We found that admission to intensive care and poor survival were associated with advanced age and higher body mass index, albeit with differences in statistical significance. Pre-existing diseases and symptoms on admission were not associated with different clinical outcomes. Interestingly, male gender was more prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 patients and was related negatively to survival, but it was not associated with more frequent admission to intensive care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(8): 425-437, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192474

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: No se ha reportado plenamente la evolución clínica de los pacientes críticos de COVID-19 durante su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), incluyendo las complicaciones médicas e infecciosas y terapias de soporte, así como su asociación con la mortalidad en ICU. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes ingresados en UCI por COVID-19, y determinar los factores de riesgo de la mortalidad en UCI de dichos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, multi-céntrico y de cohorte, que incluyó a los pacientes críticos de COVID-19 ingresados en 30 UCIs de España y Andorra. Se incluyó a los pacientes consecutivos de 12 de Marzo a 26 de Mayo de 2020 si habían fallecido o habían recibido el alta de la UCI durante el periodo de estudio. Se reportaron los datos demográficos, síntomas, signos vitales, marcadores de laboratorio, terapias de soporte, terapias farmacológicas, y complicaciones médicas e infecciosas, realizándose una comparación entre los pacientes fallecidos y los pacientes dados de alta. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a un total de 663 pacientes. La mortalidad general en UCI fue del 31% (203 pacientes). Al ingreso en UCI los no supervivientes eran más hipoxémicos [SpO2 sin mascarilla de no reinhalación, de 90 (RIC 83-93) vs 91 (RIC 87-94); p < 0,001] y con mayor puntuación en la escala SOFA - Evaluación de daño orgánico secuencial - [SOFA, 7 (RIC 5-9) vs 4 (RIC 3-7); p < 0,001]. Las complicaciones fueron más frecuentes en los no supervivientes: síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) (95% vs 89%; p = 0,009), insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) (58% vs 24%; p < 10−16), shock (42% vs 14%; p < 10−13), y arritmias (24% vs 11%; p < 10−4). Las súper-infecciones respiratorias, infecciones del torrente sanguíneo y los shock sépticos fueron más frecuentes en los no supervivientes (33% vs 25%; p = 0,03, 33% vs 23%; p = 0,01 y 15% vs 3%, p = 10−7), respectivamente. El modelo de regresión multivariable reflejó que la edad estaba asociada a la mortalidad, y que cada año incrementaba el riesgo de muerte en un 1% (95%IC: 1-10, p = 0,014). Cada incremento de 5 puntos en la escala APACHE II predijo de manera independiente la mortalidad [OR: 1,508 (1,081, 2,104), p = 0,015]. Los pacientes con IRA [OR: 2,468 (1,628, 3,741), p < 10−4)], paro cardiaco [OR: 11,099 (3,389, 36,353), p = 0,0001], y shock séptico [OR: 3,224 (1,486, 6,994), p = 0,002] tuvieron un riesgo de muerte incrementado. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes mayores de COVID-19 con puntuaciones APACHE II más altas al ingreso, que desarrollaron IRA en grados II o III y/o shock séptico durante la estancia en UCI tuvieron un riesgo de muerte incrementado. La mortalidad en UCI fue del 31%


BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 critically ill patients, during their admission in the intensive care unit (UCI), including medical and infectious complications and support therapies, as well as their association with in-ICU mortality has not been fully reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and clinical course of ICU COVID-19 patients, and to determine risk factors for ICU mortality of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre, cohort study that enrolled critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted into 30 ICUs from Spain and Andorra. Consecutive patients from March 12th to May 26th, 2020 were enrolled if they had died or were discharged from ICU during the study period. Demographics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory markers, supportive therapies, pharmacological treatments, medical and infectious complications were reported and compared between deceased and discharged patients. RESULTS: A total of 663 patients were included. Overall ICU mortality was 31% (203 patients). At ICU admission non-survivors were more hypoxemic [SpO2 with non-rebreather mask, 90 (IQR 83-93) vs 91 (IQR 87-94); p < 0.001] and with higher sequential organ failure assessment score [SOFA, 7 (IQR 5-9) vs 4 (IQR 3-7); p < 0.001]. Complications were more frequent in non-survivors: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95% vs 89%; p = 0.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs 24%; p < 10−16), shock (42% vs 14%; p < 10−13), and arrhythmias (24% vs 11%; p < 10−4). Respiratory super-infection, bloodstream infection and septic shock were higher in non-survivors (33% vs 25%; p = 0.03, 33% vs 23%; p = 0.01 and 15% vs 3%, p = 10−7), respectively. The multivariable regression model showed that age was associated with mortality, with every year increasing risk-of-death by 1% (95%CI: 1-10, p = 0.014). Each 5-point increase in APACHE II independently predicted mortality [OR: 1.508 (1.081, 2.104), p = 0.015]. Patients with AKI [OR: 2.468 (1.628, 3.741), p < 10−4)], cardiac arrest [OR: 11.099 (3.389, 36.353), p = 0.0001], and septic shock [OR: 3.224 (1.486, 6.994), p = 0.002] had an increased risk-of-death. CONCLUSIONS: Older COVID-19 patients with higher APACHE II scores on admission, those who developed AKI grades II or III and/or septic shock during ICU stay had an increased risk-of-death. ICU mortality was 31%


