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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339399

RESUMO

Abstract Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Resumo Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados ​​para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Educação em Veterinária , Animais Selvagens , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Trinidad e Tobago , Universidades
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682494

RESUMO

This study compares students' and recent graduates' perceptions of their subjective wellbeing and offers support mechanisms and resources to enhance wellbeing in higher education. Survey data were collected in September 2021 from 414 UK-based higher education students and recent graduates on their self-perceived subjective wellbeing in March 2020 (before COVID-19 regulations restrictions) and September 2021 (18 months later). Findings showed that subjective wellbeing scores fell for almost three-quarters of university students and recent graduates between March 2020 and September 2021. Interestingly, around one-fifth of participants reported increased subjective wellbeing scores whilst the remaining participants reported no impact. Positive impacts of the pandemic included opportunities for self-improvement with more free time for focusing on health and relationships. Adverse outcomes included feelings of isolation, reduced mental and physical health, difficulties undertaking degree studies and work, travel restrictions, and concerns for labour market competitiveness. The study advances the application of the conservation of resources theory and identifies strategies for higher education institutions to better support and improve their students' and future graduates' subjective wellbeing. Strategies include access to counselling, mindfulness, opportunities for participation in hobbies, interaction with peers, flexible work and study options, and guidance on career and finances.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Universidades
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 450, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatment using scalable and inexpensive Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) among college students with symptoms of MDD and/or GAD in two LMICs in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico) and to investigate the feasibility of creating a precision treatment rule (PTR) to predict for whom iCBT is most effective. METHODS: We will first carry out a multi-site randomized pragmatic clinical trial (N = 1500) of students seeking treatment at student mental health clinics in participating universities or responding to an email offering services. Students on wait lists for clinic services will be randomized to unguided iCBT (33%), guided iCBT (33%), and treatment as usual (TAU) (33%). iCBT will be provided immediately whereas TAU will be whenever a clinic appointment is available. Short-term aggregate effects will be assessed at 90 days and longer-term effects 12 months after randomization. We will use ensemble machine learning to predict heterogeneity of treatment effects of unguided versus guided iCBT versus TAU and develop a precision treatment rule (PTR) to optimize individual student outcome. We will then conduct a second and third trial with separate samples (n = 500 per arm), but with unequal allocation across two arms: 25% will be assigned to the treatment determined to yield optimal outcomes based on the PTR developed in the first trial (PTR for optimal short-term outcomes for Trial 2 and 12-month outcomes for Trial 3), whereas the remaining 75% will be assigned with equal allocation across all three treatment arms. DISCUSSION: By collecting comprehensive baseline characteristics to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects, we will provide valuable and innovative information to optimize treatment effects and guide university mental health treatment planning. Such an effort could have enormous public-health implications for the region by increasing the reach of treatment, decreasing unmet need and clinic wait times, and serving as a model of evidence-based intervention planning and implementation. TRIAL STATUS: IRB Approval of Protocol Version 1.0; June 3, 2020. Recruitment began on March 1, 2021. Recruitment is tentatively scheduled to be completed on May 30, 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04780542 . First submission date: February 28, 2021.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Internet , América Latina , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Universidades
4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268620, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704639

RESUMO

We assessed the impacts of the implementation of inclusive and active pedagogical approaches in an introductory biology sequence at a large, public research university in the northeast United States. We compared academic performance between these sections with other sections of the same course where didactic approaches were used over a five-year period. We also compared this five-year period (2014-2018) with the previous five years of the same courses. Additionally, we also tracked the academic performance of the students from the sections where active learning and inclusive teaching were used, as well as the more conventionally taught (lecture-based) sections in future, mandatory biology courses. We found that the inclusively taught section of the first semester of introductory biology increased the odds of students earning higher grades in that particular section. The active learning section in the second semester narrowed the ethnic performance gap when compared to similar sections, both historically and those run concurrently. Finally, students who matriculated into the inclusively taught section of biology in the first semester followed by the active learning section in the second semester of introductory biology performed better in 200-level biology courses than students who had zero semesters of either active or inclusive pedagogy in their introductory year. Our results suggest that active and inclusive pedagogies hold great promise for improving academic performance when compared to didactic approaches, however, questions remain on the most appropriate ways for capturing the impact of inclusive approaches. Implications for institutional approaches and policy are also discussed.


