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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127677, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739822

RESUMO

Facile detection of malachite green (MG), a toxic dye, in aquaculture is urgently demanded for environment and food safety. Herein, we design a novel fluorescent probe, namely red emissive Se,N,Cl-doped carbon dots (CDs), to accurately determinate MG. CDs are prepared by hydrothermal treatment of selenourea and o-phenylenediamine in HCl solution. This material exhibits excitation-independent dual emissions at 625 and 679 nm, with a high quantum yield of 23.6%. A selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor toward MG is established based on inner filter effect, because both the excitation and emission light of CDs can be strongly absorbed by MG. The fluorescence quenching of CDs is linear to the MG concentration over the range of 0.07-2.50 µM with a low detection limit of 21 nM. Trace-level analysis of MG in fish tissue is successfully explored, demonstrating the great potential of the proposed sensor for MG monitoring in aquatic products.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Corantes de Rosanilina/análise , Animais , Carbono/química , Cloro/química , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Nitrogênio/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Selênio/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/química
2.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 911-916, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927518

RESUMO

Imatinib has created the era of precise treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, in recent years, there has been a lack of satisfactory drugs for imatinib resistance. Recently, the emergence of a series of new agents not only brings new hope to break this situation, but also verifies that the drug development of GIST treatment still needs to lock the driving gene as the main target. New drugs, such as avapritinib and ripretinib, have shown surprising therapeutic efficacy, which may lead to a new situation in the treatment of GIST. The precise treatment of GIST guided by different primary gene mutations and secondary drug resistance mutations will replace the traditional guidelines based on the number of treatment lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/farmacologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/farmacologia , Ureia/uso terapêutico
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 944-950, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921677

