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1.
J Environ Radioact ; 233: 106619, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894498

RESUMO

The behaviors of U(VI) in environmental media around radioactive waste disposal site are important for safety assessment of geological repositories. However, the estimation of environmental behaviors of U(VI) in natural media was insufficient. This work aimed to determine the adsorption of U(VI) on natural soil surrounding a candidate very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) disposal site in southwest China. Results showed that the adsorption process of U(VI) on soils could be well supported by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich model. The adsorption of U(VI) was pH-dependent but temperature-independent. High ionic strength (NaCl) strongly affected the adsorption process at low pH (2.0-5.5). CO32- remarkably inhibited the U(VI) adsorption, while the adsorption of U(VI) was promoted by PO43- and SO42-. Naturally occurred soil organic matters (SOMs) showed high affinity for U(VI), while the presence of additional humic acid (HA) strongly inhibited U(VI) adsorption. The occurrence of ferrous iron could result in the reduction of U(VI) at low pH values (pH < 4), leading to the promotion of immobilization of U(VI). These findings would provide some guidance for the safety assessments of the VLLW disposal as well as the remediation of contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Urânio , Adsorção , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solo , Urânio/análise
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5929-5938, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822593

RESUMO

Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) drastically reduces its solubility and has been proposed as a method for remediation of uranium contamination. However, much is still unknown about the kinetics, mechanisms, and products of U(VI) bioreduction in complex systems. In this study, U(VI) bioreduction experiments were conducted with Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 in the presence of clay minerals and two organic ligands: citrate and EDTA. In reactors with U and Fe(III)-clay minerals, the rate of U(VI) bioreduction was enhanced due to the presence of ligands, likely because soluble Fe3+- and Fe2+-ligand complexes served as electron shuttles. In the presence of citrate, bioreduced U(IV) formed a soluble U(IV)-citrate complex in experiments with either Fe-rich or Fe-poor clay mineral. In the presence of EDTA, U(IV) occurred as a soluble U(IV)-EDTA complex in Fe-poor montmorillonite experiments. However, U(IV) remained associated with the solid phase in Fe-rich nontronite experiments through the formation of a ternary U(IV)-EDTA-surface complex, as suggested by the EXAFS analysis. Our study indicates that organic ligands and Fe(III)-bearing clays can significantly affect the microbial reduction of U(VI) and the stability of the resulting U(IV) phase.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Urânio , Argila , Ligantes , Minerais , Oxirredução
3.
J Environ Radioact ; 233: 106617, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866199

RESUMO

Various radionuclides including fission products and heavy nuclides were released into the environment during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident. The dissolution followed by migration of deposited radionuclides of Cs, Sr and U on soils could take place to the local environment. Therefore, it is necessary to determine sorption-desorption coefficients of U in soil-water system around the FDNPS from a migration viewpoint. The determination of sorption coefficient Kd(S) as well as desorption coefficient Kd(D) for U has been carried out in the present study using a laboratory batch method. Stable U was used for sorption from simulated ground water onto contaminated soil samples collected from Okuma Town, Fukushima. Different soil parameters were measured to understand their effects on sorption and desorption processes. The obtained Kd(S) and Kd(D) values of U were compared with values of Kd(S) and Kd(D) of Cs and Sr and Kd(S)-U in known Fukushima accident contaminated soils reported in the literature for better understanding. It was observed that Kd(S)-U varied from 160 to 5100 L/kg, whereas Kd(D)-U ranged from 200 to 11000 L/kg. Kd(D) was higher than Kd(S) for U in these soils implying irreversibility of the sorption process. Pearson's correlation of Kd(S) values suggested that U sorption is affected by various soil parameters. However, desorption is decided by the nature of U species formed in sorption process and soil parameters like pH, presence of carbonates, Ca ions, clay minerals etc. to some extent. The comparison between Kd(S) and Kd(D) values for Cs, Sr and U revealed that unsorbed Sr could migrate farther than unsorbed Cs or U under the present experimental conditions. Both sorption and desorption studies are of great importance to understand migration of metal ions from contaminated sites to local uncontaminated areas.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Urânio , Adsorção , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Urânio/análise
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1198-1216, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724947