Assuntos
Biologia , Avaliação Educacional , Biologia/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes , Universidades
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269949, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704652

RESUMO

The idea of faculty engaging in meaningful dialogue with different publics instead of simply communicating their research to interested audiences has gradually morphed from a novel concept to a mainstay within most parts of the academy. Given the wide variety of public engagement modalities, it may be unsurprising that we still lack a comprehensive and granular understanding of factors that influence faculty willingness to engage with public audiences. Those nuances are not always captured by quantitative surveys that rely on pre-determined categories to assess scholars' willingness to engage. While closed-ended categories are useful to examine which factors influence the willingness to engage more than others, it is unlikely that pre-determined categories comprehensively represent the range of factors that undermine or encourage engagement, including perceptual influences, institutional barriers, and scholars' lived experiences. To gain insight into these individual perspectives and lived experiences, we conducted focus group discussions with faculty members at a large midwestern land-grant university in the United States. Our findings provide context to previous studies of public engagement and suggest four themes for future research. These themes affirm the persistence of institutional barriers to engaging with the public, particularly the expectations in the promotion process for tenure-track faculty. However, we also find a perception that junior faculty and graduate students are challenging the status quo by introducing a new wave of attention to public engagement. This finding suggests a "trickle-up" effect through junior faculty and graduate students expecting institutional support for public engagement. Our findings highlight the need to consider how both top-down factors such as institutional expectations and bottom-up factors such as graduate student interest shape faculty members' decisions to participate in public engagement activities.


Assuntos
Docentes , Estudantes , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Organizações , Estados Unidos , Universidades
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to insulin therapy is a major global public health issue that has a causal relationship with increased diabetic complications that leads to further increase in the health care cost. However, adherence to insulin therapy and associated factors among diabetic mellitus (DM) patients are still not studied adequately in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence to insulin therapy and associated factors among type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients on follow-up at Madda Walabu University-Goba Referral Hospital, South East Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution-based, cross-sectional study was employed among 311 both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, Madda Walabu University-Goba Referral Hospital from March 4 to April 30, 2020. Study participants were recruited with simple random sampling method. Adherence to insulin therapy was measured by 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale. Therefore from these 8-items, those who score 6 or more are considered as adherent to insulin therapy. The data were collected through interviewer administered questionnaires by trained graduating class nurse students. The data were entered to Epidata version 3.1, and analyzed with SPSS version 25. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with adherence to insulin therapy. Statistical significance were declared at p <0.05. RESULT: A total of 311 patients participate in the study with response rate of 100%. Among these only 38.9% of them were adherent to insulin therapy with a CI of [33.5, 44.3]. Having glucometer (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI [1.46, 10.35]), regular hospital follow-up (AOR = 3.13; 95% CI [1.12, 8.70]), being knowledgeable (AOR = 3.36; 95% CI [1.53, 7.37]), and favorable attitudes (AOR = 4.55; 95%CI [1.68, 12.34]) were the factor associated with adherence to insulin therapy. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that adherence to insulin therapy was low in the study area. Having glucometer, regular hospital follow-up, being knowledgeable, and favorable attitudes were the factor associated with adherence to insulin therapy. Attention should be paid to help diabetic patients on acquiring knowledge regarding the need of consistent adherence to insulin therapy and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia , Seguimentos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Regular Humana/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Universidades
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 3): 4-6, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643860

RESUMO

This article reviews the history, evolution, and current status of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Croatia. University Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan experts performed the first rTMS in 2015 as a first treatment and research group in Croatia. In addition to being a leading center for rTMS in clinical trials and in treating depression, University Psychiatric Clinic Sveti Ivan TMS center continues to research rTMS for depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders and conditions, exploring novel stimulation parameters and individualized treatment protocols. Since 2017 rTMS treatment for MDD in Croatia has been reimbursed by the National Insurance Fund and has been available to hospital and ambulatory patients by indication, and now is widely used in other health centers in Croatia, to treat depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders and conditions, especially when drugs are ineffective or produce harmful side effects.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Croácia , Humanos , Universidades
8.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 4-6, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644590

