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1.
J Athl Train ; 54(8): 843-851, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536387

RESUMO

The Second Safety in College Football Summit resulted in interassociation consensus recommendations for three paramount safety issues in collegiate athletics: (1) independent medical care for collegiate athletes; (2) diagnosis and management of sport-related concussion; and (3) year-round football practice contact for collegiate athletes. This document, the fourth arising from the 2016 event, addresses the prevention of catastrophic injury, including traumatic and non-traumatic death, in collegiate athletes. The final recommendations in this document are the result of presentations and discussions on key items that occurred at the summit. After those presentations and discussions, endorsing organisation representatives agreed on 18 foundational statements that became the basis for this consensus paper that has been subsequently reviewed by relevant stakeholders and endorsing organisations. This is the final endorsed document for preventing catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes. This document is divided into the following components. (1) Background-this section provides an overview of catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes. (2) Interassociation recommendations: preventing catastrophic injury and death in collegiate athletes-this section provides the final recommendations of the medical organisations for preventing catastrophic injuries in collegiate athletes. (3) Interassociation recommendations: checklist-this section provides a checklist for each member school. The checklist statements stem from foundational statements voted on by representatives of medical organisations during the summit, and they serve as the primary vehicle for each member school to implement the prevention recommendations. (4) References-this section provides the relevant references for this document. (5) Appendices-this section lists the foundational statements, agenda, summit attendees and medical organisations that endorsed this document.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Gestão da Segurança , Medicina Esportiva , Universidades/normas , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Humanos , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
2.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(4): 443-450, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460774

RESUMO

Students from three undergraduate programs at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, studying combined first-year anatomy and physiology courses, showed different academic achievement in physiology. Physiotherapy students were more active and social when completing learning tasks and achieved significantly higher grades in physiology compared with students enrolled in Sport and Exercise Science and Occupational Therapy programs. To promote academic engagement and achievement by all three groups, discussion questions, case studies, and study guides were included. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using these modified resources to promote active learning, enhance academic social interactions, and provide a supportive learning environment. The occupational therapy students showed increased academic achievement (from 57.9 to 66.5%) following implementation of the new resources, but there was no change in the already high-performing physiotherapy students (73.1%) and, more concerningly, the sport and exercise science students (from 54.6 to 56.7%). Fewer sport and exercise science students had prior learning in chemistry (30.4% of participants) and also spent little time outside class studying (8 h/wk), compared with the physiotherapy cohort (70.0% chemistry; 13 h/wk studying). Findings of this research demonstrate that creating a supportive and active learning environment are important factors in promoting the learning of physiology for some cohorts. Background knowledge, academic self-regulatory skills, and the experience of teaching staff are factors that must be considered when endeavoring to increase student academic achievement. Future studies should examine the effect of students' academic self-regulation and the use of remedial chemistry classes when learning physiology.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Anatomia/educação , Fisiologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Adolescente , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Universidades/normas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(6): 760-764, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the majority of U.S. American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)-accredited schools of nursing resided on campuses without smoke-free policies. PURPOSE: To determine the presence of smoke-free policies at AACN-accredited after resolutions from AACN and the American Academy of Nursing, and the creation of online resources. METHODS: Smoke-free policies (2015-2017) were determined through listings on the ANRF College Campus Policy Database© and survey responses from nursing deans. RESULTS: Smoke-free policies for 689 schools of nursing increased from 36% in 2015 to 91% in 2017. There were no significant differences by nursing program types or geographic area. Twenty percent of deans reported using the resources, with over 1700-page views. CONCLUSION: Smoke-free policies increased after support from two national nursing organizations. Learning in a smoke-free environment should be an expectation for nursing students to protect their own health, and to support their future critical role in tobacco control.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/tendências , Escolas de Enfermagem/normas , Escolas de Enfermagem/tendências , Política Antifumo/tendências , Universidades/normas , Universidades/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 317-323, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246509