RESUMO

Clinical experience with landiolol use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a severely depressed left ventricular (LV) function is limited. We compared the efficacy and safety of landiolol with that of digoxin as an intravenous drug in controlling the heart rate (HR) during AF associated with a very low LV ejection fraction (LVEF).We retrospectively analyzed 53 patients treated with landiolol (n = 34) or digoxin (n = 19) for AF tachycardias with an LVEF ≤ 25. The landiolol dose was adjusted between 0.5 and 10 µg/kg/minute according to the patient's condition. The response to treatment was defined as a decrease in the HR of ≤ 110/minute, and that decreased by ≥ 20% from baseline.There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the clinical characteristics. The responder rate to landiolol at 24 hours was significantly higher than that to digoxin (71.0% versus 41.2%; odds ratio: 4.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.47-31.0, P = 0.048). The percent decrease in the HR from baseline at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours was greater in the landiolol group than in the digoxin group (P < 0.01, P = 0.071, P = 0.036, and P = 0.016, respectively). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline within 24 hours after administering landiolol was significantly reduced, whereas digoxin did not decrease the SBP over time. Hypotension (< 80 mmHg) occurred in two patients in the landiolol group and 0 in the digoxin group (P = 0.53).Landiolol could be more effective in controlling the AF HR than digoxin even in patients with severely depressed LV function. However, careful hemodynamic monitoring is necessary when administering landiolol.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia/etiologia , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5141-5149, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ) and/or checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762 in human glioma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioma cells were treated with TMZ and/or AZD7762 for 24 or 48 h, then the cellular survival was studied and the expression of various proteins was investigated. RESULTS: Both TMZ and AZD7762 induced concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects, and combined TMZ and AZD7762 (TMZ+AZD) caused synergistic cytotoxic effects in glioma cells (p<0.05). AZD7762 suppressed the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. TMZ+AZD increased the expression of phospho-p53 (p-p53), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatase and tensin homolog; and decreased the expression of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in glioma cells. CONCLUSION: TMZ and AZD7762 combined induced synergistic cytotoxic effects on human glioma cells and such effects may be related to the AZD7762-induced suppression of MGMT expression and the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Ureia/farmacologia
5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(3): 652-659, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of PET with (2S)-2-[[(1S)-1-carboxy-5-[(6-(18F)fluoranylpyridine-3-carbonyl)amino]pentyl]carbamoylamino]pentanedioic acid (18F-DCFPyL), a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radiotracer, in the detection of high-risk localized prostate cancer as compared with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS. This HIPAA-compliant prospective study included 26 consecutive patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer (median age, 69.5 years [range, 53-81 years]; median prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level, 18.88 ng/mL [range, 1.03-20.00 ng/mL]) imaged with 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT and mpMRI. Images from PET/CT and mpMRI were evaluated separately, and suspicious areas underwent targeted biopsy. Lesion-based sensitivity and tumor detection rate were compared for PSMA PET and mpMRI. Standardized uptake value (SUV) and PSMA PET parameters were correlated with histopathology score, and uptake in tumor was compared with that in nonmalignant tissue. On a patient level, SUV and PSMA tumor volume were correlated with PSA density. RESULTS. Forty-four tumors (one in Gleason grade [GG] group 1, 12 in GG group 2, seven in GG group 3, nine in GG group 4, and 15 in GG group 5) were identified at histopathology. Sensitivity and tumor detection rate of 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT and mpMRI were similar (PET/CT, 90.9% and 80%; mpMRI, 86.4% and 88.4%; p = 0.58/0.17). Total lesion PSMA and PSMA tumor volume showed a relationship with GG (τ = 0.27 and p = 0.08, τ = 0.30 and p = 0.06, respectively). Maximum SUV in tumor was significantly higher than that in nonmalignant tissue (p < 0.05). Tumor burden density moderately correlated with PSA density (r = 0.47, p = 0.01). Five true-positive tumors identified on 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT were not identified on mpMRI. CONCLUSION. In patients with high-risk prostate cancer, 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT is highly sensitive in detecting intraprostatic tumors and can detect tumors missed on mpMRI. Measured uptake is significantly higher in tumor tissue, and PSMA-derived tumor burden is associated with severity of disease.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Tumoral , Ureia/análogos & derivados
6.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 596-604, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel G-protein signalling-biased mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist, PZM21, was recently developed with a distinct chemical structure. It is a potent Gi/o activator with minimal ß-arrestin-2 recruitment. Despite intriguing activity in rodent models, PZM21 function in non-human primates is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate PZM21 actions after systemic or intrathecal administration in primates. METHODS: Antinociceptive, reinforcing, and pruritic effects of PZM21 were compared with those of the clinically used MOP receptor agonists oxycodone and morphine in assays of acute thermal nociception, capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia, itch scratching responses, and drug self-administration in gonadally intact, adult rhesus macaques (10 males, six females). RESULTS: After subcutaneous administration, PZM21 (1.0-6.0 mg kg-1) and oxycodone (0.1-0.6 mg kg-1) induced dose-dependent thermal antinociceptive effects (P<0.05); PZM21 was 10 times less potent than oxycodone. PZM21 exerted oxycodone-like reinforcing effects and strength as determined by two operant schedules of reinforcement in the intravenous drug self-administration assay. After intrathecal administration, PZM21 (0.03-0.3 mg) dose-dependently attenuated capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia (P<0.05). Although intrathecal PZM21 and morphine induced MOP receptor-mediated antiallodynic effects, both compounds induced robust, long-lasting itch scratching. CONCLUSIONS: PZM21 induced antinociceptive, reinforcing, and pruritic effects similar to clinically used MOP receptor agonists in primates. Although structure-based discovery of PZM21 identified a novel avenue for studying G-protein signalling-biased ligands, biasing an agonist towards G-protein signalling pathways did not determine or alter reinforcing (i.e. abuse potential) or pruritic effects of MOP receptor agonists in a translationally relevant non-human primate model.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Receptores Opioides mu/agonistas , Reforço Psicológico , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Ureia/farmacologia
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461328, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797818

RESUMO

Ferric oxide/carbon (Fe2O3@C) was fabricated via direct carbonization of metal-organic framework of iron (MOF-235) under argon atmosphere. The magnetic Fe2O3 nanoparticles are evenly embedded in porous carbon matrix, while original morphology of MOF-235 was well-maintained. The synthesized Fe2O3@C was used as magnetic sorbent for extracting five benzoylurea insecticides (BUs). The materials exhibited excellent extraction performance, which benefited not only from the strong π-π interaction and hydrophobic interaction (π-conjugated system), but also to the abundant adsorption sites and flexible transport channel (the interconnected 3D porous structure). A three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was selected to optimize three greatly influential parameters: amount of adsorbent (A), desorption time (B) and volume of desorption solvent (C) by response surface methodology. The established method coupled to HPLC-UV detection showed wide linearity with the range of 0.2-450 µg•L-1, relatively low limits of detection (0.05-0.10 µg•L-1) with the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 7) lower t than 5.47%. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to analyze BUs in tea samples and investigate the removal effect of different washing on BUs residues from tea leaf. These results indicated that the synthesized Fe2O3@C is a promising adsorbent material for magnetic solid phase extraction of BUs at trace concentrations from tea samples.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Chá/química , Ureia/análise , Adsorção , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Compostos Férricos/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Padrões de Referência , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Chá/metabolismo , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/isolamento & purificação , Ureia/normas
9.
Life Sci ; 257: 118046, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622948