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 155(5): 202-204, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188495

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La pandemia por Covid-19 afecta especialmente a pacientes con cáncer con mayor incidencia y mortalidad según series publicadas de focos originales de pandemia. El estudio pretende conocer la mortalidad en nuestro centro por covid-19 en pacientes con cáncer durante las primeras3 semanas de epidemia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se han revisado los pacientes con cáncer fallecidos por covid-19 durante el periodo de análisis describiendo las características oncológicas, de la infección por covid-19 y de los tratamientos instaurados. RESULTADOS: Casos confirmados covid-19: 1069 con 132 fallecimientos (12,3%). Con cáncer 36 pacientes (3.4%), 15 fallecidos (41,6%). De los fallecidos solo6 pacientes (40%) se encontraban en tratamiento activo. El tumor más frecuente asociado fue pulmón (8/15 pacientes, 53,3%), 11 con enfermedad metastásica (11/15, 73,3%). El 40% (6/15) no recibió tratamiento específico contra covid-19, el resto fue tratado con los protocolos activos. CONCLUSIÓN: La mortalidad por covid-19 en pacientes con cáncer casi cuadriplica la de la población general. Hasta disponer de tratamientos eficaces o una vacuna efectiva la única posibilidad de proteger a nuestros pacientes es impedir el contagio con las medidas adecuadas


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Covid-19 pandemic especially affects cancer patients with higher incidence and mortality according to published series of original pandemic foci. The study aims to determine the mortality in our center due to covid-19 in cancer patients during the first 3 weeks of the epidemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cancer patients who died of covid-19 during the analysis period have been reviewed describing the oncological and the covid-19 infection characteristics and the treatments established. RESULTS: Confirmed cases covid-19: 1069 with 132 deaths (12.3%). With cancer 36 patients (3.4%), 15 deceased (41.6%). Of the deceased, only 6 patients (40%) were in active treatment. The most frequent associated tumor was lung (8/15 patients, 53.3%), 11 with metastatic disease (11/15, 73.3%). No specific treatment wasestablished in 40 % (6/15) of the patients. The rest of them received treatments with the active protocols. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 mortality in cancer patients is almost four times higher than that of the general population. Until we have effective treatments or an effective vaccine, the only possibility to protect our patients is to prevent the infection with the appropriate measures


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Febre/complicações , Tosse/complicações , Dispneia/complicações , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(6): 351-362, ago.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186898

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión de Salud de la provincia China de Hubei, dio a conocer por primera vez un grupo de casos inexplicables de neumonía, que posteriormente la OMS definió como el nuevo coronavirus de 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). El SARS-CoV-2 ha presentado una transmisión rápida de persona a persona y actualmente es una pandemia mundial. En la mayor serie de casos descrita hasta la fecha de pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoViD), el 26% requirió atención en una unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Esta pandemia está provocando una movilización de la comunidad científica sin precedentes, lo que lleva asociado un numero exponencialmente creciente de publicaciones en relación con la misma. La presente revisión bibliográfica narrativa, tiene como objetivo reunir las principales aportaciones en el área de los cuidados intensivos hasta la fecha en relación con la epidemiología, clínica, diagnóstico y manejo de 2019-nCoViD