RESUMO

Prelaboratory tasks are used to facilitate learning and introduce and provide context for laboratory work. The application of first-person perspective (FPP) technology may provide interesting new approaches to providing prelaboratory preparation. However, there is limited knowledge as to whether this perspective is useful or enjoyable for students preparing for laboratory tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine whether prelaboratory preparation, utilizing the FPP technique, was enjoyable and led to improvements in laboratory task-specific self-efficacy in comparison to the traditional text-only (TO) style. We observed that the FPP group found the style to be generally more enjoyable, entertaining, and generally fun compared with the TO group (5.3 ± 0.2 and 2.7 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that the FPP group had a greater laboratory task-specific self-efficacy than their counterparts in the TO group, following the prelaboratory preparation (93.6 ± 1.6 and 83.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P < 0.05). We did not find any differences in scenario-based self-efficacy between the FPP and the TO group. Taken together, our data support the use of FPP videos as a novel, refreshing approach to prelaboratory preparation that builds self-efficacy in students performing laboratory tasks.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Humanos , Universidades/normas
7.
Curationis ; 42(1): e1-e11, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Public nursing colleges (PNCs) are currently redeploying from provincial departments of health to higher education to become part of a unified higher education system in South Africa. As primary producers of nurses, this migration process needs to be managed carefully, with stakeholders having a common understanding of this process. OBJECTIVES:  This study aimed to explore the stakeholders' perspectives on the positioning of PNCs in higher education. METHOD:  The study followed a qualitative grounded theory design. Purposive and theoretical sampling were utilised to achieve a sample size of 40 participants, including representatives from the Department of Higher Education and Training; professional associates; nursing educators; student leaders; nursing leaders; and nurses from the healthcare setting. Data were collected through observations, interviews and document analysis. RESULTS:  It emerged from the study that the integration of PNCs into higher education is a result of the country's political and legal context. A number of policy and legal frameworks emerged as contextual conditions that provided a basis for the change. The integration of PNCs into higher education was conceptualised as a functional shift in the governance of colleges; a political tool to transform nursing education; a means to enhance the quality of college-based nursing programmes, and a vehicle for the greater professionalisation of nursing. Conflicting legislation and funding emerged as two issues of concern. CONCLUSION:  Integrating PNCs with higher education came about because of political changes and the resolution of the ruling party to improve the quality of graduates produced, who will in turn improve the quality of healthcare service delivery offered.


Assuntos
Escolas de Enfermagem/classificação , Escolas de Enfermagem/normas , Universidades/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Escolas de Enfermagem/organização & administração , África do Sul , Universidades/organização & administração
8.
Curationis ; 42(1): e1-e7, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Student nurses at a college in Mpumalanga fall pregnant before they complete their training, and some commence training while pregnant and face educational challenges in both theoretical and clinical learning areas. It becomes impossible for them to complete their training on time. OBJECTIVES:  The objectives of this study were to explore and describe educational challenges as experienced by pregnant student nurses at a college in Mpumalanga and to formulate recommendations that can be used by the college and pregnant student nurses to address their educational challenges. METHODS:  A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Ten student nurses were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by means of in-depth unstructured individual phenomenological interviews between September and November 2016. Data were analysed using Giorgi's qualitative thematic analysis method. RESULTS:  The central theme that emerged from this study confirmed that pregnant student nurses experienced educational challenges negatively. Four main themes that emerged were academic challenges, failure to write examinations, support system and maternity leave. These findings had a negative impact on their education. CONCLUSION:  There is a need for the college to minimise the identified educational challenges to promote completion of training on time.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Licença Parental , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/normas
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215067, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022214

RESUMO

Reports of sexual harassment at medical faculties throughout the world, including the Radboud University, raised the question how prevalent this is at the Faculty of Science. We performed a survey among students to assess their experiences with harassment. This questionnaire consisted of questions from the EGERA survey, a questionnaire held among staff of multiple European Universities. We found that 9% of the respondents had observed or experienced harassment at the Faculty. Hardly any of these cases were reported to one of the institutional services. Moreover, most students did not now any of the provided services. We therefore suggest raising awareness on harassment and to make students more familiar with the trust person.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 69-76, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933839

RESUMO

Replicable research and open science are of value to our field and to society at large, but most universities provide no incentives to adopt these practices. Instead, current incentive structures favor novel research, which has led to a situation in which few researchers take the time to do replications, share protocols, or share data. Obviously, several approaches to remedy this situation are possible. However, little progress can be made if becoming involved in such activities reduces a researcher's chances of rank and status advancement and other rewards. I describe in this article the way my department has modified our incentive structure to tackle this problem, including how the changes influence my research as a developmental psychologist. Finally, I offer suggestions for faculty who wish to initiate similar changes in their institutions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Motivação , Revisão por Pares/normas , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/normas , Universidades/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos
13.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 7210, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894776