RESUMO

Orexin-A is an endogenous peptide with receptors throughout the brain. According to some recent research, learning and memory are affected by the central administration of orexin; however, no study so far has investigated the long-term inhibition of the orexinergic system. The present study has evaluated the effect of pretraining administration of orexin 1 receptor (OXR1) antagonist, SB-334867, on the acquisition of memory. The Morris water maze (MWM) task was used for training and trial purposes in all groups. Memory performance was analyzed by measuring escape latency, traveled distance, and time spent in the target quadrant. Moreover, the effect of SB-334867 on phospholipase Cß3 (PLCß3) levels in the CA1 region of hippocampus slices was examined. Hippocampus slices were prepared using an immunohistochemistry (IHC) approach. SB-334867 (20 mg/kg) increased escape latency in SB-treated rats compared to SB-vehicle group (P < 0.01). SB-treated rats spent less time in the target quadrant compared to the SB-vehicle group (P < 0.001). Distance traveled in the target quadrant was significantly more in SB-treated rats compared to the SB-vehicle group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, SB-334867 decreased PLCß3 levels in the CA1 of the hippocampus (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Put together, our results suggest that the long-term inhibition of OXR1 plays a prominent role in spatial learning and memory, probably by attenuating PLCß3 in CA1 neurons.


Assuntos
Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/fisiologia , Fosfolipase C beta/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C beta/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/farmacologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3405, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636378

RESUMO

Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a putative positive inotropic tool for treatment of systolic heart dysfunction, based on the finding that in vivo it increases the ejection fraction and in vitro it prolongs the actin-bond life time of the cardiac and slow-skeletal muscle isoforms of myosin. OM action in situ, however, is still poorly understood as the enhanced Ca2+-sensitivity of the myofilaments is at odds with the reduction of force and rate of force development observed at saturating Ca2+. Here we show, by combining fast sarcomere-level mechanics and ATPase measurements in single slow demembranated fibres from rabbit soleus, that the depressant effect of OM on the force per attached motor is reversed, without effect on the ATPase rate, by physiological concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) (1-10 mM). This mechanism could underpin an energetically efficient reduction of systolic tension cost in OM-treated patients, whenever [Pi] increases with heart-beat frequency.


Assuntos
Miosinas Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosinas/metabolismo , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coelhos , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Ureia/farmacologia
11.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695312

RESUMO

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are symptoms of disturbed perception, mood, behavior, and thought content that occurred frequently. These symptoms, which include apathy, depression, anxiety, psychosis, agitation, and aggression, can serve as predictors of and early clinical diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are common precipitants of institutional care. Agitation and psychosis are associated with accelerated disease progression and increased tau phosphorylation in patients with AD. Current guidelines recommend the use of second-generation antipsychotics for the treatment of agitation and psychosis in AD, but only after first-line non-pharmacological interventions and for no longer than 12 weeks because long-term use of these drugs is associated with an increased risk of mortality and an increased frequency of cerebrovascular events. Therefore, new antipsychotic drugs with improved efficacy and safety are needed as an alternative to current antipsychotic drugs. In this report, we discuss some of the most relevant advances in the field of agitation and psychosis in AD and focus on the recent positive clinical evidence observed with two new antipsychotics drugs: brexpiprazole and pimavanserin. Brexpiprazole is a receptor partial agonist (D2, D3, 5-HT1A), receptor antagonist (5-HT2A/B, α1B/α2C) according to the neuroscience-based nomenclature. Two recent phase III clinical trials have shown that brexpiprazole 2 mg/day is effective for the treatment of agitation in patients with AD and has an improved tolerability and safety profile compared with currently available second-generation antipsychotics. Pimavanserin is a receptor antagonist (5-HT2A, 5-HT2C) that has been given market authorization for psychosis occurring in Parkinson's disease. Recent phase II studies suggest that this drug is effective in AD patients with more severe psychosis, although further long-term studies are needed to better define the efficacy and long-term safety profile of pimavanserin for the treatment of psychosis in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicóticos , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade , Humanos , Piperidinas , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas , Tiofenos , Ureia/análogos & derivados
12.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(9): 727-729, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520499

