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3.
Vet Herit ; 39(2): 33-44, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144083

RESUMO

By 1883 a Veterinary Division had been established within the United States Department of Agriculture, itself established in 1862. Federal concern about animal health in the U.S.A. emerged as early as 1865 when Congress adopted regulations aimed at controlling importation of livestock. It was not until 1884 that the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) was formally created by Act of Congress, and shortly after that the Zoological Laboratory was established and assigned responsibility for study of parasites and the diseases they produce in animals. Classically trained parasitologists working in USDA's BAI soon became internationally recognized for their contributions to basic research and development of programs for prevention and control of parasitic diseases. Leadership by a series of BAI-employed parasitologists led to the emergence of veterinary parasitology as a sub-discipline. Maurice C. Hall who served as president of both the American Society of Parasitologists and the American Veterinary Medical Association was a central figure in development of veterinary parasitology in the U.S.A., which flourished in his country and elsewhere today.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/história , Medicina Veterinária/história , Animais , História do Século XIX , Gado , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Parasitologia/história , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história
6.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 49(4): 396-427, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23982926

RESUMO

One of the more unusual attempts by the American state to mobilize academic expertise unfolded in the late 1930s, when the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) hired scholars in the "culture and personality" fields and philosophy to aid its efforts to promote economic, social, and cultural change in the countryside. USDA progressives also reached out to disciplinary scholars in other ways as they sought to institute a deliberative mode of planning in local communities and to remake the curricula of the land-grant colleges in support of that project. These USDA initiatives and scholars' responses reveal that scientific knowledge was mobilized in the 1930s not just for the instrumental purpose of regulating economic behavior but also to explain and legitimate federal programs and to inform ambitious projects for cultural change. At the USDA, as at many other sites between the wars, scientific thinkers turned to the social sciences and philosophy in order to understand and then change the public mind.


Assuntos
Cultura , Filosofia/história , Ciências Sociais/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 165(3-4): 224-33, 2013 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23642415

RESUMO

Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animal health contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa/normas , United States Department of Agriculture/normas , United States Department of Agriculture/tendências , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Pesquisa/história , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Medicina Veterinária/história , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20664226

RESUMO

Innovation is about making changes. When it comes to health care, innovations, though they may be something 'new', may not be beneficial if not demonstrated to be an improvement over what is current practice. Innovations in pediatric nutrition sometimes fall into this category. The establishment of safe water and milk supplies at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries is viewed as one of the greatest advances in preventative medicine and truly was an 'innovation', with its dramatic impact on infant mortality. Other innovations in pediatric nutrition included the development of the caloric method of infant feeding which led to the large-scale adoption of a single infant formula. This required cooperation with industry and ultimately led to the development of life-saving specialty formulas for various disease states including inborn errors of metabolism. Over the last 50 years there have been further modifications of term infant formula that have included taurine, carnitine, nucleotides, whey proteins, PUFAs including decosahexenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid, probiotics, and prebiotics. Many of these additions are of questionable benefit and are questioned as true innovations. Though the addition of novel nutrients to infant formula has been an area of great interest, more basic research (including randomized controlled trial) is needed to determine many pediatric nutrient requirements including the lower and upper limits of nutrients added to infant formula. Such research could be facilitated by institutions such as the US National Institute of Child Health whose establishment in 1962 was a significant 'innovation' as it led to advances in pediatric nutritional research. Much more research is needed to determine basic pediatric nutritional requirements and pediatricians should strive for such true innovations.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/história , Difusão de Inovações , Papel do Médico , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Criança , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/economia , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Fórmulas Infantis/história , Recém-Nascido , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.)/economia , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.)/história , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/economia , United States Department of Agriculture/história
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8130-5, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19719130

RESUMO

Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.


Assuntos
Alimentos/história , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Dieta/história , Recessão Econômica/história , Fast Foods/história , Indústria Alimentícia/história , Abastecimento de Alimentos/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Desnutrição/história , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história , United States Food and Drug Administration/história
12.
J Nutr ; 139(1): 173-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056635

RESUMO

In the early 1960s William E. Cornatzer, MD, PhD suggested the need for increased USDA research concerning human nutrition and creation of the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory (later the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center). He shared ideas with Senator Milton R. Young of North Dakota who requested that the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) prepare a proposal for such a program. In 1963 Senator Young submitted the proposal that included construction of regional centers to the U.S. Senate. The Grand Forks Human Nutrition Laboratory began operation in 1970. The attentions of Senator Young, Representative/Senator Mark Andrews, and Senator Quentin Burdick concerning the budgetary and construction needs facilitated development of the Center from its inception through 1990. Success of the enterprise rests on the creativity, industry, and other qualities of the Center's scientists and support staff, and collaborators at cooperating institutions. Their work resulted in a greater understanding of trace element nutrition and it role in human health.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Laboratórios , Ciências da Nutrição/economia , Estados Unidos , Universidades/história , Universidades/organização & administração
13.
J Nutr ; 139(1): 185-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056640

RESUMO

Survey findings, confirming widespread malnutrition, led to the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and increased funding of related Federal programs. In 1976, the ARS Administrator proposed to Congress a greatly expanded program for human nutrition research. This led to the development of USDA Human Nutrition Research Centers at Universities. Funding of these Centers resulted mainly from efforts of scientists and others from the states where Centers were located. USDA formed the Science and Education Administration (SEA) by merging several related research and education agencies, expecting to improve coordination and focus. Human nutrition research activities were placed in SEA under a USDA Human Nutrition Center in 1978, which was terminated in 1982 when SEA was disbanded. Coordination of human nutrition research within USDA and with other federal agencies required specific mechanisms. Within USDA, a subcommittee met regularly to exchange information and generate policy recommendations. Quarterly meetings of USDA Human Nutrition Center directors were held to enhance information exchange and cooperation. A Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors was established to advise the Secretary regarding program direction and priorities. Human nutrition at the federal level was coordinated through the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR). ICHNR devised a computerized database of ongoing federal food and nutrition research, developed a comprehensive 5-y research plan, and held biennial conferences for scientific presentations. Most important were the several interagency committees, which worked together to ensure that all federal agencies spoke with 1 voice. These committees functioned most effectively.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Ciências da Nutrição/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/organização & administração
14.
J Nutr ; 139(1): 188-91, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056811