RESUMO

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has received increasing attention in recent decades. The concept of social responsibility is being applied in universities. Because universities have goals that differ significantly from corporations, the notion of university social responsibility (USR) has emerged in the academic field. The Ministry of Education in Taiwan has regularly implemented USR practice plans since 2018 (Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC, 2019). The core values of these plans are "local coalition" and "talent cultivation". Moreover, these plans encourage universities to use the power of professional knowledge and creation to minimize the gap between learning and application for students and to integrate local resources and hands-on strategies to better collaborate with universities around the world and expand participation in international academic activities. Sustainable development (SD) is a core objective of both CSR and USR. The United Nations has advocated for sustainable development since 1987 and formalized the five-component paradigm (people, partnership, peace, planet, and prosperity, 5Ps) in 2015. UN Agenda 2030 addresses 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs), 169 targets, and 3,155 actions, encouraging all national governments to establish national SD action plans (United Nations, 2015). Based on the review of the literature and conceptual frameworks related to USR and SD (Bokhari, 2017), we integrate practice experiences and propose three suggestions for universities: 1) diversities universities could create a campus-wide climate of and comprehensive practice for social responsibility using their professional knowledge; 2) the social, economy, and environment are included in universities SD. The curriculum development of universities links to social practice activities to achieve the goals of talent cultivation to meet social needs; 3) The university projects include specific actions and timeline. The impacts and achievements of USR and SD may be appraised by internal and external experts. Fooyin University is a school of science and technology related to "Big Health". Based on the above theoretical frameworks, the outcome evaluation model of the Center for USR, the Ministry of Education, and the UN's SDGs, we implemented the "Time Wheel Sustainable Model of Social Responsibility at Fooyin University" (Figure 1) and began cooperating with private and government organizations. The model is an intervention and evaluation guideline for the time-dynamic wheel, with the target goal of cultivating health promotion and sustainable development talent. The outcomes and impacts of the model comprise four domains and sixteen indicators. Stakeholders of this model are students/alumni, teaching faculties and administration staff, communities, and the public. USR curriculum designs involve the School of Nursing, School of Medical and Health Sciences, School of Environment and Life Sciences, and College of Humanities and Management. In 2020, 718 faculties and 2,012 students participated in USR projects. In 2021, the participation numbers were 679 faculties and 2,303 students. The Fooyin USR is now firmly rooted in thirty communities. Starting in 2022, The Fooyin USR has collaborated with local private companies (CSR) and local youths and communities (regional revitalization, RR) to launch the 3 R formula framework of the USR. The goal of the 3 R action plan is to use artificial intelligence technology to provide innovative, community-based care. The USR operations of university sustainable development around Taiwan are achieving wonderful results, with even better achievements expected. This special column presents case studies of innovative community care and sustainable development within the context of university social responsibility at four universities, including Fooyin University, Siaogang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, National Cheng Kung University, and Taipei Medical University. Since 2020, nations around the world have fought off COVID-19. The strategies of national prevention have evolved to better respond to disasters and to live with the virus. Therefore, in the post-pandemic period, universities around Taiwan have been implementing sustainable development practices. These universities are making strong efforts to develop innovative care for communities through academic exchange and publishing in order to accomplish social responsibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adolescente , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Pandemias , Responsabilidade Social , Universidades
9.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 7-12, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644591

RESUMO

The need for health literacy in the context of older adult healthcare has increased significantly with population aging. Employing innovative models of social service delivery will be necessary to effectively integrate academic, medical, and community resources to address diverse healthcare needs. The project of university social responsibility supported by Fooyin University is a comprehensive program that employs a time bank model and cultivates community. The Fooyin Time Bank leverages reciprocity to cultivate sustainable manpower to satisfy community needs. The five strategies of the Fooyin Time Bank include: 1) strengthen the awareness of the time bank in community volunteers, 2) cultivate seed members to initiate the time bank, 3) adapt the mutual help model to meet local individual needs, 4) promote the online platform system of the time banking infrastructure and diversities of resource exchange, and 5) emphasize the key role of community and supplementary role of university to enhance sustainability. The Fooyin Time Bank coordinates with government agencies, private companies, and academic institutions to bolster the sustainability of its networks. In addition, faculties and students participate in the community to create a social climate of mutual help, inter-generational aged care, and social welfare.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Estudantes , Idoso , Humanos , Universidades
10.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 13-18, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644592