RESUMO

Recently, scientific publishing has experienced an expansion of journals and publishers whose primary goal is profit and whose peer review process is virtually non-existent. These "predatory" or "opportunistic" journals pose a threat to the credibility and integrity of legitimate scientific literature, and quality science. Unfortunately, many scientists choose to publish in these journals and/or serve on their editorial boards, either due to ease of rapid publication or naivety. Here, we highlight the extensive use of predatory publications or editorial board involvement by applicants applying for a faculty position in the Pharmaceutical Sciences department at the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy at East Tennessee State University. We caution search committees at other pharmacy schools to thoroughly examine applicant curricula vitarum (CVs) for predatory publishing.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Publicações/normas , Editoração/normas , Educação em Farmácia/normas , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Farmácia/normas , Faculdades de Farmácia/normas , Universidades/normas
15.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(1): Doc3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828603

RESUMO

Objective: The individualized two-stage selection procedure for medical studies at Witten/Herdecke University (UW/H) has been in use for more than 30 years and comprises explicit and implicit selection criteria. This analysis aims at identifying the implicit criteria and answering the question whether an internal consistency of these implicit criteria may be verified for the different phases of the selection procedure (when evaluating the statements of purpose, during the selection weekend and during the concluding discussions of assessors). Methodology: Three qualitative studies on all phases of the selection procedure at UW/H have been conducted for determining the implicit assessment criteria of assessors: statements of purpose in extreme group comparison (12 admissions versus 18 rejections); semi-structured expert interviews (N=25) on the selection weekend; focus group analysis of the concluding discussions on two selection weekends (N=16). Results: The content analysis of the statements of purpose yielded 14 main categories with significant deviations between extreme groups in the categories school career, reasons for application and reflections as well as regarding the higher education entrance qualification grade. Based on the expert interviews, three main categories could be identified: intellectual ability, motivation and social competence, and the ability to reflect as a cross-content category. The focus group analysis yielded four main categories: performance, personality, personal growth potential and ability to reflect. Most frequently, the ability to reflect was mentioned as an assessment criterion. Conclusion: The main assessment categories are: motivation for the medical profession and starting studies at UW/H; performance and scholastic aptitude; personality, personal growth potential and social competence, as well as the ability to reflect as the most important basic competence and general category. Assessors consider the ability to reflect as a predictor of lifelong professional development as a physician.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901339

RESUMO

During the past few decades, there has been a nationwide push to improve performance and persistence outcomes for STEM undergraduates. As part of this effort, recent research has emphasized the need for focus on not only improving the delivery of course content, but also addressing the social-psychological needs of students. One promising intervention type that has been proposed as a multifaceted way to address both cognitive and social-psychological aspects of the learning process is the learning community. Learning communities provide students with opportunities to build a strong support system in college and are generally associated with increased student engagement and integration with campus systems and cultures. In this study, we examine the impact of a learning community intervention for first-year biological sciences majors, the Enhanced Academic Success Experience (EASE) program. Incoming freshmen are assigned to EASE based on their SAT (or ACT equivalent) Math score, a metric demonstrated to be a key predictor of student success in the program. We find that enrollment in EASE is correlated with higher STEM course grades; an increase of 0.25 (on a 0-4 point scale) in cumulative first-year GPA; and gains in non-academic outcomes, such as measures of sense of belonging and academic integration. Further, these outcomes are more pronounced for particular subgroup populations. For example, whereas surveyed male students seemed to benefit academically from participating in a learning community, female students reported a greater sense of belonging in regard to the biological sciences major and reported higher values for behavioral indicators of academic integration. Lastly, we find that the EASE program is positively correlated with students' intention to stay in the biological sciences major. And, among the three race-oriented groups, this impact is most pronounced for under-represented students. In light of these findings, we discuss the potential of discipline-specific learning community programs to improve academic outcomes for students most at risk of leaving STEM majors, such as students underprepared for college level coursework.


