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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19723, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385156

RESUMO

Hibernating animals exhibit an unexplained physiological characteristic of skeletal muscles being atrophy resistance, in which case muscle mass and strength remain almost unchanged both before and after hibernation. In this study, we examined the alterations in the regulatory systems of protein and energy metabolism in the skeletal muscles of Asiatic black bears during hibernation. Skeletal muscle samples (vastus lateralis muscle) were collected from identical individuals (n = 8) during the active (July) and hibernating (February) periods, while histochemical and biochemical analyses were performed. We observed no significant alterations in body weight, muscle fiber size, and fiber type composition during the active and hibernating periods, indicating that the skeletal muscles of bears are very well preserved during hibernation. In hibernating bear skeletal muscles, both regulatory pathways of muscle protein synthesis (Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin and mitogen-activated protein kinase systems) and proteolysis (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy systems) were down-regulated. Gene expression levels of factors regulating oxidative metabolism were also decreased in hibernating bear skeletal muscles. This is likely an adaptive strategy to minimize the energy wasting of amino acids and lipids during hibernation, which is accompanied by a prolonged period of disuse and starvation.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Ursidae , Animais , Hibernação/fisiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360198

RESUMO

Significant palaeoecological and paleoclimatic changes that took place during Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene transition are considered important factors that led to megafauna extinctions. Unlike many other species, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) has survived this geological time. Despite the fact that several mitochondrial DNA clades of brown bears became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, this species is still widely distributed in Northeast Eurasia. Here, using the ancient DNA analysis of a brown bear individual that inhabited Northeast Asia in the Middle Holocene (3460 ± 40 years BP) and comparative phylogenetic analysis, we show a significant mitochondrial DNA similarity of the studied specimen with modern brown bears inhabiting Yakutia and Chukotka. In this study, we clearly demonstrate the maternal philopatry of the Northeastern Eurasian U. arctos population during the several thousand years of the Holocene.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Ursidae/genética , DNA Antigo , Filogenia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360286

RESUMO

Ticks rank second in the world as vectors of disease. Tick infestation is one of the factors threatening the health and survival of giant pandas. Here, we describe the mitogenomes of Ixodes acutitarsus and Ixodes ovatus parasitizing giant pandas, and perform comparative and phylogenetic genomic analyses on the newly sequenced and other available mitogenomes of hard ticks. All six newly determined mitogenomes contain a typical gene component and share an ancient Arthropoda gene arrangement pattern. Our study suggests that I. ovatus is a species complex with high genetic divergence, indicating that different clades of I. ovatus represent distinct species. Comparative mitogenomic analyses show that the average A + T content of Ixodidae mitogenomes is 78.08%, their GC-skews are strongly negative, while AT-skews fluctuate around 0. A large number of microsatellites are detected in Ixodidae mitogenomes, and the main microsatellite motifs are mononucleotide A and trinucleotide AAT. We summarize five gene arrangement types, and identify the trnY-COX1-trnS1-COX2-trnK-ATP8-ATP6-COX3-trnG fragment is the most conserved region, whereas the region near the control region is the rearrangement hotspot in Ixodidae mitogenomes. The phylogenetic trees based on 15 genes provide a very convincing relationship (Ixodes + (Robertsicus + ((Bothriocroton + Haemaphysalis) + (Amblyomma + (Dermacentor + (Rhipicentor + (Hyalomma + Rhipicephalus))))))) with very strong supports. Remarkably, Archaeocroton sphenodonti is embedded in the Haemaphysalis clade with strong supports, resulting in paraphyly of the Haemaphysalis genus, so in-depth morphological and molecular studies are essential to determine the taxonomic status of A. sphenodonti and its closely related species. Our results provide new insights into the molecular phylogeny and evolution of hard ticks, as well as basic data for population genetics assessment and efficient surveillance and control for the giant panda-infesting ticks.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Ursidae , Animais , Ixodidae/genética , Filogenia , Ixodes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética
4.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 322-325, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-377