RESUMO

The Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC) is a unique cooperative venture among Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, and the USDA/Agricultural Research Service. The CNRC is dedicated to defining the nutrient needs of children, from conception through adolescence, and the needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers. Scientific data from the Center enable healthcare providers and policy advisors to make dietary recommendations that improve the health of today's children and that of generations to come. CNRC research has already impacted feeding guidelines for normal U.S. children and all children of the world.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Hospitais/história , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Texas , Estados Unidos
15.
J Nutr ; 139(1): 178-84, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056813

RESUMO

The systematic chemical analysis of foods for human consumption in the United States had its origin with Wilbur O. Atwater. This activity began in the 1860s while Atwater was a student at Yale University and continued through his tenures at Wesleyan University and the Storrs (Connecticut) Experiment Station. These activities moved with Atwater to the USDA in Washington, DC and ultimately to the Henry D. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD early in the 1900s. During the first half of the 20th century, food composition activities were guided by the discovery of new essential nutrients and the need to measure and tabulate their levels in foods. Later in the century, the association between diet and chronic diseases was recognized. As a result, collaborations were established between other food- and health-related government agencies, the food industry, and many universities. At the same time, computer and communication technology greatly advanced, which became integral to laboratory instrumentation and allowed data in the National Nutrient Databank System to be available electronically. Simultaneously, accuracy of analytical data came under scrutiny and a new paradigm was established in collaboration with governmental metrology units worldwide. Advances in computer technology and the increased focus on accuracy of analytical data subsequently led to the development of quality indicators for all food composition data. Recently, increased consumption of dietary supplements resulted in the broadening of food composition efforts and development of new collaborations with government agencies, several industries, and universities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Análise de Alimentos/história , Ciências da Nutrição/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Suplementos Nutricionais/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/organização & administração
18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 6(1): 2-12, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17956539

RESUMO

This paper reviews the history of the federal regulatory oversight of plant agricultural biotechnology in the USA, focusing on the scientific and political forces moulding the continually evolving regulatory structure in place today. Unlike most other jurisdictions, the USA decided to adapt pre-existing legislation to encompass products of biotechnology. In so doing, it established an overarching committee (Office of Science and Technology Policy) to study and distribute various regulatory responsibilities amongst relevant agencies: the Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Agriculture. This paper reviews the history and procedures of each agency in the execution of its regulatory duties and investigates the advantages and disadvantages of the US regulatory strategy.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental/história , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história , United States Environmental Protection Agency/história , United States Food and Drug Administration/história
19.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 114: 191-201; discussion 201-2, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12813920

RESUMO

Concerns about food safety have played a key role in the emergence of the public health system in the United States. Unfortunately, the food safety regulatory system that was established in the early part of the 20th century in response to these concerns has not kept pace with our advancing scientific knowledge. In 1995, basic changes were made in the structure of the U.S. food safety regulatory structure, including implementation by USDA of the Pathogen Reduction: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule for Meat and Poultry, from USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS); this was accompanied by creation of FoodNet, a sentinel surveillance system for active collection of foodborne disease surveillance data. The most recent FoodNet data show a 21% decline in the incidence of major bacterial foodborne diseases since implementation of the new regulations, a decrease paralleled by reductions in the frequency of contamination of meat and poultry with Salmonella. These data strongly support the public health importance of these regulatory changes. However, questions remain about the relative degree of responsibility of industry vs. the consumer in assuring safe food; the appropriateness of microbial standards for raw food products; and the directions that should be taken in the development of the "next generation" of food safety regulations.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Carne/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Segurança/história , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história , United States Department of Agriculture/legislação & jurisprudência , United States Department of Agriculture/normas
20.
Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci ; 42(2): 58, 62, 64, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19757629

RESUMO

In the above discussion, the concept and evolution of IACUC oversight of research facility animal care and use programs and common USDA citations concerning these programs was reviewed. The majority of USDA citations are program-related and involve both IACUC and veterinary care functions. Common IACUC-related citations concern inadequacies involving required information in protocols (such as rationales for the species and numbers used and descriptions of the procedures proposed), searches for alternatives to painful or distressful procedures, and minimization of pain and distress. Common veterinary care citations concern inadequacies involving veterinary care facilities, daily observation of the animals, and veterinary care itself (e.g., maintaining inadequate records or using expired medications). IACUC's are advised to ensure that their program records are comprehensive enough to demonstrate that their facility's animal care and use program complies with the AWA and USDA regulations. The overall ongoing success of self-regulation in the research industry is acknowledged, and APHIS's current concentration on the recognition and alleviation of distress, as well as pain, is noted. In the future, APHIS will continue in its oversight role as IACUC programs continue to evolve in their awareness and application of the advances in pain and distress recognition and management. Together, we will continue to work for the benefit of the animals used in research, whose welfare is so important to the quality of that very research.


Assuntos
Comitês de Cuidado Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar do Animal/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais de Laboratório , Pesquisa Biomédica , United States Department of Agriculture/legislação & jurisprudência , Comitês de Cuidado Animal/história , Bem-Estar do Animal/história , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , História do Século XX , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/história , United States Department of Agriculture/normas
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