On 31 December 2019, the Health Commission of Hubei Province of China first unveiled a group of unexplained cases of pneumonia, which WHO subsequently defined as the new coronavirus of 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 has presented rapid person-to-person transmission and is currently a global pandemic. In the largest number of cases described to date of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 disease (2019-nCoViD), 26% required care in an intensive care unit (ICU). This pandemic is causing an unprecedented mobilization of the scientific community, which has been associated with an exponentially growing number of publications in relation to it. This narrative literature review aims to gather the main contributions in the area of intensive care to date in relation to the epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis and management of 2019-nCoViD


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Triagem , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Espanha/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 851-859, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150×10³/µL) is associated with poor outcomes in various critical illness settings. However, the prognostic value of platelet count in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 1202 patients between January 2014 and December 2018 from a multicenter retrospective-prospective cohort registry of CS. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between the patients with and without thrombocytopenia. RESULTS: At presentation with CS, 244 (20.3%) patients had thrombocytopenia. The patients with thrombocytopenia had lower blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and worse liver and renal functions compared to the patients without. During hospitalization, the patients with thrombocytopenia had more frequent gastrointestinal bleeding (10.5% vs. 3.8%, p=0.009), sepsis (8.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.013), requirement of renal replacement therapy (36.5% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001), requirement of mechanical ventilation (65.2% vs. 54.4%, p=0.003), longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 4 days, p<0.001), and thirty-day mortality (40.2% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001) compared to those without. In addition, the platelet count was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (per 103/µL decrease; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.000-1.003, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Thrombocytopenia at CS presentation was associated with worse clinical findings, higher frequencies of complications, and longer stay at the intensive care unit. Also, thrombocytopenia was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. (Clinical trial registration No. NCT02985008).


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque Cardiogênico , Trombocitopenia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/epidemiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/mortalidade , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int J Health Geogr ; 19(1): 36, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has infected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. While COVID-19 has overwhelmed healthcare resources (e.g., healthcare personnel, testing resources, hospital beds, and ventilators) in a number of countries, limited research has been conducted to understand spatial accessibility of such resources. This study fills this gap by rapidly measuring the spatial accessibility of COVID-19 healthcare resources with a particular focus on Illinois, USA. METHOD: The rapid measurement is achieved by resolving computational intensity of an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method through a parallel computing strategy based on cyberGIS (cyber geographic information science and systems). The E2SFCA has two major steps. First, it calculates a bed-to-population ratio for each hospital location. Second, it sums these ratios for residential locations where hospital locations overlap. RESULTS: The comparison of the spatial accessibility measures for COVID-19 patients to those of population at risk identifies which geographic areas need additional healthcare resources to improve access. The results also help delineate the areas that may face a COVID-19-induced shortage of healthcare resources. The Chicagoland, particularly the southern Chicago, shows an additional need for resources. This study also identified vulnerable population residing in the areas with low spatial accessibility in Chicago. CONCLUSION: Rapidly measuring spatial accessibility of healthcare resources provides an improved understanding of how well the healthcare infrastructure is equipped to save people's lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings are relevant for policymakers and public health practitioners to allocate existing healthcare resources or distribute new resources for maximum access to health services.


Assuntos
Área Programática de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Illinois , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução
12.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 203: 105751, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The vitamin D endocrine system may have a variety of actions on cells and tissues involved in COVID-19 progression especially by decreasing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Calcifediol can rapidly increase serum 25OHD concentration. We therefore evaluated the effect of calcifediol treatment, on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality rate among Spanish patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN: Parallel pilot randomized open label, double-masked clinical trial. SETTING: University hospital setting (Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba Spain.) PARTICIPANTS: 76 consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, clinical picture of acute respiratory infection, confirmed by a radiographic pattern of viral pneumonia and by a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR with CURB65 severity scale (recommending hospital admission in case of total score > 1). PROCEDURES: All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days. Eligible patients were allocated at a 2 calcifediol:1 no calcifediol ratio through electronic randomization on the day of admission to take oral calcifediol (0.532 mg), or not. Patients in the calcifediol treatment group continued with oral calcifediol (0.266 mg) on day 3 and 7, and then weekly until discharge or ICU admission. Outcomes of effectiveness included rate of ICU admission and deaths. RESULTS: Of 50 patients treated with calcifediol, one required admission to the ICU (2%), while of 26 untreated patients, 13 required admission (50 %) p value X2 Fischer test p < 0.001. Univariate Risk Estimate Odds Ratio for ICU in patients with Calcifediol treatment versus without Calcifediol treatment: 0.02 (95 %CI 0.002-0.17). Multivariate Risk Estimate Odds Ratio for ICU in patients with Calcifediol treatment vs Without Calcifediol treatment ICU (adjusting by Hypertension and T2DM): 0.03 (95 %CI: 0.003-0.25). Of the patients treated with calcifediol, none died, and all were discharged, without complications. The 13 patients not treated with calcifediol, who were not admitted to the ICU, were discharged. Of the 13 patients admitted to the ICU, two died and the remaining 11 were discharged. CONCLUSION: Our pilot study demonstrated that administration of a high dose of Calcifediol or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a main metabolite of vitamin D endocrine system, significantly reduced the need for ICU treatment of patients requiring hospitalization due to proven COVID-19. Calcifediol seems to be able to reduce severity of the disease, but larger trials with groups properly matched will be required to show a definitive answer.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Calcifediol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 86-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965363