RESUMO

Los niveles plasmáticos de colesterol y triglicéridos son 2 veces más altos en los osos pardos (Ursus arctos) durante el periodo de hibernación que en los humanos sanos. Sin embargo, los osos no muestran signos de desarrollo de aterosclerosis. Para explorar esta aparente paradoja, analizamos lipoproteínas del plasmas de 10 osos recolectados durante el invierno (hibernación: febrero) y verano (activo: junio) en el mismo año. El plasma de 14 humanos sanos se analizó como comparador. Se utilizaron métodos estándar para el aislamiento de lipoproteínas, la composición y la investigación funcional. Los resultados muestran que en los osos pardos la ausencia de aterosclerosis a pesar del colesterol elevado probablemente se asocie con 2 propiedades ateroprotectoras principales de las lipoproteínas circulantes. En primer lugar, una afinidad significativamente, 10 veces menor, de las partículas de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) por los proteoglicanos arteriales y, en segundo lugar, una capacidad elevada de eflujo de colesterol en plasma comparado con humanos. ¿Qué nos dicen los datos del oso pardo? Ese colesterol total elevado y las lipoproteínas que contienen ApoB no siempre se asocian con la enfermedad de aterosclerosis. Necesitamos observar también las características bioquímicas y la funcionalidad de las lipoproteínas, ya que son relevantes para la fisiopatología arterial. ¿Cuál es la traducibilidad al humano de estos resultados? Los humanos necesitamos controlar nuestros niveles de colesterol total y LDL. ¡No somos osos pardos!.(AU)


Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are twice as high in hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) than in healthy humans. Yet, bears display no sign of atherosclerosis development. To explore this apparent paradox, we analyzed lipoproteins from same ten individual bears plasma collected during winter (hibernation; February) and summer (active; June) in the same year. Plasma from fourteen healthy humans were analyzed as comparator. We used standard methods for lipoprotein isolation, composition and functional investigation. The results shows that in brown bears the absence of atherosclerosis despite elevated cholesterol is likely associated with two main athero-protective properties of circulating lipoproteins. First, a significant ten times lower affinity of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles for arterial proteoglycans and secondly, an elevated plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. What does the brown bear data tell us? That elevated total cholesterol and ApoB-containing lipoproteins not always associates with atherosclerosis disease. We need to look also at the lipoprotein biochemical features and functionality as they are relevant for arterial pathophysiology. What is the translatability into human of these results? We humans need to control our total and LDL-cholesterol levels. We are not brown bears!.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ursidae , Colesterol , Triglicerídeos , Hipercolesterolemia , Proteoglicanas , Aterosclerose , Pesquisa
5.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(196): 20220466, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321372

RESUMO

Microscopic papillae on polar bear paw pads are considered adaptations for increased friction on ice/snow, yet this assertion is based on a single study of one species. The lack of comparative data from species that exploit different habitats renders the ecomorphological associations of papillae unclear. Here, we quantify the surface roughness of the paw pads of four species of bear over five orders of magnitude by calculating their surface roughness power spectral density. We find that interspecific variation in papillae base diameter can be explained by paw pad width, but that polar bear paw pads have 1.5 times taller papillae and 1.3 times more true surface area than paw pads of the American black bear and brown bear. Based on friction experiments with three-dimensional printed model surfaces and snow, we conclude that these factors increase the frictional shear stress of the polar bear paw pad on snow by a factor of 1.3-1.5 compared with the other species. Absolute frictional forces, however, are estimated to be similar among species once paw pad area is accounted for, suggesting that taller papillae may compensate for frictional losses resulting from the relatively smaller paw pads of polar bears compared with their close relatives.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Ursidae/anatomia & histologia , Neve , Fricção , Adaptação Fisiológica , Pele
6.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276554, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301816

