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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6264, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731722

RESUMO

Many educational institutions have partially or fully closed all operations to cope with the challenges of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we explore strategies that such institutions can adopt to conduct safe reopening and resume operations during the pandemic. The research is motivated by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's (UIUC's) SHIELD program, which is a set of policies and strategies, including rapid saliva-based COVID-19 screening, for ensuring safety of students, faculty and staff to conduct in-person operations, at least partially. Specifically, we study how rapid bulk testing, contact tracing and preventative measures such as mask wearing, sanitization, and enforcement of social distancing can allow institutions to manage the epidemic spread. This work combines the power of analytical epidemic modeling, data analysis and agent-based simulations to derive policy insights. We develop an analytical model that takes into account the asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19, the effect of isolation via testing (both in bulk and through contact tracing) and the rate of contacts among people within and outside the institution. Next, we use data from the UIUC SHIELD program and 85 other universities to estimate parameters that describe the analytical model. Using the estimated parameters, we finally conduct agent-based simulations with various model parameters to evaluate testing and reopening strategies. The parameter estimates from UIUC and other universities show similar trends. For example, infection rates at various institutions grow rapidly in certain months and this growth correlates positively with infection rates in counties where the universities are located. Infection rates are also shown to be negatively correlated with testing rates at the institutions. Through agent-based simulations, we demonstrate that the key to designing an effective reopening strategy is a combination of rapid bulk testing and effective preventative measures such as mask wearing and social distancing. Multiple other factors help to reduce infection load, such as efficient contact tracing, reduced delay between testing and result revelation, tests with less false negatives and targeted testing of high-risk class among others. This paper contributes to the nascent literature on combating the COVID-19 pandemic and is especially relevant for educational institutions and similarly large organizations. We contribute by providing an analytical model that can be used to estimate key parameters from data, which in turn can be used to simulate the effect of different strategies for reopening. We quantify the relative effect of different strategies such as bulk testing, contact tracing, reduced infectivity and contact rates in the context of educational institutions. Specifically, we show that for the estimated average base infectivity of 0.025 ([Formula: see text]), a daily number of tests to population ratio T/N of 0.2, i.e., once a week testing for all individuals, is a good indicative threshold. However, this test to population ratio is sensitive to external infectivities, internal and external mobilities, delay in getting results after testing, and measures related to mask wearing and sanitization, which affect the base infection rate.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Universidades/normas , Doenças Assintomáticas , Simulação por Computador , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Humanos , Saliva/virologia
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 447-454, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740604

RESUMO

Plastic surgeons have the unique perspective of working with all types of patients and care teams from almost all specialties in surgery and medicine, which creates unique challenges in times of distress. As the initial epicenter of coronavirus disease 2019 cases in the United States, the University of Washington program was required to rapidly develop strategies to deal with the escalating crisis. All aspects of the program were affected, including the need to triage the urgency of plastic surgery care, safe staffing of plastic surgery teams, and the role of plastic surgery in the greater hospital community. In addition, as a residency training program, limiting the impact of resident education and maintaining a sense of community and connection among members of the program developed into important considerations. The authors hope that the narrative of their experience will provide insight into the decisions made in the University of Washington health care system but also remind others that they are not alone in dealing with the challenges of this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Universidades/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/educação , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Universidades/normas , Washington , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/normas
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1459-1464, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748604

RESUMO

The teaching laboratory is the central place to teach lab courses to undergraduate students. It is thus critical to evaluate how lab skills of students will be affected by the management of this lab. This study attempts to introduce the 6S concept, referring to "Seiri", "Seiton", "Seiso", "Seiketsu", "Shisuke", and "Safety", to the management of teaching laboratory, in particular, to the management of environments, safety, item deposition, reagents and consumables in the laboratory. We find that applying the "6S" management maintains a tidy lab environment, facilitates teaching the lab skills, and improves the quality of teaching, which together achieves the goal of education with the atmosphere. This study can provide a guideline for establishing and managing teaching laboratories in universities.