RESUMO

A 51-year-old man diagnosed with high-grade, high-volume metastatic castration-sensitive prostate adenocarcinoma received pelvic radiation, androgen deprivation therapy, and intravenous docetaxel. Serum prostate-specific antigen became undetectable following treatment. Within a year, his cancer progressed to castration-resistant disease, and he was treated with oral abiraterone acetate 1000 mg and prednisone 10 mg daily. Despite this, the serum prostate-specific antigen rose from 0.03 to 1.39 µg/L, and F-DCFPyL and F-FDG PET/CT showed progression. While F-DCFPyL uptake may be seen in aggressive disease, F-FDG portends poor prognosis. Despite intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy, the patient died of respiratory failure 20 months after his initial diagnosis.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico
13.
J Oral Sci ; 62(3): 314-317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581178

RESUMO

Administration of local anesthetics with adrenaline can cause tachycardia and hypertension. This study assessed whether combined administration of landiolol with adrenaline and lidocaine would induce local anesthesia without causing hemodynamic changes. Normal saline (NS), lidocaine with adrenaline (LA), and lidocaine with adrenaline and landiolol (LLA) were injected into Wistar Kyoto (WKY/Izm) or spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/Izm) rats, followed by measurement of the pulse rate (PR), and the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures (SBP, DBP and MBP). In the LLA group, the increase in PR was significantly suppressed in both SHR/Izm and WKY/Izm rats relative to those in the LA group. Although SBP was significantly reduced in WKY/Izm rats given LLA, relative to those given NS or LA, it was elevated in SHR/Izm rats given LLA. Landiolol-induced changes in PR may be due to blockade of adrenaline-induced ß1 receptor stimulation, which suppresses cardiac hyperactivity, whereas the early surge of blood pressure in SHR/Izm rats given LLA may be due to the dominant alpha-adrenergic effects of ß1 receptor inhibition. The anti-adrenergic effects of LLA were safe and effective in WKY/Izm rats, although the unexpected early hypertensive surge in SHR/Izm rats indicates the need for caution.


Assuntos
Epinefrina , Lidocaína , Animais , Morfolinas , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ureia/análogos & derivados
14.
Nature ; 581(7808): 339-343, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433613

RESUMO

Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, constituting up to 50% of plasma membrane lipids. By contrast, it accounts for only 5% of lipids in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)1. The ER enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (also named acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, ACAT1) transfers a long-chain fatty acid to cholesterol to form cholesteryl esters that coalesce into cytosolic lipid droplets. Under conditions of cholesterol overload, ACAT1 maintains the low cholesterol concentration of the ER and thereby has an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis2,3. ACAT1 has also been implicated in Alzheimer's disease4, atherosclerosis5 and cancers6. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy structure of human ACAT1 in complex with nevanimibe7, an inhibitor that is in clinical trials for the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The ACAT1 holoenzyme is a tetramer that consists of two homodimers. Each monomer contains nine transmembrane helices (TMs), six of which (TM4-TM9) form a cavity that accommodates nevanimibe and an endogenous acyl-coenzyme A. This cavity also contains a histidine that has previously been identified as essential for catalytic activity8. Our structural data and biochemical analyses provide a physical model to explain the process of cholesterol esterification, as well as details of the interaction between nevanimibe and ACAT1, which may help to accelerate the development of ACAT1 inhibitors to treat related diseases.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/química , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/ultraestrutura , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Histidina/química , Histidina/metabolismo , Holoenzimas/química , Holoenzimas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Multimerização Proteica , Eletricidade Estática , Ureia/química
15.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(5): 485-495, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is common among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In the CLARITY study, the safety and efficacy of adjunctive pimavanserin, an inverse agonist at 5-HT2A receptors, were demonstrated when added to existing treatment for MDD. This analysis provides a detailed assessment of the effects of pimavanserin on sexual function from the CLARITY study. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of MDD in a depressive episode, inadequate response to ongoing antidepressant therapy, and a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score >20 were randomized to pimavanserin 34 mg/day or placebo added to ongoing treatment with an immediate revision of all selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine for 5 weeks (Stage 1), and nonresponders (<50% improvement from baseline in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD-17]) were re-randomized for an additional 5 week (Stage 2). Effects of pimavanserin on the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Functioning Index (MGH-SFI) and HAMD-17 Item 14 (sexual interest) were examined. RESULTS: Among 203 patients (51 on pimavanserin; 152 on placebo), pimavanserin demonstrated significant improvement from baseline to Week 5 on the MGH-SFI (least square [LS]mean difference -0.634, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.964, -0.304]; p = .0002; effect size [ES], Cohen's d: .614). Across Stages 1 and 2, the weighted LSmean difference was -0.468 (95% CI [-0.720, -0.216]; p = .0003) for pimavanserin versus placebo. Mean changes from baseline to Week 5 for MGH-SFI Items 1, 2, 3, and 5 and HAMD Item 14 were significantly (p < .05) greater with pimavanserin versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive pimavanserin improved sexual function in patients with MDD. Adding pimavanserin to ongoing treatment for MDD may be especially useful for patients experiencing sexual dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/uso terapêutico
16.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126250, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234618