RESUMO

Community attitudes towards large carnivores are of central importance to their conservation in human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we evaluate community attitudes and perceptions towards the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and bears (Ursus thibetanus and Ursus arctos), as well as their prey species, namely sika deer (Cervus nippon), roe deer and wild boar (Sus scrofa), in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin province, northeast China. We surveyed 139 households and found that community members' perceptions of large carnivores and their prey species were influenced by their predominant economic activities; their prior interactions with wildlife; their household income level; and whether they were either long-term residents of Yanbian or had migrated to the region from elsewhere in China. We recorded fairly neutral attitudes towards large carnivores among the communities we surveyed, but strongly negative attitudes were shown towards wild boar, particularly where respondents had lost agricultural products to crop raiding by wild boar. We recommend conservation stakeholders in northeast China utilise this finding to encourage support for large carnivore recovery and conservation by targeting messaging around the importance of the tiger as a key predator of wild boar in the ecosystem. Furthermore, our findings suggest that government provided compensation paid for cattle lost to large carnivore predation (notably, by tigers) may be helping to reduce animosity from cattle owners towards large carnivores. However, we also highlight that compensation for loss of livestock is therefore performing a useful role in mitigating human-wildlife conflict, that there are potentially unintended consequences of the current compensation program, for example it fails to dissuade livestock grazing in protected areas.


Assuntos
Cervos , Panthera , Tigres , Ursidae , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais Selvagens , China , Atitude , Sus scrofa
7.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 34(6): 322-325, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307326

RESUMO

Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are twice as high in hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) than in healthy humans. Yet, bears display no sign of atherosclerosis development. To explore this apparent paradox, we analyzed lipoproteins from same ten individual bears plasma collected during winter (hibernation; February) and summer (active; June) in the same year. Plasma from fourteen healthy humans were analyzed as comparator. We used standard methods for lipoprotein isolation, composition and functional investigation. The results shows that in brown bears the absence of atherosclerosis despite elevated cholesterol is likely associated with two main athero-protective properties of circulating lipoproteins. First, a significant ten times lower affinity of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles for arterial proteoglycans and secondly, an elevated plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. What does the brown bear data tell us? That elevated total cholesterol and ApoB-containing lipoproteins not always associates with atherosclerosis disease. We need to look also at the lipoprotein biochemical features and functionality as they are relevant for arterial pathophysiology. What is the translatability into human of these results? We humans need to control our total and LDL-cholesterol levels. We are not brown bears!


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hibernação , Ursidae , Humanos , Animais , Ursidae/fisiologia , Hibernação/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Colesterol
8.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120395, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228858

RESUMO

To understand the exposure and potential sources of emerging brominated flame retardants (EBFR) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) in marine wildlife from the Norwegian Arctic, we investigated concentrations of EBFRs in 157 tissue samples from nine species of marine vertebrates and OPEs in 34 samples from three whale species. The samples, collected from a wide range of species with contrasting areal use and diets, included blubber of blue whales, fin whales, humpback whales, white whales, killer whales, walruses and ringed seals and adipose tissue and plasma from polar bears, as well as adipose tissue from glaucous gulls. Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) ranged from <0.61 to 164 and < 0.8-41 ng/g lipid weight, respectively, in blue whales and fin whales. All other EBRFs and OPEs were below the detection limit or detected only at low concentration. In addition to the baseline information on the occurrence of EBFRs and OPEs in marine wildlife from the Arctic, we provide an in-depth discussion regarding potential sources of the detected compounds. This information is important for future monitoring and management of EBFRs and OPEs.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Retardadores de Chama , Focas Verdadeiras , Ursidae , Animais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Animais Selvagens , Monitoramento Ambiental , Organofosfatos , Ésteres , Fosfatos
9.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120427, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243189

RESUMO

Hunting has multiple consequences for wildlife, and it can be an important source of environmental pollution. Most big game hunters use lead (Pb) ammunition that shed metal fragments in the tissues of harvested animals. These Pb fragments become available to scavengers when hunters discard contaminated slaughter remains in the environment. This exposure route has been extensively studied in avian scavengers, but few studies have investigated Pb exposure from ammunition in mammals. Mammalian scavengers, including American black bears (Ursus americanus), frequently use slaughter remains discarded by hunters. The objective of this study was to investigate whether big game harvest density influenced long-term Pb exposure in American black bears from Quebec, Canada. Our results showed that female black bears had higher tooth Pb concentrations in areas with higher big game harvest densities, but such relationship was not evident in males. We also showed that older bears had higher tooth Pb concentrations compared to younger ones. Overall, our study showed that Pb exposure increases with age in black bears and that some of that Pb likely comes from bullet fragments embedded in slaughter remains discarded by hunters. These results suggest that hunters may drive mammalian scavengers into an evolutionary trap, whereby the long-term benefits of consuming slaughter remains could be negated due to increased Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Chumbo , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Canadá
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0269407, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288266