Assuntos
Educação , Laboratórios , Universidades , Educação/organização & administração , Educação/normas , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Laboratórios/normas , Estudantes , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726338

RESUMO

Despite the need to map research careers, the empirical evidence on career patterns of researchers is limited. We also do not know whether career patterns of researchers can be considered conventional in terms of steady progress or international mobility, nor do we know if career patterns differ between men and women in research as is commonly assumed. We use sequence analysis to identify career patterns of researchers across positions and institutions, based on full career histories of applicants to the European Research Council frontier research grant schemes. We distinguish five career patterns for early and established men and women researchers. With multinomial logit analyses, we estimate the relative likelihood of researchers with certain characteristics in each pattern. We find grantees among all patterns, and limited evidence of gender differences. Our findings on career patterns in research inform further studies and policy making on career development, research funding, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Pesquisadores/normas , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Análise de Sequência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/normas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234640, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544166

RESUMO

The importance of improving STEM education is of perennial interest, and to this end, the education community needs ways to characterize transformation efforts. Three-dimensional learning (3DL) is one such approach to transformation, in which core ideas of the discipline, scientific practices, and crosscutting concepts are combined to support student development of disciplinary expertise. We have previously reported on an approach to the characterization of assessments, the Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP), that can be used to identify whether assessments have the potential to engage students in 3DL. Here we present the development of a companion, the Three-Dimensional Learning Observation Protocol (3D-LOP), an observation protocol that can reliably distinguish between instruction that has potential for engagement with 3DL and instruction that does not. The 3D-LOP goes beyond other observation protocols, because it is intended not only to characterize the pedagogical approaches being used in the instructional environment, but also to identify whether students are being asked to engage with scientific practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts. We demonstrate herein that the 3D-LOP can be used reliably to code for the presence of 3DL; further, we present data that show the utility of the 3D-LOP in differentiating between instruction that has the potential to promote 3DL from instruction that does not. Our team plans to continue using this protocol to evaluate outcomes of instructional transformation projects. We also propose that the 3D-LOP can be used to support practitioners in developing curricular materials and selecting instructional strategies to promote engagement in three-dimensional instruction.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Ciência/educação , Universidades/normas , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudantes
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492028

RESUMO

Tenure-track faculty members in the United States are evaluated on their performance in both research and teaching. In spite of accusations of bias and invalidity, student evaluations of teaching have dominated teaching evaluation at U.S. universities. However, studies on the topic have tended to be limited to particular institutional and disciplinary contexts. Moreover, in spite of the idealistic assumption that research and teaching are mutually beneficial, few studies have examined the link between research performance and student evaluations of teaching. In this study, we conduct a large scale exploratory analysis of the factors associated with student evaluations of teachers, controlling for heterogeneous institutional and disciplinary contexts. We source public student evaluations of teaching from RateMyProfessor.com and information regarding career and contemporary research performance indicators from the company Academic Analytics. The factors most associated with higher student ratings were the attractiveness of the faculty and the student's interest in the class; the factors most associated with lower student ratings were course difficulty and whether student comments mentioned an accent or a teaching assistant. Moreover, faculty tended to be rated more highly when they were young, male, White, in the Humanities, and held a rank of full professor. We observed little to no evidence of any relationship, positive or negative, between student evaluations of teaching and research performance. These results shed light on what factors relate to student evaluations of teaching across diverse contexts and contribute to the continuing discussion teaching evaluation and faculty assessment.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Estudantes , Ensino/normas , Universidades/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(2): 396-402, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ever since the first positive test was identified on January 21, 2020, Washington State has been on the frontlines of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using information obtained from Italian surgeons in Milan and given the concerns regarding the increasing case numbers in Washington State, we implemented new vascular surgery guidelines, which canceled all nonemergent surgical procedures and involved significant changes to our inpatient and outpatient workflow. The consequences of these decisions are not yet understood. METHODS: The vascular surgery division at Harborview Medical Center immediately instituted new vascular surgery COVID-19 practice guidelines on March 17, 2020. Subsequent clinic, operative, and consultation volume data were collected for the next 4 weeks and compared with the historical averages. The Washington State case and death numbers and University of Washington Medical Center (UW Medicine) hospital case volumes were collected from publicly available sources. RESULTS: Since March 10, 2020, the number of confirmed positive COVID-19 cases within the UW Medicine system has increased 1867%, with floor and intensive care unit bed usage increasing by 120% and 215%, respectively. After instituting our new COVID-19 guidelines, our average weekly clinical volume decreased by 96.5% (from 43.1 patients to 1.5 patients per week), our average weekly surgical volume decreased by 71.7% (from 15 cases to 4.25 cases per week), and our inpatient consultation volume decreased to 1.81 consultations daily; 60% of the consultations were completed as telemedicine "e-consults" in which the patient was never evaluated in-person. The trainee surgical volume has also decreased by 86.4% for the vascular surgery fellow and 84.8% for the integrated resident. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed every aspect of "normal" vascular surgical practice in a large academic institution. New practice guidelines effectively reduced operating room usage and decreased staff and trainee exposure to potential infection, with the changes to clinic volume not resulting in an immediate increase in emergency department or inpatient consultations or acute surgical emergencies. These changes, although preserving resources, have also reduced trainee exposure and operative volume significantly, which requires new modes of education delivery. The lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic, if analyzed, will help us prepare for the next crisis.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas , Universidades/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/organização & administração , Washington/epidemiologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8794-8803, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253310