RESUMO

Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital is located in southern Kaohsiung City, a major nexus of land, sea, and air transportation. Thus, the hospital is on the frontlines of strengthening Kaohsiung International Airport's epidemic prevention measures and preventing the spread of COVID-19 and other epidemic viruses to Taiwan from other countries. Kaohsiung Medical University integrates on-campus academic research, teaching services, and medical institution resources and has long promoted community care plans in conjunction with the public sector. A disused public sector space repurposed by the university into a distinctive day care center is being further used as a service-learning platform linking medical education to communities, allowing university students to enter the community and apply what they have learned to improve quality of life, community health, and well-being. "Happy Kaohsiung Healthy City-Siaogang District Environmental Education and Health Promotion Sustainable Development Plan", which responds to the issues and needs of air pollution and health promotion in the city's Siaogang District, designates Kaohsiung Municipal Siaogang Hospital as the core base of local practice, connecting multidisciplinary schools and units as well as cross-regional resources to promote practical programs such as air quality talent education, environmental testing and research, campus health education and publicity, air pollution syllabus, and community care and care, fulfilling the university's social responsibilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Ambiental , Educação em Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Universidades
11.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 19-24, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644593

RESUMO

National Cheng Kung University (NCKU) promotes university social responsibility and strives to ensure that all of its teaching staff and students engage in academics in a manner that incorporates both social awareness and social practice. The NCKU team has launched a series of social practice and research projects focused on accompanying and caring for older adults who live in the community, looking to establish a social practice model that bridges university teaching and research to practical community needs. The objective of this initiative is to develop an innovative model of social support and a new model for younger generations to work with older adults living in the community. The results of this survey project show better well-being in older adults to be associated with the following sets of traits: exercising regularly and lacking dental problems; engaging in daily laughter and holding positive aging perceptions; and having a higher subjective social status, more family support, and a sense of community attachment. The study results imply that multiple factors affect well-being in the context of caring for community-dwelling older adults and social development, especially during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Humanos , Vida Independente , Apoio Social , Universidades
12.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(3): 25-30, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644594

RESUMO

The Ministry of Education launched the University Social Responsibility (USR) Program in 2018. Since then, universities have actively promoted inter-disciplinary cooperation and implemented high-end knowledge to meet community needs. Universities are using social responsibility to enhance the level of social participation engaged in by their students to achieve the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. The aim of this paper was to share the experience of the Taipei Medical University (TMU) system in practicing social responsibility by integrating TMU resources with those of TMU-affiliated hospitals. The USR program at Taipei Medical University promotes the reform of school governance through encouraging university faculties to collaborate with hospital physicians to develop a specific curriculum that implements an innovative social-prescribing model. This curriculum is designed to provide opportunities for students to step out the classroom and into the community. Through clinical observations, home visits, and community service, students gain a deep understanding of community health issues from residents in the surrounding neighborhoods. Medical humanities education is achieved through students' involvement in both patient individual care and community health issues. In addition, faculties guide students in reflective learning from holistic healthcare perspectives. Students are encouraged to use evidence-based methods to develop innovative models of care in the community. Medical staff participation in this program helps ensure that social prescribing to community residents accurately reflects professional assessments. These prescriptions refer patients to local health promotion units involved in community collaboration. The medical university students build a bridge between the medical system and the community to implement the goals of health education. The impact of social prescribing on the social determinants of health is known to be significantly greater than that of medicine prescriptions. The expected outcomes of this project are to reduce the health inequalities experienced by vulnerable groups in the community and to share Taiwan's experiences with the academic community worldwide.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Responsabilidade Social , Currículo , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8001252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669641

RESUMO

Every country is developing under the concept of artificial intelligence. Many countries are already working on student monitoring systems that allow them to control the student's mentality and analyze each student's behavior with the help of a wireless headband. There is certain high-tech education within the country in a maximum number of schools, which can be considered robotic monetization. With the help of tiny robots inside the classrooms, each student's activeness and engagement level in the classes are captured and submitted to the teacher. All these practical applications help us imagine that there will be a massive response to artificial intelligence in the future of this world. On the other hand, sports management is a critical issue to consider for the country's growth. This research evaluates the quality of football teaching by implementing an Artificial Neural Network model for online mode of education. The proposed model functions with the implementation of Association Rule Mining (ARM) in the intelligent system to monitor the activities of the player by training with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The proposed model is compared with the existing K-Mean algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed model has achieved an accurate evaluation of 99.6%.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudantes , Universidades
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9689181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669647