RESUMO

Large predators often are believed to cause declines in hunter harvests of ungulates due to direct competition for prey with hunters. In Alberta, predators of elk (Cervus elaphus), including grizzly bear (Ursus arctos), cougar (Puma concolor), and wolf (Canis lupus), have increased in recent years. We used trend analysis replicated by Wildlife Management Unit (WMU) to examine regional trends in elk harvest and hunter success. Over a 26-yr period, average harvest of elk increased by 5.46% per year for unrestricted bull and by 6.64% per year for limited-quota seasons. Also, over the same time frame, average hunter success increased by 0.2% per year for unrestricted bull and by 0.3% per year for limited-quota seasons, but no trend was detected in hunter effort (P>0.05). Our results show that increasing large-predator populations do not necessarily reduce hunter harvest of elk, and we only found evidence for this in Alberta's mountain WMUs where predation on elk calves has reduced recruitment. Furthermore, data indicate that Alberta's elk harvest management has been sustainable, i.e., hunting has continued while populations of elk have increased throughout most of the province. Wildlife agencies can justify commitments to long-term population monitoring because data allow adaptive management and can inform stakeholders on the status of populations.


Assuntos
Cervos , Ursidae , Lobos , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Alberta , Comportamento Predatório , Animais Selvagens
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298365

RESUMO

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has long attracted the attention of conservationists as a flagship and umbrella species. Collecting attribute information on the age structure and sex ratio of the wild giant panda populations can support our understanding of their status and the design of more effective conservation schemes. In view of the shortcomings of traditional methods, which cannot automatically recognize the age and sex of giant pandas, we designed a SENet (Squeeze-and-Excitation Network)-based model to automatically recognize the attributes of giant pandas from their vocalizations. We focused on the recognition of age groups (juvenile and adult) and sex of giant pandas. The reason for using vocalizations is that among the modes of animal communication, sound has the advantages of long transmission distances, strong penetrating power, and rich information. We collected a dataset of calls from 28 captive giant panda individuals, with a total duration of 1298.02 s of recordings. We used MFCC (Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients), which is an acoustic feature, as inputs for the SENet. Considering that small datasets are not conducive to convergence in the training process, we increased the size of the training data via SpecAugment. In addition, we used focal loss to reduce the impact of data imbalance. Our results showed that the F1 scores of our method for recognizing age group and sex reached 96.46% ± 5.71% and 85.85% ± 7.99%, respectively, demonstrating that the automatic recognition of giant panda attributes based on their vocalizations is feasible and effective. This more convenient, quick, timesaving, and laborsaving attribute recognition method can be used in the investigation of wild giant pandas in the future.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais
12.
Genetica ; 150(6): 355-366, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287311

RESUMO

Short Tandem repeats (STRs) often occur within coding regions and adaptive selection could play a vital role in shaping the landscape of coding STRs. Here, we identified 849, 1282 and 1501 genes that contained 966, 1565 and 1921 STRs in the coding regions of the giant panda, polar bear and brown bear genomes, respectively. The results showed that coding STRs were subject to strong selection on STR type, motif, repetition and mode of evolution. Coding STRs were primarily found in regulatory genes. Of the three ursids studied, we found 585 differential genes in the giant panda. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the significant enrichment term (insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway) exerted direct carbohydrate metabolic effects in vivo in this species. The enrichment of this pathway suggested that the giant panda's ability to absorb carbohydrates (starch) and adapt to a bamboo diet might be enhanced by variable coding STRs. We also identified 377 conserved coding STRs located in 377 genes across the three species. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis showed that these genes were significantly enriched in two pathway involved in key physiological processes, including cardiovascular function and energy metabolism regulation. This study provides an important resource for future studies on the regulation of rapid diet and environmental adaptation of species by coding STRs.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Ursidae/genética , Ursidae/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Genoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232846