RESUMO

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized from biowaste hen eggshells by wet precipitation method in which calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid were used as precursors. The effectiveness of uranium(VI) adsorption onto HAp was investigated by batch adsorption experiments from aqueous solutions. The obtained HAp powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, point of zero charge and Scanning electron microscope. The factors and levels used during the experiments were pH (2-5), adsorbent mass (0.01-0.05 g), and initial U(VI) concentration (100-310 mg L-1). A Box-Behnken design combined with analysis of variance was used to interpret the main effect influencing the adsorption. The results showed that pH was the most significant parameter affecting U(VI). The kinetic data correlates well with the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir-1 type model with the qmax = 175.22 mg g-1 at 25 °C. The calculated value of the mean free energy indicates the chemisorption process. Under optimal conditions, the uranium effluent derived from the precipitation of ammonium uranyl carbonate removal performance of 98% was achieved. This study proved that HAp prepared from eggshell was an ecofriendly and low-cost adsorbent and was very effective for the adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solutions.


Assuntos
Urânio , Adsorção , Animais , Galinhas , Durapatita , Casca de Ovo/química , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4597-4606, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755437

RESUMO

Geological disposal is the globally preferred long-term solution for higher activity radioactive wastes (HAW) including intermediate level waste (ILW). In a cementitious disposal system, cellulosic waste items present in ILW may undergo alkaline hydrolysis, producing significant quantities of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a chelating agent for radionuclides. Although microbial degradation of ISA has been demonstrated, its impact upon the fate of radionuclides in a geological disposal facility (GDF) is a topic of ongoing research. This study investigates the fate of U(VI) in pH-neutral, anoxic, microbial enrichment cultures, approaching conditions similar to the far field of a GDF, containing ISA as the sole carbon source, and elevated phosphate concentrations, incubated both (i) under fermentation and (ii) Fe(III)-reducing conditions. In the ISA-fermentation experiment, U(VI) was precipitated as insoluble U(VI)-phosphates, whereas under Fe(III)-reducing conditions, the majority of the uranium was precipitated as reduced U(IV)-phosphates, presumably formed via enzymatic reduction mediated by metal-reducing bacteria, including Geobacter species. Overall, this suggests the establishment of a microbially mediated "bio-barrier" extending into the far field geosphere surrounding a GDF is possible and this biobarrier has the potential to evolve in response to GDF evolution and can have a controlling impact on the fate of radionuclides.


Assuntos
Urânio , Biomineralização , Compostos Férricos , Oxirredução , Fosfatos , Açúcares Ácidos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116861, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714063

RESUMO

Precise prediction of uranium adsorption at water-mineral interface is of great significance for the safe disposal of radionuclides in geologic environments. Surface complexation modeling (SCM) as a very useful tool has been extensively investigated for simulating adsorption behavior of metals/metalloids at water-mineral interface. Numerous studies concerning the fitting of uranium adsorption on various adsorbents using SCM are well documented, but the systematic and comprehensive review of uranium adsorption using various SCM is not available. In this review, we briefly summarized the rationale of SCM, including constant-capacitance-model (CCM), diffuse-layer-model (DLM), triple-layer-model (TLM); The recent progress in the application of SCM on the fitting of uranium adsorption towards metal (hydr)oxides, clay minerals and soil/sediments was reviewed in details. This review hopefully provides the beneficial guidelines for predicting the transport and fate of uranium in geologic environments beyond laboratory timescales.


Assuntos
Urânio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Urânio/análise , Água
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 4753-4761, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705103

RESUMO

Metal-reducing microorganisms such as Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 reduce highly soluble species of hexavalent uranyl (U(VI)) to less mobile tetravalent uranium (U(IV)) compounds. The biologically mediated immobilization of U(VI) is being considered for the remediation of U contamination. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of biological U(VI) reduction remain unresolved. It has become clear that a first electron transfer occurs to form pentavalent (U(V)) intermediates, but it has not been definitively established whether a second one-electron transfer can occur or if disproportionation of U(V) is required. Here, we utilize the unusual properties of dpaea2- ((dpaeaH2═bis(pyridyl-6-methyl-2-carboxylate)-ethylamine)), a ligand forming a stable soluble aqueous complex with U(V), and investigate the reduction of U(VI)-dpaea and U(V)-dpaea by S. oneidensis MR-1. We establish U speciation through time by separating U(VI) from U(IV) by ion exchange chromatography and characterize the reaction end-products using U M4-edge high resolution X-ray absorption near-edge structure (HR-XANES) spectroscopy. We document the reduction of solid phase U(VI)-dpaea to aqueous U(V)-dpaea but, most importantly, demonstrate that of U(V)-dpaea to U(IV). This work establishes the potential for biological reduction of U(V) bound to a stabilizing ligand. Thus, further work is warranted to investigate the possible persistence of U(V)-organic complexes followed by their bioreduction in environmental systems.