RESUMO

Multiple-choice examinations play a critical role in university admissions across the world. A key question is whether imposing penalties for wrong answers on these examinations deters guessing from women more than men, disadvantaging female test-takers. We consider data from a large-scale, high-stakes policy change that removed penalties for wrong answers on the national college entry examination in Chile. The policy change reduced a large gender gap in questions skipped. It also narrowed gender gaps in performance, primarily among high-performing test-takers, and in the fields of math, social science, and chemistry.


Assuntos
Teste de Admissão Acadêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/normas , Química/educação , Química/normas , Química/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Matemática/normas , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Ciências Sociais/educação , Ciências Sociais/normas , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 485-497, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127716

RESUMO

People with obesity commonly face a pervasive, resilient form of social stigma. They are often subject to discrimination in the workplace as well as in educational and healthcare settings. Research indicates that weight stigma can cause physical and psychological harm, and that affected individuals are less likely to receive adequate care. For these reasons, weight stigma damages health, undermines human and social rights, and is unacceptable in modern societies. To inform healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the public about this issue, a multidisciplinary group of international experts, including representatives of scientific organizations, reviewed available evidence on the causes and harms of weight stigma and, using a modified Delphi process, developed a joint consensus statement with recommendations to eliminate weight bias. Academic institutions, professional organizations, media, public-health authorities, and governments should encourage education about weight stigma to facilitate a new public narrative about obesity, coherent with modern scientific knowledge.


Assuntos
Consenso , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estigma Social , Preconceito de Peso/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/normas
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(9): 3166-3178, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072343

RESUMO

In order to survey extant literature examining support specifically for postsecondary students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a systematic review of the literature was conducted through a synthesis of an established protocol of quality indicators for special education research and the methodology for PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). Eight themes were identified describing features of programs, interventions, and supports that were implemented or described in the 21 studies reviewed. One of the themes, parent support, is underexamined in the literature relating to postsecondary institutions. Recommendations for needed research are included.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Educação Especial/métodos , Apoio Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Educação Especial/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/normas
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899782