RESUMO

The Ministry of Education of my country released the first "national standard" in January 2018, clearly stating that it is necessary to attach importance to and improve the ability of undergraduates. Through the analysis of the research results in this field at home and abroad, this study finds that the thinking ability training strategies that can be provided in the previous research are relatively scattered, and there is a lack of effective training methods and guidance. Therefore, Dr. Wen Qiufang proposed the teaching method of "production-oriented approach." "Production-oriented approach" includes driving, promoting, and re-evaluation, in which the training content is integrated into each link. Therefore, this study combines training and Production-oriented Approach, and using this theoretical basis in the English teaching classroom can explore better. It provides a new way for the cultivation of college students' English thinking ability. In the actual classroom teaching, the production-oriented teaching method is used to teach English to the students during the research process. After the teaching course is over, the teaching data are collected and analyzed with SPSS 25.0 software, and the data results are displayed. It can be seen that applying the Production-oriented approach to English classroom teaching can indeed improve the level of domestic college English students and provide a reference approach and method for students' English training, and this method is effective and feasible.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Ensino , Humanos , Universidades
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 860650, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35669737

RESUMO

Background: Reproductive health rights in Africa are unknown. According to international studies, reproductive health rights of young people particularly university students, are violated, and most of these violations go unreported due to a lack of information and awareness of these rights. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and associated factors on sexual and reproductive health rights in Ethiopia. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study using an interviewer-administered and structured questionnaire was conducted. The study population consisted of students of the selected department between November, 2018 and June, 2019. A simple random sampling method technique was used to select 420 students. Bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The knowledge level of the respondents was 16.4%. The majority of students 205 (51%) were in the age group < 20 years. Male [AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.95]; coming from urban areas [AOR: 2.11, 95% CI: (1.02-4.37)]; provision of sexuality education or lecture in departments [AOR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02-1.91] and discussion about reproductive health with anyone else [AOR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.48-3.62] were significant association for the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health rights. Conclusions: Respondents' knowledge level was found to be very low. Therefore, strengthening students' lectures or education on reproductive health in the curricula of high school, encouraging discussions with parents, and anyone might improve the knowledge toward sexual and reproductive health rights.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670388

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic came out as an imperative of large-scale transformations in higher education system, including higher medical school. At that, introduction of self-isolation regime in the spring 2020 highlighted the task of organizing education in remote format with maintaining education quality. The article presents results of sociological survey with purpose of studying perception of students of medical university of transition to remote learning format at the COVID-19 pandemic outset. The majority of respondents perceived remote learning format as an emergency measure to maintain continuity of education process, that, however, cannot completely replace full-time practice-oriented teaching "at the bedside of the patient". Understanding the special tasks of training medical specialist required new solutions from higher school and additional efforts from all subjects of educational process - restructuring organizational infrastructure ensuring communication of teaching staff and students, solving organizational problems of access to educational content, adapting to practice of digital medical education, expanding use of AR, VR, mixed reality and simulation learning technologies. The students, highly assessing quality of digital content, noted difficulties of self-organization in "home" format due to a lot of distracting factors (family, domestic life, etc.) that had key impact on motivation of their learning activities. Nevertheless, among respondents of medical university, a number of students formed subgroup that considering personal experience of remote learning assumed that this format is actual and effective and allows one to fully master university curriculum. The transition to remote learning format in university as emergency measure during pandemic, will obviously be consolidated as an invariant standard of organizing educational process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Currículo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudantes , Universidades
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1198, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite effective strategies to prevent substance use and substance use disorders among college students, challenges remain. As young adults' preference for and comfortability with web-based technology continues to increase, leveraging innovative approaches to rapidly evolving mHealth technology is critical for the success of lowering the risk for substance use and related consequences in college populations, and especially those at Hispanic Serving Institutions. Therefore, the present study describes the rationale, development, and design of iSTART, a novel web-app to prevent substance use among students. METHODS: The web-app was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, and in collaboration with numerous stakeholders, including a community-based partner specializing in substance abuse prevention and treatment. A 30-day multi-module web-app intervention was developed based on key theoretical constructs, behavior change strategies, and practical module components: attitudes (knowledge), perceived susceptibility (risk perceptions), subjective norms (normative re-education), and self-efficacy (refusal skills). This intervention will be evaluated via a time series design using a sample of 600 students randomly assigned to either the intervention, comparison, or control condition at a public institution in southern California. DISCUSSION: The iSTART web-app is an innovative and sustainable program ideal for college campuses with diverse student populations. If this prevention web-app is successful, it will significantly contribute to the evidence of effective substance use interventions in the college setting, and identify the benefits of mHealth programs to prevent future substance use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05362357 retrospectively registered on May 4, 2022 on clinicaltrials.gov .