RESUMO

Lipidic metabolites play essential roles in host physiological health and growth performance, serving as the major structural and signaling components of membranes, energy storage molecules, and steroid hormones. Bamboo, as wild giant pandas' exclusive diet, is the main determinant of giant pandas' lipidome, both as a direct source and through microbiota activity. Interestingly, the consumption of bamboo has attracted little attention from a lipidomic perspective. In the current study, we outline the lipidomic atlas of different parts of bamboo. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we have been able to obtain the absolute quantification of 35 fatty acids pertaining to short chain fatty acids (8), medium chain fatty acids (6), long chain fatty acids (17), and very long chain fatty acids (4), while liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) allowed us to obtain the relative quantification of another 1638 lipids. Among the fatty acids quantified in absolute terms, eight showed significantly distinct concentrations among different bamboo parts. Subsequently, we investigated how the giant panda's serum and fecal lipidome adapt to the most important annual change in their diet, represented by the consumption of high amounts of bamboo shoots, typical of spring, the weight-gaining season. Five fatty acids were significantly altered in feces and two in serum, respectively, due to the different levels of bamboo shoot consumption. Furthermore, significant differences of the main bacteria strains were observed in feces between the two groups at the genus level, pertaining to Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Vagococcus. Correlations between giant panda fecal microbiome and lipidome were evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. These findings suggest that a balanced diet, important for the overall lipidomic function and giant panda health, could be reached even in this remarkable case of a single food-based diet, by administering to the giant panda's combinations of different parts of bamboo, with specific lipidome profiles.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Verduras
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233337

RESUMO

Microsporum gypseum causes dermatomycoses in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). This study aimed to investigate the immune response of M. gypseum following deep infection. The degree of damage to the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys was evaluated using tissue fungal load, organ index, and histopathological methods. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) detected the mRNA expression of receptors and cytokines in the lung, and immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry, were used to assess immune cells in the lung. The results indicated that conidia mainly colonized the lungs and caused serious injury with M. gypseum infection. Furthermore, dectin-1, TLR-2, and TLR-4 played a role in recognizing M. gypseum cells. Numerous inflammatory cells, mainly macrophages, dendritic cells, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and inflammatory cytokines (TGF-ß, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23), were activated in the early stages of infection. With the high expression of IL-22, IL-17A, and IL-17F, the Th17 pathway exerted an adaptive immune response to M. gypseum infection. These results can potentially aid in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by M. gypseum in giant pandas.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Interleucina-17 , Microsporum , Células Th17 , Ursidae , Animais , Arthrodermataceae , Citocinas/genética , Inflamação , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-12 , Interleucina-23 , Interleucina-6 , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Células Th17/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ursidae/genética , Ursidae/imunologia
15.
J Evol Biol ; 35(11): 1524-1536, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177747

RESUMO

Across the animal kingdom, exaggerated weaponry is frequently used by one sex to contest access for potential mates. Within species, if disproportionate investment in weaponry confers an advantage to larger individuals, this may result in positive static allometry. It is predicted that the same selective pressures may also lead to positive evolutionary allometry, where larger species bear disproportionately large weapons on average, compared with smaller species. Furthermore, in species with stronger sexual selection, the static allometries of those weapons are expected to steepen. All adult males across the New Zealand sheetweb spider genus Cambridgea bear exaggerated chelicerae, which are used to compete for control of females' webs. Here, we characterize the distribution of chelicera lengths within each sex of 12 Cambridgea species to show that chelicerae almost always exhibit positive static allometry in males while female chelicera lengths are consistently isometric. We use comparative phylogenetic methods to demonstrate that the slopes of static allometries steepen in males of larger species but that the ratio of average chelicera length to cephalothorax width is tightly conserved across taxa, leading to an isometric evolutionary allometry. While static allometries indeed steepen in larger species, possibly due to stronger sexual selection, this conservation of relative trait size suggests that chelicera length is subject to other stabilizing selective pressures. Changes to species body plans might be constrained, while still allowing for disproportionate investment in weapon traits in the upper range of intraspecific body sizes.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Ursidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Filogenia , Nova Zelândia , Evolução Biológica
16.
Environ Manage ; 70(6): 1066-1077, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180642