Assuntos
Shewanella , Urânio , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ligantes , Oxirredução
8.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(4): 41-48, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 1946 to 1990, more than 400 000 people were employed by Wismut AG, a Soviet/Soviet-German corporation (German abbreviation: SAG/ SDAG), in the East German states of Saxony and Thuringia. In the early years in particular, employees were exposed to large amounts of radon and respirable crystalline silica. METHODS: In a cohort of 35 204 former underground employees of Wismut AG, mortality was analyzed in comparison to the general male population of East Germany, and the pertaining standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. RESULTS: 18 510 persons in the study cohort died in the follow-up period 1960-2013. Mortality from lung cancer was 2.36 higher in the study cohort than in the general population (95% confidence interval, [2.28; 2.45]); the associated SMRs rose markedly with increasing radon exposure. Mortality from silicosis and other types of pneumoconiosis was elevated by a factor of 22.62 [21.20; 24.11], and the associated SMRs rose exponentially with increasing exposure to respirable crystalline silica. Mortality from both of these causes was still markedly elevated more than 20 years after Wismut AG had ceased its activities. Mortality from a wide range of other diseases was elevated as well, with the following SMRs: stomach cancer, 1.28 [1.17; 1.40]; liver cancer, 1.34 [1.15; 1.55]; all tumors other than lung cancer, 1.06 [1.02; 1.09]; infections, 1.18 [1.01; 1.38]; cerebrovascular diseases, 1.33 [1.26; 1.41]; and influenza/pneumonia, 1.13 [1.01; 1.27]. Mortality from a small number of other causes was found to be markedly lowered in the study cohort (mental illness, renal diseases, and nervous system diseases). The role of occupational risk factors, lifestyle differences and other reasons for the latter results is unclear. CONCLUSION: Underground miners employed by Wismut AG displayed marked excess mortality due to silicosis/other pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. The contribution of individual occupational risk factors for these and other causes of death with increased SMR are being further investigated in analyses within the study cohort.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Radônio , Silicose , Urânio , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 232: 106565, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714078

RESUMO

The Kanyakumari coastal area in the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu, India is a well-known natural high background radiation area due to the abundance of monazite in beach placer deposits. In the present study, the concentrations of major oxides, rare earth elements (REEs), Th and U were measured to understand geochemical characteristics of these monazite sands. Based on the ambient dose rate, 23 locations covering an area of about 60 km along the coast were selected for sample collection. The concentrations of U and Th ranged from 1.1 to 737.8 µg g-1 and 25.2-12250.6 µg g-1, respectively. The Th/U ratio ranged from 2.2 to 61.6, which clearly indicated that Th was the dominant contributing radionuclide to the enhanced natural radioactivity in this coastal region. The chondrite-normalized REEs pattern of the placer deposits showed enrichment in light REEs and depletion in heavy REEs with a negative Eu anomaly that indicated the monazite sands were derived from granite, charnockite, and granitoid rocks from the Nagercoil and the Trivandrum Blocks of the Southern Granulite Terrain.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Monitoramento de Radiação , Urânio , Radiação de Fundo , Índia , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Areia , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
10.
J Environ Radioact ; 232: 106568, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740532

RESUMO

In the present study, 137Cs and 238U activity concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratio, and 235U/238U isotope ratio were measured in fifteen soil samples collected from the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The 137Cs activity concentrations of Fukushima-accident contaminated soil samples ranged from 29.9 to 4780 kBq kg-1 with a mean of 2007 kBq kg-1. On the other hand, the 238U activity concentrations of these soil samples ranged from 5.2 to 22.4 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 13.2 Bq kg-1. The activity ratios of 234U/238U ranged from 0.973 to 1.023. The 235U/238U isotope ratios of these exclusion zone soil samples varied from 0.007246 to 0.007260, and they were similar to the natural terrestrial ratio confirming the natural origin. Using isotope dilution technique, the 235U/137Cs activity ratio was theoretically estimated for highly 137Cs contaminated soil samples from Fukushima exclusion zone ranged from 5.01 × 10-8 - 6.16 × 10-7 with a mean value of 2.51 × 10-7.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Urânio , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Japão , Espectrometria de Massas , Plasma/química , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Urânio/análise
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1640: 461957, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582516

