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2.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1300-1303, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673106

RESUMO

Cooperative Extension (Extension), part of the land-grant university system, has been engaged in rural communities for more than a century. While the focus of Extension's efforts has largely centered on agriculture, there is an important thread of work that has similarities to public health.As Extension settles into its second century, we are working to be even more engaged in efforts that improve the health and well-being of rural communities in particular. Extension faculty and staff are accomplishing this through direct-to-the-population education and through partnerships with more classically oriented public health organizations able to leverage Extension's networks and positive reputation in communities to engage them and improve their health. A component of these partnerships includes Extension faculty and staff increasingly engaging in policy, systems, and environment work and other initiatives that help ensure longer-term, systemic changes more likely to improve health outcomes.In short, Extension clearly changed the agricultural system of the United States, and because of its reach into rural communities, it has the capacity to do for health in rural communities in this second century what it did for agriculture in the first century.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Saúde da População Rural , Agricultura , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Estados Unidos , Universidades/história
6.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(1): 1-7, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473760

RESUMO

When teenaged Henry Jacob Bigelow was an undergraduate at Harvard College in 1833-1837, he prepared nitrous oxide gas for demonstrations to other students. Bigelow's son, William Sturgis Bigelow, related the claim, and there is an eyewitness account from Augustus Goddard Peabody, a fellow Harvard undergraduate with Bigelow. Peabody wrote to Henry David Thoreau about a nitrous frolic. College chemistry primed Bigelow to support the concept of inhaled surgical anesthesia when the idea came to Boston in 1845-1846. Bigelow's chemistry professor was John White Webster. According to Harvard alumnus Edward Everett Hale, in addition to demonstrating effects of nitrous oxide, Webster presciently treated two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning with copious volumes of synthetic oxygen gas. The career of Webster was inhibited by financial difficulties that were suspected to be contributory when he was convicted of the 1849 murder of physician George Parkman at the Harvard Medical School, then adjacent to Massachusetts General Hospital and its Ether Dome. Webster suffered the death penalty in 1850.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Boston , Química/educação , Química/história , Éter/história , Docentes/história , História do Século XIX , Hospitais de Ensino/história , Humanos , Universidades/história
8.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(2): 135-150, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101286

RESUMO

The anatomical textbook in the late Middle Ages was one part of a greater pedagogical process that involved students' seeing, hearing, reading, and eventually knowing information about the human body. By examining the role of the anatomical textbook and accompanying bodily images in anatomical learning, this article illuminates the complexity and self-consciousness of anatomical education in the medieval university, as professors focused on ways to enhance student memory of the material. Traditionally, the history of anatomy has been heavily influenced by the anatomical Renaissance of the late-sixteenth century, highlighting a focus on innovative medical knowledge and the scientific method. However, if we engage a pedagogical lens when looking at these medieval authors, it becomes quickly obvious that the whole point of university medicine was not to explore unknown boundaries and discover new ideas of medicine, but rather to communicate the current and established body of knowledge to those not familiar with it.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Educação Médica/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Estudantes de Medicina/história , Anatomia/educação , Educação Médica/organização & administração , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Medieval , Itália , Universidades/história
10.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 1-16, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600455

RESUMO

This autobiographical article describes the research career of Lynn M. Riddiford from its early beginnings in a summer program for high school students at Jackson Laboratory to the present "retirement" at the Friday Harbor Laboratories. The emphasis is on her forays into many areas of insect endocrinology, supported by her graduate students and postdoctoral associates. The main theme is the hormonal regulation of metamorphosis, especially the roles of juvenile hormone (JH). The article describes the work of her laboratory first in the elucidation of the endocrinology of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and later in the molecular aspects of the regulation of cuticular and pigment proteins and of the ecdysone-induced transcription factor cascade during molting and metamorphosis. Later studies utilized Drosophila melanogaster to answer further questions about the actions of JH.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/história , Entomologia/história , Metamorfose Biológica , Universidades/história , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Manduca/fisiologia , Olfato
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(1): 133-149, jan.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-44324

RESUMO

El artículo analiza las condiciones deemergencia de la Escuela de SaludPública de la Universidad de BuenosAires hacia fines de los años 1950.Ésta tuvo como objetivo ofrecerformación académica de posgrado amédicos y a otros profesionales enbioestadística, administración sanitaria,dirección de hospitales, epidemiologíay ciencias sociales, en el marco deun “Diplomado en Salud Pública”.Nuestro trabajo ubica el nacimientode la institución en el contexto de lasrecomendaciones y debates que distintasagencias internacionales realizaronsobre la educación médica y la gestiónde políticas sanitarias en AméricaLatina. A través de publicaciones,actas de congresos e informes técnicosintentamos reconstruir dichasdiscusiones y sus ecos en la Argentina delos años 1950.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , História da Medicina , Saúde Pública/educação , Universidades/história , História do Século XX , Saúde Global
12.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191058