RESUMO

Presence of even small amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the environment carries risks to human and animal health, presenting an important issue. The paper presents issues related to the new drug - pimavanserin (PMV). Biological treatment efficiency of pimavanserin (PMV) was evaluated using lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). It has been shown to have a negative effect on aquatic organisms by classifying it as a toxic compound (EC50 = 8 mgL-1). The level of biological degradation of PMV was insufficient (37%) and intensively foam formation caused operational problems. For this reason, in this study polymers based on cyclodextrins (CDs) were synthesized and used as adsorbents alternative to active carbons to effectively separate PMV from real industrial waste streams. Crosslinked ß- and γ-CD polymers (ß- and γ-NS), obtained in reaction with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), were fully characterized by physicochemical methods. The adsorption equilibrium data were interpreted using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The sorption process was fast (60 s) and the efficiency of PMV separation from model waste waters was 93% and 81% for ß- and γ-NS, respectively. Maximum polymer capacity was found at 52.08 mg g-1 for ß-NS and 23.26 mg g-1 for γ-NS. The interactions of PMV with CDs have been studied and indicate that major mechanism of the sorption is based on supramolecular interaction and capture to polymer network. Described biodegradable and reusable materials are perfect example of correctly selected adsorbent for separation of target substance from postproduction aqueous media.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/química , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Celulose/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Resíduos Industriais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polímeros/química , Ureia/química , Águas Residuárias , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
17.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 111-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308404