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of ABO and Rh blood group antigens along with various parameters in patients followed-up with the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated 397 patients who were follow-up and treated due to COVID-19 infections. The ages, genders, chronic diseases, ABO and Rh blood group antigens, admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU), and mortality rates of the patients were analyzed. FINDINGS: The mean age of the 397 patients with COVID-19 was 47±17 years. In the blood group analysis of the patients, A Rh-positive (A +) was the most frequently seen blood type (176 patients, 44.3%) followed by O Rh-positive (0 +) (109 patients, 27,5%); 38 patients were Rh negative (Rh -) (9,6%). 53 of the patients (13,4%) were followed in ICU and 29 patients died (7,3%). Neither mortality nor admission to ICU was seen for Rh - group. The comparison of Rh groups concerning the need for ICU admission revealed a significantly high rate of ICU admission in the Rh + group (p=0,011), while no significant relationship was found between mortality and Rh antigen (p=0,069). CONCLUSION: The most frequently seen blood type among COVID-19 patients was A +. The Rh + blood group was found in all cases who were admitted to ICU and had a death outcome. The Rh + blood group was found in a significantly high number of patients who were admitted to ICU, while no significant relationship was found between mortality and Rh blood group.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21439, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a rapidly emerging respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Due to the rapid human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2, many health care systems are at risk of exceeding their health care capacities, in particular in terms of SARS-CoV-2 tests, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) beds, and mechanical ventilators. Predictive algorithms could potentially ease the strain on health care systems by identifying those who are most likely to receive a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, be hospitalized, or admitted to the ICU. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop, study, and evaluate clinical predictive models that estimate, using machine learning and based on routinely collected clinical data, which patients are likely to receive a positive SARS-CoV-2 test or require hospitalization or intensive care. METHODS: Using a systematic approach to model development and optimization, we trained and compared various types of machine learning models, including logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machines, random forests, and gradient boosting. To evaluate the developed models, we performed a retrospective evaluation on demographic, clinical, and blood analysis data from a cohort of 5644 patients. In addition, we determined which clinical features were predictive to what degree for each of the aforementioned clinical tasks using causal explanations. RESULTS: Our experimental results indicate that our predictive models identified patients that test positive for SARS-CoV-2 a priori at a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI 67%-81%) and a specificity of 49% (95% CI 46%-51%), patients who are SARS-CoV-2 positive that require hospitalization with 0.92 area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC; 95% CI 0.81-0.98), and patients who are SARS-CoV-2 positive that require critical care with 0.98 AUC (95% CI 0.95-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that predictive models trained on routinely collected clinical data could be used to predict clinical pathways for COVID-19 and, therefore, help inform care and prioritize resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Informática em Saúde Pública , Curva ROC , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 629-634, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880337