RESUMO

Persistence of sensitive wildlife in populated regions requires conservation strategies that address gradual expansion of development footprint and human activity. The project-based environmental assessment regime for municipal development is poorly suited to provide necessary strategic perspective, given its focus on local and short-term impacts. We used the ALCES cumulative effects model to strategically assess impacts to grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Bow Valley of Alberta, Canada. Landscape simulation mapped expansion of past and potential future development footprint in the region over multiple decades. Consequences to movement connectivity for grizzly bears were estimated by applying a least cost path analysis to the landscape simulation. An index of recreational activity was derived from fitness tracking data and integrated with the landscape simulation to model change in recreational activity through time. Maps of grizzly bear connectivity and recreational activity were combined to calculate human-bear conflict risk. The analysis suggests that connectivity has been altered through displacement to upslope areas by settlement expansion, such that surrounding natural areas have become important for grizzly bear connectivity. These areas are also popular for outdoor recreation, resulting in elevated human-bear conflict risk which can be expected to increase if development and human activity continue to expand in high connectivity areas. Conservation of wildlife in populated regions will be supported by broadening the scope of environmental assessment to address cumulative effects of development footprint and human activity over large spatial and temporal scales.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Alberta , Meio Ambiente , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15804, 2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138081

RESUMO

Whereas numerous studies on large carnivores have focused on analyzing spatial patterns and habitat use, the temporal dimension of their activity has been relatively little investigated, making this a topic of growing interest, especially in human-dominated landscapes. Relict and isolated Apennine brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) have been living in a human-modified landscape since millennia, but no information is available on their activity patterns. By means of GPS telemetry (26,880 GPS locations collected from 18 adult Apennine brown bears) we investigated their circadian rhythms, using hourly movement rates as an index of bear activity. Based on a Bayesian modeling approach, circadian activity of Apennine brown bears was described by a bimodal curve, with peaks of activity around sunrise and sunset. We revealed seasonal effects, with bears exhibiting higher movement rates throughout the mating season, but no relevant influence of sex. In addition, bears increased their movement rate at distances < 100-500 m to roads and settlements exclusively during spring and late summer, suggesting a trade-off between foraging opportunities and risk avoidance. The absence of a marked nocturnality in Apennine brown bears suggests a relatively low degree of habitat encroachment and disturbance by humans. Yet, the occurrence of crepuscular activity patterns and the responses in proximity of anthropogenic landscape features likely indicate a coadaptation by bears to human presence through a shift in their temporal niche. Further studies should aim to unveil fitness implications of such modifications in activity patterns.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Ursidae , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Ursidae/fisiologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894820, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105820

RESUMO

Baylisascaris schroederi (B. schroederi) is a severe threat to the survival of giant pandas. Currently, the immune regulation mechanism of B. schroederi is poorly understood. Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPI) play important roles in the regulation of host immune responses against certain nematodes. In this study, a recombinant CPI of B. schroederi migratory larvae (rBsCPI-1) was cloned and expressed, and the effects of rBsCPI-1 on the physiological activities and antigen presentation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were analyzed. We also analyzed the regulatory effects of rBsCPI-1 on the proliferation and differentiation of CD4+ T cells. And further identified the signaling pathways which play important roles in this process. The results showed that rBsCPI-1 activated the TLR2/4-small Rho GTPases-PAK1 pathway. On the one hand, it increased the phagocytosis and migration of MDMs. On the other hand, it activated downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce apoptosis of MDMs. rBsCPI-1 also induced MDMs to polarize to the M2 subtype, thereby exerting an immunosuppressive effect. Meanwhile, rBsCPI-1 inhibited the antigen presentation process by decreasing the expression of MHC-II molecules, further inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and inducing a Th1/Th2 mixed immune response. Treg cells with immunosuppressive effects were increased. The PD-L2/PD-1 and CD80/CTLA-4 signaling pathways between MDMs and CD4+ T cells were also activated by rBsCPI-1. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that rBsCPI-1 affects the physiological activities and polarization of MDMs through the TLR2/4 signaling pathway, and further interferes with antigen presentation response, inducing CD4+ T cells to play an immunosuppressive cellular response during the migratory process of B. schroederi. Thus, this study will provide a reference for elucidating the immune evasion mechanism of B. schroederi and developing new drugs and protective vaccines against B. schroederi.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida , Ascaridoidea , Ursidae , Animais , Ciclopropanos , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , Imunidade , Indóis , Larva , Camundongos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 993312, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105145

