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8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 22(11): 136, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are a rapidly growing population with ever-increasing complexity, and intensive care unit (ICU) management is often necessary. This review summarizes common cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular complications in ACHD and provides a framework for ICU care. RECENT FINDINGS: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in ACHD. Varied anatomy and repairs, as well as differing physiological complications, limit generalized application of management algorithms. Recent studies suggest that earlier mechanical support in advanced cases is feasible and potentially helpful. Cardiac arrhythmias are poorly tolerated and often require immediate attention. Other complications requiring intensive care include infections such as endocarditis and COVID-19, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathy, and stroke. Successful ICU care in ACHD requires a multi-disciplinary approach with careful consideration of anatomy, physiology, and associated comorbidities. Few studies have formally examined ICU management in ACHD and further research is necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cardiopatias/congênito , Cardiopatias/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Respir Care ; 65(9): 1378-1381, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879035

RESUMO

COVID-19 is devastating health systems globally and causing severe ventilator shortages. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the provision and use of ventilators has been a key focus of public discourse. Scientists and engineers from leading universities and companies have rushed to develop low-cost ventilators in hopes of supporting critically ill patients in developing countries. Philanthropists have invested millions in shipping ventilators to low-resource settings, and agencies such as the World Health Organization and the World Bank are prioritizing the purchase of ventilators. While we recognize the humanitarian nature of these efforts, merely shipping ventilators to low-resource environments may not improve outcomes of patients and could potentially cause harm. An ecosystem of considerable technological and human resources is required to support the usage of ventilators within intensive care settings. Medical-grade oxygen supplies, reliable electricity, bioengineering support, and consumables are all needed for ventilators to save lives. However, most ICUs in resource-poor settings do not have access to these resources. Patients on ventilators require continuous monitoring from physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists skilled in critical care. Health care workers in many low-resource settings are already exceedingly overburdened, and pulling these essential human resources away from other critical patient needs could reduce the overall quality of patient care. When deploying medical devices, it is vital to align the technological intervention with the clinical reality. Low-income settings often will not benefit from resource-intensive equipment, but rather from contextually appropriate devices that meet the unique needs of their health systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Nigéria , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Nações Unidas , Ventiladores Mecânicos/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Salvador; s.n; 16 set. 2020. 18 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19, 176).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1121792

RESUMO

Panorama da pandemia COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia, em 16 de setembro de 2020. Descreve de forma detalhada a situação da pandemia no Estado, contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Nucleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Ocupação de Leitos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração
12.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

RESUMO

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinilcolina/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/enfermagem , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Intubação/enfermagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how to integrate the "best" practice into nursing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. A steering group for clinical evidence implementation (EI) was established to conduct pre-implementation baseline surveys, a thorough analysis of the evidence, and an analysis of the survey results. The hindering and enabling factors associated with the clinical implementation of the evidence were analysed based on the three core elements of i-PARIHS, to formulate the clinical implementation plan for VTE nursing evidence. On-site expert reviews and focus group interviews were used to evaluate the feasibility of the draft plan, make adjustments, and finalize the evidence-based practice plan, which was then put into practice and evaluated. RESULTS: A new nursing process, a health education manual and a nursing quality checklist on VTE has been established and proved to be appropriate through the implementation. Compliance with evidence related to VTE nursing increased significantly in the two units, with better compliance in unit B than unit A. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores for VTE nursing increased substantially in both nurses and patients. CONCLUSION: The EI programme of incorporating the "best" evidence on VTE nursing into clinical practice using the i-PARIHS framework demonstrated feasibility, appropriateness and effectiveness and could serve as a reference.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 413-427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833778

RESUMO

As the confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to grow with over 1 million documented infections in the United States alone, researchers and health care workers race to find effective treatment options for this potentially fatal disease. Mortality remains high in patients whose disease course requires mechanical ventilation and admission to intensive care units. While focusing on therapies to decrease mortality is essential, we must also consider the logistical hurdles faced with regard to safely and effectively delivering treatment while limiting the risk of harm to hospital staff and other noninfected patients. In this article, we discuss aspects of surge planning, considerations in limiting health care worker exposure, the logistics of medication delivery in a uniform and consolidated manner, protocols for delivering emergent care in a rapidly deteriorating coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patient, and safe practices for transporting infected patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitais Gerais/organização & administração , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
17.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(8): 1-3, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845762