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to explore centrifugal ultrafiltration (UF) to separate and / or preconcentrate natural colloidal particles for their characterization. A soil suspension obtained by batch leaching was used as a laboratory reference sample. It was preconcentrated with concentration factors (CF) varying from 10 to 450. The dimensional analysis of the colloidal phase was carried out by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4)-multidetection. The colloidal masses were estimated by mass balance of the initial suspension, its concentrates and filtrates. The size-dependent distribution (expressed in gyration radius) and total colloidal mass (especially recovery), as well as chemical composition and concentration (including species partitioning between dissolved and colloidal phases) were determined to assess the effects of UF preconcentration on colloidal particles. The gyration radius of the colloidal particles recovered in these concentrated suspensions ranged from about 20 nm to over 150 nm. Neither de-agglomeration nor agglomeration was observed. However, only (64 ± 4) % (CF = 10) of the colloidal particles initially in the soil suspension were found in the recovered concentrated suspensions, and this percentage decreased as CF increased. The filter membrane trapped all other particles, mainly the larger ones. Whatever the CF, the centrifugal UF did not appear to change the dissolved-colloidal partitioning of certain species (Al, organic carbon); whereas it led to an enrichment of the colloidal phase for others (Fe, U). The enrichment rate was specific to each species (15% for Fe; 100% for U). By fitting the observed trends (i.e. conservation, depletion or enrichment of the colloidal phase in the concentrate) as a function of CF, the colloidal concentrations (total and species) were assessed without bias. This methodology offers a new perspective for determining physicochemical speciation in natural waters, with a methodology applicable for environmental survey or site remediation studies.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Solo/química , Suspensões/química , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Urânio/análise , Centrifugação , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 3442-3443, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570393
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210045, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625509

RESUMO

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to communicate the risks of tobacco constituents to the public. Few studies have addressed how FDA media campaigns can effectively communicate about cigarette smoke constituents. Objective: To examine whether messages about cigarette smoke constituents are effective in reducing smoking intentions and behaviors among adults who smoke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial enrolled participants who were aged between 18 and 65 years, were English speakers, were living in the United States, and who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and now smoked every day or some days. Participants received daily messages via email for 15 days. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 message conditions or a control group and reported their previous-day smoking behaviors daily. Follow-up surveys were conducted on days 16 and 32. Data were collected from June 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed from April to September 2018. Interventions: The 3 groups were (1) constituent plus engagement messages (eg, "Cigarette smoke contains arsenic. This causes heart damage.") that included the FDA as the source and engagement text (eg, "Within 3 months of quitting, your heart and lungs work better. Ready to be tobacco free? You can quit. For free nicotine replacement, call 1-800-QUIT-NOW"); (2) constituent-only messages that did not list the FDA as the source or include engagement text; and (3) a control condition with messages about littering cigarette butts. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in quit intentions (range, 1-4, with higher scores indicating stronger intentions) from pretest to day 16. Secondary outcome measures included daily smoking behaviors and quit attempts. Results: A total of 789 participants (mean [SD] age, 43.4 [12.9] years; 483 [61.2%] women; 578 [73.3%] White; 717 [90.9%] non-Hispanic) were included in the study. The mean (SD) quit intention score was 2.5 (0.9) at pretest. Mean (SE) change in quit intention score from pretest to day 16 was 0.19 (0.07) points higher in the constituent plus engagement condition than in the control condition (P = .005) and 0.23 (0.07) points higher in the constituent-only condition compared with the control condition (P = .001). Participant reports of cigarettes smoked, forgone, and butted out were similar across study conditions at baseline and did not differ significantly at days 16 and 32 across study conditions. Viewing more messages was associated with an estimated decrease of 0.15 (SE, 0.01) cigarettes smoked per day per message viewed overall across conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal test of cigarette constituent campaign messages in a national sample of adults who currently smoke. Messages about cigarette smoke constituents, with or without engagement text and source information, increased participants' intentions to quit, lending support to FDA efforts to educate consumers about such constituents. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03339206.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Intenção , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Amônia/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Urânio/efeitos adversos
15.
J Environ Radioact ; 229-230: 106544, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556790