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is the most isolated enteric protozoan in parasitological surveys of humans. A substantial percentage of human infections is attributed to zoonotic transmissions. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infections with blastocystis is not yet fully understood. This study thus aimed to determine the infection rates and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in captive Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in China's Heilongjiang and Fujian provinces. A total of 218 fresh fecal specimens were collected from captive Asiatic black bears in Heilongjiang (n = 36) and Fujian (n = 182) between May 2015 and December 2017. Genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and then examined for Blastocystis through SSU rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing. A phylogenetic tree based on the Blastocystis positive sequences was reconstructed using the Mega X program. Eleven percent (24/218) of the animals had Blastocystis and six Blastocystis subtypes, including ST4 (n = 14), ST10 (n = 3), ST1 (n = 2), ST2 (n = 1), ST5 (n = 1), and ST12 (n = 1) were identified. A total of 14 representative sequences, including seven sequences that have been described previously and seven novel sequences comprising ST10 (n = 2), ST5 (n = 1), and ST4 (n = 4), were obtained from the six subtypes of Blastocystis. This study is the first to report the presence of Blastocystis in captive Asiatic black bears in Fujian, China. It provides baseline data for controlling and preventing Blastocystis infection in farm communities. Zoonotic infections in bears with ST1, ST2, ST4, ST5, ST10, and ST14 should be considered potential public health threats. The novel ST sequences of Blastocystis generated in this study provide novel insights into the genotypic variation within the Blastocystis sp.


Assuntos
Blastocystis , Ursidae , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Filogenia
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 334, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are the obligate host of the parasitic roundworm Baylisascaris schroederi. The infection of giant pandas with B. schroederi is very common. At present, little is known about the mechanism of immune interaction between B. schroederi and the host. As an important component of innate immunity, the NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in host immune response and the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. METHODS: We analyzed the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) by the recombinant B. schroederi migratory larvae cysteine protease inhibitor rBsCPI-1, knowing from a previous study that the CPI-1 is highly expressed in B. schroederi migratory larvae. We first determined the effects of rBsCPI-1 and excretory-secretory products of B. schroederi migratory larvae on cell proliferation using the CCK-8 and LDH release assays. We then analyzed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, pyroptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine release by quantitative-PCR, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The signaling pathway of rBsCPI-1 to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes was analyzed in activation and inhibition experiments. Finally, the effects of rBsCPI-1 on inflammasome activation in mice immunized with rBsCPI-1 were analyzed. RESULTS: The activation and inhibition experiments revealed that rBsCPI-1 induced inflammasome activation through the TLR4-ROS-NLRP3 signaling pathway, with reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only functioning as an activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, but also an activation product of the NLRP3 inflammasome. rBsCPI-1 promoted the activation and assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which further converted the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18 into mature active forms. At the same time, caspase-1 cleaved gasdermin D to trigger cell pyroptosis. The results of animal immunization experiments further confirmed that rBsCPI-1 could induce the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. CONCLUSIONS: rBsCPI-1 activates the inflammasome through the TLR4-ROS-NLRP3 signaling pathway and further induces the pyroptosis of MDMs and release of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18, thus promoting the occurrence and development of the inflammatory response in the host.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea , Ursidae , Animais , Ascaridoidea/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , Inflamassomos , Interleucina-18 , Larva/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sincalida , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
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