RESUMO

Este artigo centra-se no vasto e complexo processo científico e institucional ligado à recolha de artefactos e à formação de colecções científico-naturais, etnológicas e antropológicas, provenientes de vários espaços coloniais extra-europeus em Portugal durante a segunda metade do século XVIII. Faz ainda referência às instituições que albergaram estes materiais. Neste período em que a ciência era, por definição, útil e devia servir ao interesse público na prossecução do bem-estar, do progresso e da felicidade dos povos, os estudos produzidos tiveram como objectivo contribuir para um levantamento científico com pretensões enciclopedistas, destinado a produzir um conhecimento minucioso dos espaços imperiais através da identificação, recolecção e estudo das produções naturais e das "características físicas e morais" dos indígenas. A curiosidade científica que caracterizou os grupos sociais envolvidos neste processo permitiu a corporização dum conjunto de práticas que era pensado em Lisboa e implementado pelos vassalos da coroa em todo o império. Deste conjunto de práticas, quero destacar as viagens filosóficas, explorações científicas vocacionadas para a descrição física e económica dos territórios e para a inventariação dos recursos naturais, consideradas como instrumento de modernização política e administrativa do império numa altura em que a ciência e a técnica eram vistas como ferramentas imprescindíveis ao desenvolvimento do Estado Moderno


This article focuses on the vast and complex scientific and institutional process related to the collection of artefacts and the formation of scientific-natural, ethnological and anthropological collections from various extra-European colonial spaces in Portugal during the second half of the eighteenth century. It also addresses the institutions that housed these materials. In a period when science was, by definition, useful and should serve the public interest in the pursuit of welfare, progress and the happiness of peoples, scientific studies had the objective of contributing to a scientific survey with encyclopaedic pretensions of the imperial spaces through the identification, collection and study of the natural productions and the "physical and moral characteristics" of the natives. The scientific curiosity that characterized the social groups involved in this process allowed the embodiment of a set of practices that was thought in Lisbon and implemented by Portuguese subjects throughout the empire. From this set of practices, I would like to highlight the philosophical voyages, scientific explorations aimed at the physical and economic description of the territories and the inventory of natural resources, considered as an instrument of political and administrative modernization of the empire at a time when science and technology were considered as essential tools for the development of the Modern State


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Viagem/história , Museus/organização & administração , Coleções como Assunto , História Natural/história , Ciência/história , Portugal , História do Século XVIII , Exposições Científicas , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Universidades/história
13.
Endeavour ; 43(4): 100707, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883701

RESUMO

At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the landscape of emerging experimental embryology in the United States was dominated by the Canadian Frank Rattray Lillie, who combined his qualities as scientist and director with those of teacher at the University of Chicago. In the context of his research on chick development, he encouraged the young Marian Lydia Shorey to investigate the interactions between the central nervous system and the peripheral structures. The results were published in two papers which marked the beginning of a new branch of embryology, namely neuroembryology. These papers inspired ground-breaking enquiry by Viktor Hamburger which opened a new area of the research by Rita Levi-Montalcini, in turn leading to the discovery of the nerve growth factor, NGF.


Assuntos
Embriologia/história , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/história , Neurologia/história , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , História do Século XX , Fator de Crescimento Neural/história , Estados Unidos , Universidades/história
15.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 426-435, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767803

RESUMO

The authors summarize their experiences collected from psychotherapeutic treatment of anorectic and bulimic patients treated at the outpatient and inpatient clinics of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University in the period of 1984-2008. The introduction provides an overview of the literature, that represents a theoretical background to their therapeutic strategies. Afterwards, insights are given about the authors own treatment strategies, that varied, although only slightly in different time periods. Therapeutic outcomes are summarized separately for groups of restrictive and purging anorexia patients, bulimia patients and bulimia patients suffering from other impulse control problems. Results are evaluated on the basis of clinical assessments, symptomatic reductions of eating disorders after treatment, and based on two years follow-up data. Finally results are analysed critically, concerning the used methods and further opportunities for relapse prevention.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/história , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Psiquiatria/história , Universidades/história , Anorexia Nervosa/história , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia/história , Bulimia/terapia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicoterapia/história
17.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 707-710, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661472

RESUMO

This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the tenth anniversary of the Department of Immunology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University and describes some of the results of its work. Most of the materials were prepared by young graduates and post-graduate students of the department.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/história , Alergia e Imunologia/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/organização & administração , História do Século XXI , Moscou , Universidades/história
19.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 41(10): 1129-1133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493009

RESUMO

Anatomy and Lyon have a very long history together since the first hospital in France was set up on the banks of the Saône River in the fourteenth century. The Lyon school of Anatomy was originally in the Hôtel-Dieu, which later housed the "secondary" (1821) then "preparatory" (1841) schools. Only in 1877 was the Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty set up. The development of anatomy teaching followed the rise of printing in the fifteenth century. The rise of surgery was founded on knowledge of anatomy and the ability to teach it. Before the days of anesthesia, surgery required perfect anatomical skills, to keep operative time to a minimum. Correlation with anatomy accompanied the introduction of radiology and later of medical imaging in general; the science of Anatomy is nowadays enriched by robotics and information technology.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Docentes/história , Ensino/história , Universidades/história , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino
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