Assuntos
Logro , Educação em Saúde , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Anat Sci Educ ; 12(4): 417-424, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848063

RESUMO

Around the world, the recent introduction of assisted death laws has meant that undertaking medical assistance in dying (MAID) is now an option for some persons wishing to end their life. Some of these people donate their bodies to medical science, and by doing so have created a new route from which donor programs can now receive bodies. Such donations have also illuminated a myriad of novel ethical questions. This article considers the emotive and controversial topic of MAID in relation to body donation, describing the experiences of McMaster University, Canada, where several MAID body donors have been received by the anatomical donor program. It provides background on the development and implementation of MAID in Canada, and describes the experience of staff and students at McMaster to MAID donations. It also explores the relevance of MAID to body donation programs, and discusses several of the ethical challenges facing body donation programs who may encounter MAID body donors. These include the appropriateness of accepting MAID donors, issues with informed consent, the effect of personal engagement with MAID donors, information sharing around MAID donations, governance issues, and negative historical parallels between MAID and euthanasia. Suggestions on how to manage MAID body donation focus on how issues affecting institutions, faculty, and students may be approached utilizing appropriate transparency and communication, some of which may facilitate student professional development around the topic of MAID. It is also suggested that the development of ethically appropriate guidelines on MAID body donations may positively guide the anatomical community.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Princípios Morais , Suicídio Assistido/ética , Doadores de Tecidos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Anatomia/ética , Canadá , Eutanásia/ética , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/normas , Universidades/ética , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(3): e12084, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress levels among college students have been on the rise for the last few decades. Currently, rates of reported stress among college students are at an all-time high. Traditionally, the dominant way to assess stress levels has been through pen-and-paper surveys. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to use passive sensing data collected via mobile phones to obtain a rich and potentially less-biased source of data that can be used to help better understand stressors in the college experience. METHODS: We used a mobile sensing app, StudentLife, in tandem with a pictorial mobile phone-based measure of stress, the Mobile Photographic Stress Meter, to investigate the situations and contexts that are more likely to precipitate stress. RESULTS: Using recently developed methods for handling high-dimensional longitudinal data, penalized generalized estimating equations, we identified a set of mobile sensing features (absolute values of beta >0.001 and robust z>1.96) across the domains of social activity, movement, location, and ambient noise that were predictive of student stress levels. CONCLUSIONS: By combining recent statistical methods and mobile phone sensing, we have been able to study stressors in the college experience in a way that is more objective, detailed, and less intrusive than past research. Future work can leverage information gained from passive sensing and use that to develop real-time, targeted interventions for students experiencing a stressful time.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/classificação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Telefone Celular/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aplicativos Móveis/tendências , Fotografação/instrumentação , Fotografação/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(2): 210-223, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667253

RESUMO

The current study evaluated measurement invariance of the short Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (SAPS; Rice, Richardson, & Tueller, 2014) between large samples of 1,802 university counseling center clients and 1,040 university students. The clinical sample also completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011), permitting tests to evaluate support for latent classes of adaptive, maladaptive, and nonperfectionists observed in other studies. Of particular interest was whether an "adaptive" group of perfectionists can be identified within a psychologically distressed sample of counseling center clients. Measurement invariance tests supported the 2-factor SAPS structure (Standards and Discrepancy) although scalar (intercept) noninvariance was observed. Within- and between-sample replication (similarity) analyses supported a 4-class model of perfectionists and nonperfectionists. Classes were distinguished by differing elevations of the 2 perfectionism factors that showed divergent patterns of psychological problems in the clinical sample. In the 4 classes that emerged in both samples, 1 class was consistent with a higher distress, maladaptive perfectionist group, whereas another class represented a less distressed adaptive perfectionist group. Two nonperfectionistic classes were consistent with groups of clients for whom perfectionistic strivings were not rated as important. As might be expected, there was a substantial difference in the frequencies of membership in the classes within- and between-samples, with proportionally fewer adaptive and more maladaptive perfectionists in the clinical sample than in this and other nonclinical university samples. Results have implications for the use of the SAPS as a screening and treatment planning instrument for use in university counseling centers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/normas , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Homosex ; 66(7): 867-895, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927738

RESUMO

Within higher education literature, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have been lauded for their exceptional ability to provide African American students with culturally engaging academic and social environments. While the aforementioned may be true, much of this literature has presented HBCU students and these institutions as monolithic entities, with little regard to the ways social identities (e.g., gender, gender identity, sexual identities) shape students' undergraduate experiences. This investigation uses critical discourse analysis to explore the media's coverage and reactions to the Morehouse College appropriate attire policy in order to examine how their campus stakeholders problematized gender expression within this HBCU context. Implications for this research provides insights into how HBCU communities can both recognize and respond to the needs of their diverse queer student populations. This study concludes with highlighting new advancements being made on HBCU campuses that illustrate how they are making their campuses more inclusive of queer students.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estudantes , Universidades/normas , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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