RESUMO

Improvement projects (IPs) are a fundamental element in any quality management system from any organization. In Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), IPs are constantly implemented to maintain excellence in academic and administrative processes. In this study, we propose a model for IP implementation that is based on the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP). As a part of the model, we propose a series of research hypotheses to be tested. The data used to test the hypotheses were gathered from a questionnaire that was developed after an extensive literature review. The survey was administered to Mexican public HEIs, and more than 700 responses were collected. The data were assessed in terms of convergent and discriminant validity, obtaining satisfactory results. To test the proposed relationships between the model constructs, we utilized Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the software IBM SPSS Amos. The analysis confirmed the statistical validity of both the model and the hypotheses. In conclusion, our model for IP implementation is a useful tool for HEIs that seek to attain excellence in their processes through IPs.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Universidades/normas , Humanos , México
18.
Acad Med ; 95(1): 52-58, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567172

RESUMO

Facing space constraints similar to those experienced by many urban campuses, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) looked to innovative office workplace design to curb growing facilities expenditures. Mission Hall, a new office building primarily for desktop and clinical researchers and staff, was designed as an activity-based workplace (ABW), a type of open-space design. ABW was simultaneously being proposed as the template for future UCSF desktop research workspaces. ABWs can be less costly to construct than other designs, and their mix of shared and open workspaces is intended to improve efficiency and interaction. Evaluations of ABWs in corporate settings have yielded mixed results. Examples of ABW buildings for faculty in academic health centers (AHCs) are rare.The Mission Hall experience provided a unique opportunity to understand the impact of an ABW design on faculty satisfaction, work effectiveness, well-being, and engagement. In a 2016 survey of faculty, 1 year after occupancy, respondents reported adverse changes in all 4 areas. The most common complaints involved noise exposure and lack of visual and auditory privacy. In response to these issues, faculty reported working at home or elsewhere more frequently, making collaboration more difficult. In 2018, UCSF retrofitted the building to create some private offices and adjusted its overall program to balance private office and open workspaces in future projects.Lessons drawn from this experience can inform workplace solutions at other AHCs. Most critical are the needs to assess functional requirements of work and align design, change management, and technologies to support those requirements.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/economia , Docentes/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Eficiência/ética , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Satisfação Pessoal , Espaço Pessoal , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/normas , Engajamento no Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/economia
19.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(2): 191-200, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between parent-oriented dimensions of perfectionism (parental expectations [PE] and parental criticism [PC]) and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology across racial/ethnic groups. It was hypothesized that parent-oriented perfectionism would be positively associated with ED symptomatology for White and Asian American women. METHOD: Undergraduate women (N = 1,173) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, EDs, and demographics. One-way analyses of variance tested differences in PE and PC across racial/ethnic groups; post-hoc Tukey tests probed significant differences. Multiple linear regressions assessed associations between parent-oriented perfectionism and ED symptomatology. Hurdle models tested the association between PE and PC and the frequency and odds of endorsing ED symptomatology. RESULTS: There were significant group differences in PE and PC. PE was positively linked with various ED symptoms in Latina, Asian American, and multiracial women, and was negatively related to purging in multiracial women. PC was positively associated with body dissatisfaction in White, Black, and multiracial women, but displayed differential associations with ED symptomatology in all racial/ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: Levels of parent-oriented dimensions of perfectionism, and their relations to ED symptomatology, might vary across racial/ethnic groups. PE, in particular, is both more elevated, and more strongly linked to eating pathology in Asian American women, whereas PC appears to be especially relevant to ED symptoms in Black women. Findings underscore the importance of considering the role of culture in ED symptomatology. Clinicians and researchers might consider incorporating assessments of parent-oriented perfectionism into their practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/normas , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(2): 440-454, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659596

RESUMO

An on-line survey of 102 (51 females; undergraduate and graduate) university students with ASD across Australia and New Zealand examined student characteristics and satisfaction with academic and non-academic supports. A broad range of disciplines were studied, and the participants' reported strengths included a passion for learning, strong technology skills, and creative thoughts. The participants' greatest concerns were academic requirements and mental health, including high rates of self-harm and suicidal ideation. Despite support satisfaction ratings being high, support usage was low, possibly indicating a mismatch of supports and needs, lack of awareness of available supports, and/or poor advocacy skills.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude , Austrália , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Educação Especial/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Universidades/normas , Adulto Jovem
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