RESUMO

Background: Landiolol hydrochloride, a highly cardio-selective beta-1 blocker with an ultra-short-acting half-life of 4 minutes, was originally approved by Japan for treatment of intraoperative tachyarrhythmias. This review aims to provide an integrated overview of the current state of knowledge of landiolol hydrochloride in the management of arrhythmia in critical settings. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve relevant articles with a total of 65 records identified. Results: The high ß1 selectivity (ß1/ß2 ratio of 255:1) of landiolol causes a more rapid heart rate (HR) decrease compared to esmolol while avoiding decreases in mean arterial blood pressure. Recently, it has been found useful in left ventricular dysfunction patients and fatal arrhythmia requiring emergency treatment. Recent random clinical trials (RCT) have revealed therapeutic and prophylactic effects on arrhythmia, and very low-dose landiolol might be effective for preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and sinus tachycardia. Likewise, landiolol is an optimal choice for perioperative tachycardia treatment during cardiac surgery. The high ß1 selectivity of landiolol is useful in heart failure patients as a first-line therapy for tachycardia and arrhythmia as it avoids the typical depression of cardiac function seen in other ß-blockers. Application in cardiac injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), protection for vital organs (lung, kidney, etc.) during sepsis, and stabilizing hemodynamics in pediatric patients are becoming the new frontier of landiolol use. Conclusion: Landiolol is useful as a first-line therapy for the prevention of POAF after cardiac/non-cardiac surgery, fatal arrhythmias in heart failure patients and during PCI. Moreover, the potential therapeutic effect of landiolol for sepsis in pediatric patients is currently being explored. As positive RCT results continue to be published, new clinical uses and further clinical studies in various settings by cardiologists, intensivists and pediatric cardiologists are being conducted.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacocinética , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Antiarrítmicos/farmacocinética , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/efeitos adversos , Ureia/farmacocinética , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(9): 863-872, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tachycardia and atrial fibrillation frequently occur in patients being treated for sepsis or septic shock and have a poor prognosis. Treatments for tachyarrhythmias are often ineffective or contraindicated in this setting. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of landiolol, an ultra-short-acting ß-blocker, for treating sepsis-related tachyarrhythmias. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial at 54 hospitals in Japan. Patients admitted to the intensive care units who received conventional treatment for sepsis, according to clinical guidelines for the management of sepsis, and who subsequently developed a tachyarrhythmia, were enrolled. The main inclusion criteria were 20 years of age or older, diagnosis of sepsis according to Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock criteria, administration of catecholamine necessary to maintain mean arterial pressure at 65 mm Hg or more for at least 1 h, and heart rate of 100 beats per min (bpm) or more maintained for at least 10 min without a change in catecholamine dose with diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or sinus tachycardia. Only patients who developed these symptoms and signs within 24 h before randomisation, and within 72 h after entering an intensive care unit, were prospectively assigned to receive conventional sepsis therapy alone (control group) or conventional sepsis therapy plus landiolol (landiolol group) in an open-label manner. Landiolol hydrochloride was intravenously infused at an initial dose of 1 µg/kg per min within 2 h after randomisation and the dose could be increased per study protocol to a maximum of 20 µg/kg per min. Patients in both groups received conventional therapy (Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2016), including respiratory and fluid resuscitation, antimicrobials, and catecholamines. The treating physicians were required to stabilise the patient's haemodynamic status before randomisation. Randomisation was done using a central randomisation system and dynamic allocation with the minimisation method by institution, heart rate at randomisation (≥100 to <120 bpm or ≥120 bpm), and age (<70 years or ≥70 years). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with heart rate of 60-94 bpm at 24 h after randomisation. Patients without heart rate data at 24 h after randomisation were handled as non-responders. The primary outcome was analysed using the full analysis set on an as-assigned basis, while safety was analysed using the safety analysis set according to the treatment received. This study was registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information database, number JapicCTI-173767. FINDINGS: Between Jan 16, 2018 and Apr 22, 2019, 151 patients were randomly assigned, 76 to the landiolol group and 75 to the control group. A significantly larger proportion of patients in the landiolol group had a heart rate of 60-94 bpm 24 h after randomisation than in the control group (55% [41 of 75] vs 33% [25 of 75]), with a between-group difference of 23·1% (95% CI 7·1-37·5; p=0·0031). Adverse events were observed in 49 (64%) of 77 patients in the landiolol group and in 44 (59%) of 74 in the control group, with serious adverse events (including adverse events leading to death) in nine (12%) of 77 and eight (11%) of 74 patients. Serious adverse events related to landiolol occurred in five (6%) of 77 patients, including blood pressure decreases in three patients (4%) and cardiac arrest, heart rate decrease, and ejection fraction decrease occurred in one patient each (1%). INTERPRETATION: Landiolol resulted in significantly more patients with sepsis-related tachyarrhythmia achieving a heart rate of 60-94 bpm at 24 h and significantly reduced the incidence of new-onset arrhythmia. Landiolol was also well tolerated, but it should be used under appropriate monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate owing to the risk of hypotension in patients with sepsis and septic shock. FUNDING: Ono Pharmaceutical Co.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Sepse/complicações , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/efeitos adversos , Ureia/uso terapêutico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174544

RESUMO

Pimavanserin is a new drug approved by the FDA for Parkinson's disease psychosis and other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we developed a UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify pimavanserin disposition in the brain and its pharmacokinetics in mice. Vilazodone was used as the internal standard. Pimavanserin and IS were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether and separated using an Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) and B (0.1% formic acid in 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer) (A: B, 70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions were performed at m/z 428.23 â†’ 98.15 for pimavanserin and m/z 441.70 > 155.03 for the IS. The developed method was found to be sensitive, fast, and reproducible. The linearity of the method was ˃0.99 over the range of 0.1-300 ng/mL in plasma and 0.25-300 ng/g in the brain homogenate. Precision and accuracy were within the acceptance range. The method was applied to pharmacokinetics and brain uptake studies, which showed that pimavanserin penetrates the blood-brain barrier and reaches a Cmax of 21.9 ± 6.66 ng/g in 2.0 h. We also found that pimavanserin brain to plasma ratio (Kbrain/plasma) is 0.16 ± 0.05 and it is rapidly eliminated.


Assuntos
Piperidinas/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Camundongos , Plasma/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ureia/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacocinética
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