RESUMO

The UK death toll from COVID-19 is currently the fourth worst in the world behind the USA, Brazil and Mexico. Possible reasons include delays in lockdown, the provision of scientific advice to government and the decisions that government made based on the information they were given. When we review our performance and plan for the next public health crisis, we need to be brave enough to dare to challenge the NHS and its advisors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Administração em Saúde Pública , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 66: 96-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological morbidity in both patients and family members related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience is an often overlooked, and potentially persistent, healthcare problem recognized by the Society of Critical Care Medicine as Post-intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). ICU diaries are an intervention increasingly under study with potential to mitigate ICU-related psychological morbidity, including ICU-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. As we encounter a growing number of ICU survivors, in particular in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, clinicians must be equipped to understand the severity and prevalence of significant psychiatric complications of critical illness. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of the ICU diary, written by family and healthcare workers during the patient's intensive care course, versus education alone in reducing acute PTSD symptoms after discharge. Patients with an ICU stay >72 h, who were intubated and mechanically ventilated over 24 h, were recruited and randomized to either receive a diary at bedside with psychoeducation or psychoeducation alone. Intervention patients received their ICU diary within the first week of admission into the intensive care unit. Psychological symptom screening with IES-R, PHQ-8, HADS and GAD-7 was conducted at baseline within 1 week of ICU discharge and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after ICU discharge. Change from baseline in these scores was assessed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. RESULTS: From September 26, 2017 to September 25, 2018, our team screened 265 patients from the surgical and medical ICUs at a single large academic urban hospital. 60 patients were enrolled and randomized, of which 35 patients completed post-discharge follow-up, (n = 18) in the diary intervention group and (n = 17) in the education-only control group. The control group had a significantly greater decrease in PTSD, hyperarousal, and depression symptoms at week 4 compared to the intervention group. There were no significant differences in other measures, or at other follow-up intervals. Both study groups exhibited clinically significant PTSD symptoms at all timepoints after ICU discharge. Follow-up phone interviews with patients revealed that while many were interested in getting follow-up for their symptoms, there were many barriers to accessing appropriate therapy and clinical attention. CONCLUSIONS: Results from psychological screening tools demonstrate no benefit of ICU diaries versus bedside education-alone in reducing PTSD symptoms related to the intensive care stay. However, our study finds an important gap in clinical practice - patients at high risk for PICS are infrequently connected to appropriate follow-up care. Perhaps ICU diaries would prove beneficial if utilized to support the work within a program providing wrap-around services and close psychiatric follow up for PICS patients. This study demonstrates the high prevalence of ICU-related PTSD in our cohort of survivors, the high barrier to accessing care for appropriate treatment of PICS, and the consequence of that barrier-prolonged psychological morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04305353. GRANT IDENTIFICATION: GH-17-022 (Arnold P. Gold Foundation).


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Ansiedade , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Depressão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Assistência ao Convalescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Sobreviventes
19.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): e1147-e1157, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and appraise articles describing criteria used to prioritize or withhold a critical care admission. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL Complete databases. Gray literature searches and a manual review of references were also performed. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. STUDY SELECTION: We sought all articles and abstracts of original research as well as local, provincial, or national policies on the topic of ICU resource allocation. We excluded studies whose population of interest was neonatal, pediatric, trauma, or noncritically ill. Screening of 6,633 citations was conducted. DATA EXTRACTION: Triage and/or transport criteria were extracted, based on type of article, methodology, publication year, and country. An appraisal scale was developed to assess the quality of identified articles. We also developed a robustness score to further appraise the robustness of the evidence supporting each criterion. Finally, all criteria were extracted, evaluated, and grouped by theme. DATA SYNTHESIS: One-hundred twenty-nine articles were included. These were mainly original research (34%), guidelines (26%), and reviews (21%). Among them, we identified 200 unique triage and transport criteria. Most articles highlighted an exclusion (71%) rather than a prioritization mechanism (17%). Very few articles pertained to transport of critically ill patients (4%). Criteria were classified in one of four emerging themes: patient, condition, physician, and context. The majority of criteria used were nonspecific. No study prospectively evaluated the implementation of its cited criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified 200 criteria classified within four themes that may be included when devising triage programs including the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We identified significant knowledge gaps where research would assist in improving existing triage criteria and guidelines, aiming to decrease arbitrary decisions and variability.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Triagem/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente
20.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1146-1150, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761863

RESUMO

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic represents unprecedented challenges to healthcare systems. We describe a cohort of 18 critically ill COVID-19 patients - to our knowledge the highest number, in a single intensive care unit in Australia. We discuss the complex challenges and dynamic solutions that concern an intensive care unit pandemic response. Acting as the State's COVID-19 referral hospital, we provide local insights to consider alongside national guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Planejamento em Desastres , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
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