RESUMO

Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring metal; its environmental levels can be increased due to processes in the nuclear industry and fertilizer production. The transfer of U in the food chain from plants is associated with deleterious chemical and radiation effects. To date, limited information is available about U toxicity on plant physiology. This study investigates the responses of metal-accumulating plants to different concentrations of U. The plants Noccaea caerulescens and Noccaea goesingense are known as metal hyperaccumulators and therefore could serve as candidates for the phytoremediation of radioactive hotspots; Plantago major is a widely used pharmaceutical plant that pioneers polluted grounds and therefore should not contain high concentrations of toxic elements. The experimental plants were grown hydroponically at U concentrations between 1 µM and 10 mM. The content of U and essential elements was analyzed in roots and leaves by ICP-MS. The amount of accumulated U was influenced by its concentration in the hydroponics. Roots contained most of the metal, whereas less was transported up to the leaves, with the exception of N. goesingense in a medium concentration of U. U also influenced the nutrient profile of the plants. We localized the U in plant tissues using EDX in the SEM. U was evenly distributed in roots and leaves of Noccaea species, with one exception in the roots of N. goesingense, where the central cylinder contained more U than the cortex. The toxicity of U was assessed by measuring growth and photosynthetic parameters. While root biomass of N. caerulescens was not affected by U, root biomass of N. goesingense decreased significantly at high U concentrations of 0.1 and 10 mM and root biomass of P. major decreased at 10 mM U. Dry weight of leaves was decreased at different U concentrations in the three plant species; a promotive effect was observed in N. caerulescens at lowest concentration offered. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was not affected or negatively affected by U in both Noccaea species, whereas in Plantago also positive effects were observed. Our results show that the impact of U on Plantago and Noccaea relates to its external concentration and to the plant species. When growing in contaminated areas, P. major should not be used for medicinal purpose. Noccaea species and P. major could immobilize U in their rhizosphere in hotspots contaminated by U, and they could extract limited amounts of U into their leaves.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Plantago , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes do Solo , Urânio , Clorofila A , Raízes de Plantas , Urânio/toxicidade
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 823, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547296

RESUMO

We present an application of multi-isotopic fingerprints (i.e., 236U/238U, 233U/236U, 236U/129I and 129I/127I) for the discovery of previously unrecognized sources of anthropogenic radioactivity. Our data indicate a source of reactor 236U in the Baltic Sea in addition to inputs from the two European reprocessing plants and global fallout. This additional reactor 236U may come from unreported discharges from Swedish nuclear research facilities as supported by high 236U levels in sediment nearby Studsvik, or from accidental leakages of spent nuclear fuel disposed on the Baltic seafloor, either reported or unreported. Such leakages would indicate problems with the radiological safety of seafloor disposal, and may be accompanied by releases of other radionuclides. The results demonstrate the high sensitivity of multi-isotopic tracer systems, especially the 233U/236U signature, to distinguish environmental emissions of unrevealed radioactive releases for nuclear safeguards, emergency preparedness and environmental tracer studies.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Urânio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Países Bálticos , Humanos , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Suécia
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111883, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454591

RESUMO

For the first time, the physiological and cellular responses of Nicotiana tabacum (BY-2) cells to uranium (U) as an abiotic stressor were studied using a multi-analytic approach that combined biochemical analysis, thermodynamic modeling and spectroscopic studies. The goal of this investigation was to determine the U threshold toxicity in tobacco BY-2 cells, the influence of U on the homeostasis of micro-macro essential nutrients, as well as the effect of Fe starvation on U bioassociation in cultured BY-2 cells. Our findings demonstrated that U interferes with the homeostasis of essential elements. The interaction of U with BY-2 cells confirmed both time- and concentration-dependent kinetics. Under Fe deficiency, a reduced level of U was detected in the cells compared to Fe-sufficient conditions. Interestingly, blocking the Ca channels with gadolinium chloride caused a decrease in U concentration in the BY-2 cells. Spectroscopic studies evidenced changes in the U speciation in the culture media with increasing exposure time under both Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions, leading us to conclude that different stress response reactions are related to Fe metabolism. Moreover, it is suggested that U toxicity in BY-2 cells is highly dependent on the existence of other micro-macro elements as shown by negative synergistic effects of U and Fe on cell viability.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Urânio/toxicidade , Homeostase , Oxirredução , Estresse Fisiológico , Termodinâmica , Tabaco/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Urânio/metabolismo
18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(2): 1566-1576, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404558