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , California , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 37(3): 455-463, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the cumulative failure rate of 4,842 implants comprising six commercial implant brands in a university setting, and to evaluate the influence of different risk factors on the implant failure rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients receiving dental implants at the School of Dentistry of the International University of Catalonia (Barcelona, Spain) from 2011 to 2018. The inclusion criterion was patients presenting at least one failed implant. RESULTS: The cohort study included 1,510 patients who received a total of 4,842 implants. The cumulative failure rate was 4.9% and 10.8% at the implant and patient levels, respectively. The multiple regression analysis showed that for the same number of implants per patient, variables such as age and sex were not associated with higher implant failure rates. Furthermore, in considering the combination of arch-sector, a statistically significant reduction in failure rate was observed in the posterior maxilla (OR = 0.66, P = .038) and in the posterior mandible (OR = 0.64, P = .037). The results showed all implant brands offering high implant survival rates (> 91%). Nobel Biocare and Straumann implants significantly reduced the risk of implant failure (OR = 0.37, P = .021 and OR = 0.53, P = .024, respectively), while no significant differences were recorded among Klockner (2.8%), MIS (5.4%), Biomet 3i (7.1%), and Astra Tech (8.4%; P ≥ .05). No association was found between implant loss and bone augmentation, time of implant placement, smoking, and history of periodontal disease. CONCLUSION: The implant failure rates obtained in a university setting resulted in overall cumulative rates of 4.9% and 10.8% at the implant and patient levels, respectively, over a 7-year period. Male sex and implants placed in the anterior mandible may be associated with a higher risk of implant failure. Nobel Biocare and Straumann implants seem to positively affect implant survival rate.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Estudos de Coortes , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/efeitos adversos , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/métodos , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Universidades
19.
Qual Manag Health Care ; 31(3): 170-175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of guidance on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation in an academic medical center. The objectives of this study were to describe interventions by a multidisciplinary PrEP task force at an academic medical center and compare metrics of PrEP implementation pre- and post-creation of this entity. METHODS: The interventions of the task force are described within the rubric of the PrEP care continuum. Participants were adults prescribed PrEP for greater than or equal to 30 days at 9 clinical sites across a university health system. Metrics of PrEP implementation were compared over 12-month intervals before and after the creation of the task force. RESULTS: An increased proportion of participants had HIV testing within 7 days of new PrEP prescriptions (92% vs 63%, P < .001) and were prescribed PrEP in increments of 90 days or shorter (74% vs 56%, P < .001) after the creation of the task force. There were higher rates of testing for bacterial sexually transmitted infections in men who had sex with men and transgender women in the post-intervention compared with pre-intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary team that focuses on optimizing PrEP delivery along each step of the care continuum may facilitate PrEP scale-up and best practices in an academic setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Benchmarking , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
20.
Adv Gerontol ; 35(2): 287-293, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727936

RESUMO

Achieving life satisfaction in a complex epidemiological situation that determines chronic stress, a prolonged regime of socio-economic restrictions and self-isolation, increased mortality, seems to be an urgent and at the same time difficult to solve task. Therefore, understanding the socio-cognitive correlates of life satisfaction after 55 years allows us to model its mental constructions that have a stress-protective property, with the subsequent possibility of their psychological correction. The purpose of the study is to theoretically substantiate, identify and discuss the results of the correlation analysis of the relationship between socio-cognitive characteristics and life satisfaction after 55 years. The hypothesis of the study is based on the assumption of the relationship between the studied indicators. Theoretical analysis of the phenomenology of life satisfaction (life satisfaction) revealed the socio-cognitive nature and emotional, reflective and evaluative indication of its occurrence, functioning and dynamics. Psychodiagnostic methods were used: the questionnaire «Your well-being¼ (O.S.Kopina, E.A.Suslov, E.V.Zaikin), methods for diagnosing the presence and severity of irrational attitudes (A.Ellis), methods for diagnosing socio-psychological characteristics (T.Leary). The sample consisted of people aged 56-80 years in the number of 80 people. Correlation analysis revealed the conditionality of indicators of life satisfaction and socio-cognitive characteristics of a person in old age.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes , Cognição , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
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