RESUMO

Pandemics challenge clinicians and scientists in many ways, especially when the virus is novel and disease expression becomes variable or unpredictable. Under such circumstances, research becomes critical to inform clinical care and protect future patients. Given that severely ill patients admitted to intensive care units are at high risk of mortality, establishing the cause of death at a histopathological level could prove invaluable in contributing to the understanding of COVID-19. Postmortem examination including autopsies would be optimal. However, in the context of high contagion and limited personal protective equipment, full autopsies are not being conducted in South Africa (SA). A compromise would require tissue biopsies and samples to be taken immediately after death to obtain diagnostic information, which could potentially guide care of future patients, or generate hypotheses for finding needed solutions. In the absence of an advance written directive (including a will or medical record) providing consent for postmortem research, proxy consent is the next best option. However, obtaining consent from distraught family members, under circumstances of legally mandated lockdown when strict infection control measures limit visitors in hospitals, is challenging. Their extreme vulnerability and emotional distress make full understanding of the rationale and consent process difficult either before or upon death of a family member. While it is morally distressing to convey a message of death telephonically, it is inhumane to request consent for urgent research in the same conversation. Careful balancing of the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence and justice becomes an ethical imperative. Under such circumstances, a waiver of consent, preferably followed by deferred proxy consent, granted by a research ethics committee in keeping with national ethics guidance and legislation, would fulfil the basic premise of care and research: first do no harm. This article examines the SA research ethics framework, guidance and legislation to justify support for a waiver of consent followed by deferred proxy consent, when possible, in urgent research after death to inform current and future care to contain the pandemic in the public interest.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/ética , Estado Terminal/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/ética , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , África do Sul , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; sept. 8, 2020. 20 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119008

RESUMO

A la fecha, se reportan 24.042 pacientes (24,8%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.254 pacientes (1,3%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.105 en sala general y 149 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 69.661 casos (71,8%) como recuperados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Panamá/epidemiologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21728, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872055

RESUMO

The benefit of any specific target range of blood glucose (BG) for post-cardiac arrest (PCA) care remains unknown.We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of prospectively collected data of all cardiac arrest patients admitted to the ICUs between 2014 and 2015. The main exposure was BG metrics during the first 24 hours, including time-weighted mean (TWM) BG, mean BG, admission BG and proportion of time spent in 4 BG ranges (<= 70 mg/dL, 70-140 mg/dL, 140-180 mg/dL and > 180 mg/dL). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportion hazard models and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were built to evaluate the association between the different kinds of BG and hospital mortality.2,028 PCA patients from 144 ICUs were included. 14,118 BG measurements during the first 24 hours were extracted. According to TWM-BG, 9 (0%) were classified into the <= 70 mg/dL range, 693 (34%) into the 70 to 140 mg/dL range, 603 (30%) into the 140 to 180 mg/dL range, and 723 (36%) into the > 180 mg/dL range. Compared with BG 70 to 140 mg/dL range, BG 140 to 180 mg/dL range and > 180 mg/dL range were associated with higher hospital mortality probability. Proportion of time spent in the 70 to 140 mg/dL range was associated with good outcome (odds ratio 0.984, CI [0.970, 0.998], P = .022, for per 5% increase in time), and > 180 mg/dL range with poor outcome (odds ratio 1.019, CI [1.009, 1.028], P< .001, for per 5% increase in time). Results of the 3 kinds of statistical models were consistent.The proportion of time spent in BG range 70 to 140 mg/dL is strongly associated with increased hospital survival in PCA patients. Hyperglycemia (> 180 mg/dL) is common in PCA patients and is associated with increased hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 270, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on health systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. As the pandemic escalates, determining the resulting needs for healthcare resources (beds, staff, equipment) has become a key priority for many countries. Projecting future demand requires estimates of how long patients with COVID-19 need different levels of hospital care. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of early evidence on length of stay (LoS) of patients with COVID-19 in hospital and in ICU. We subsequently developed a method to generate LoS distributions which combines summary statistics reported in multiple studies, accounting for differences in sample sizes. Applying this approach, we provide distributions for total hospital and ICU LoS from studies in China and elsewhere, for use by the community. RESULTS: We identified 52 studies, the majority from China (46/52). Median hospital LoS ranged from 4 to 53 days within China, and 4 to 21 days outside of China, across 45 studies. ICU LoS was reported by eight studies-four each within and outside China-with median values ranging from 6 to 12 and 4 to 19 days, respectively. Our summary distributions have a median hospital LoS of 14 (IQR 10-19) days for China, compared with 5 (IQR 3-9) days outside of China. For ICU, the summary distributions are more similar (median (IQR) of 8 (5-13) days for China and 7 (4-11) days outside of China). There was a visible difference by discharge status, with patients who were discharged alive having longer LoS than those who died during their admission, but no trend associated with study date. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 in China appeared to remain in hospital for longer than elsewhere. This may be explained by differences in criteria for admission and discharge between countries, and different timing within the pandemic. In the absence of local data, the combined summary LoS distributions provided here can be used to model bed demands for contingency planning and then updated, with the novel method presented here, as more studies with aggregated statistics emerge outside China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Tempo de Internação , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
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