RESUMO

The bacterial cell envelope, in particular the cell wall, is considered the main controlling factor in the biosorption of aqueous uranium(vi) by microorganisms. However, the specific roles of the cell wall, associated biomolecules, and other components of the cell envelope are not well defined. Here we report findings on the biosorption of uranium by isolated cell envelope components and associated biomolecules, with P. putida 33015 and B. subtilis 168 investigated as representative strains for the differences in Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell envelope architecture, respectively. The cell wall and cell surface membrane were isolated from intact cells and characterised by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy; revealing variations in the abundance of functional moieties and biomolecules associated with components of the cell envelope. Uranium biosorption was investigated as a function of cell envelope component and pH, comparing with intact cells. The isolated cell wall from both strains exhibited the greatest uranium biosorption capacity. Deprotonation of favourable functional groups on the biomass as the pH increased from 3 to 5.5 increased their uranium biosorption capacity by approximately 3 fold. The results from ATR-FT-IR indicated that uranium(vi) biosorption was mediated by phosphate and carboxyl groups associated with proteins and phosphorylated biopolymers of the cell envelope. This includes outer membrane phospholipids and LPS of Gram-negative bacteria and teichoic acids, surface proteins and peptidoglycan from Gram-positive bacteria. As a result, the biosorption process of uranium(vi) to microorganisms is controlled by surface interactions, resulting in higher accumulation of uranium in the cell envelope. This demonstrates the importance of bacterial cell wall as the key mediator of uranium biosorption with microorganisms.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Urânio/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 87, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501571

RESUMO

The Al Aziziah area is built on volcanic and granitic rocks. The igneous rocks always contain a high amount of naturally radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and potassium, which produce gamma rays causing environmental hazards when exceeding the permissible limit. Radon gas is a result from the decomposition of uranium/thorium leaks into enclosed areas (e.g. homes or offices). This leakage is controlled by many conditions, and one of them is the underlining rock type. To work on such an environmental study, a gamma ray spectrometer survey was used. The uranium, thorium and potassium contents, as well as their ratios and the total radiation, were determined and mapped. The radiation dose rate was calculated and mapped in mSv/y and nGy/h units. The radiation contamination of groundwater is detected from the contour map of the dose rate over the artificial drainage lines of rains and floods which move this water to the groundwater wells. The main results are as follows: granitic rocks show an average dose rate of about 2.4 mSv/y, while the deposits of these rocks have an average dose rate of 1.2 mSv/y. A low average dose is recorded over the basalt. The average radiation dose recorded in the study area is 1.08 mSv/y, while its range is from 0.001 to 4.41 mSv/y. The estimated effective doses within the Al Aziziah area and vicinity area were higher than 1 mSv/y, which is the public exposure limit, and lower than the occupational exposure limit of 20 mSv/y. We recommend ventilating homes and offices in these places on an ongoing basis and constant radon measuring in closed places.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Urânio , Doses de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Arábia Saudita , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
20.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116377, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401214

RESUMO

As an emerging pollutant, uranium poses serious concerns to ecological and human health. The kidney has been established as a major deposition site and the most sensitive target organ for uranium poisoning, and the underlying toxicological mechanisms have been associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiration. However, the identities of key molecular targets in uranium-induced toxicity remain elusive. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the in vitro effects of uranium on ten critical enzymes in the mitochondrial respiration pathway and discovered that respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and complex V (ATP synthase) were strongly inhibited. The inhibitory effects were validated with mitochondria from human renal proximal tubule cells-the most affected renal site in uranium poisoning. The IC50 values (around 1 mg/L) are physiologically relevant, as they are comparable to known kidney accumulation levels in uranium poisoning. In addition, these inhibitory effects could explain the well-documented uranium-induced reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial alterations. In conclusion, cytochrome c oxidase and ATP synthase are possibly key molecular targets underlying the toxic effects of uranium.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Urânio , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Urânio/metabolismo , Urânio/toxicidade
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