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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
2.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117595, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426381

RESUMO

Exposure to lead (Pb) is a global health problem for both humans and wildlife. Despite a dramatic decline in human Pb exposure following restrictions of leaded gasoline and industry and thereby an overall reduction of Pb entering the environment, Pb exposure continues to be a problem for wildlife species. Literature on scavenging terrestrial mammals, including interactions between Pb exposure and life history, is however limited. We quantified Pb concentration in 153 blood samples from 110 free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos), 1-25 years old, using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. We used generalized linear models to test effects of age, body mass, reproduction status and spatial distribution on the blood Pb concentrations of 56 female bears. We sampled 28 females together with 56 dependent cubs and paired their blood Pb concentrations. From 20 lactating females, we measured the Pb concentration in milk. The mean blood Pb concentration was 96.6 µg/L (range: 38.7-220.5 µg/L). Both the mean and range are well above established threshold concentrations for developmental neurotoxicity (12 µg/L), increased systolic blood pressure (36 µg/L) and prevalence of kidney disease in humans (15 µg/L). Lactating females had higher Pb blood concentrations compared to younger, non-lactating females. Blood Pb concentrations of dependent cubs were correlated with their mother's blood Pb concentration, which in turn was correlated with the Pb concentration in the milk. Life-long Pb exposure in Scandinavian brown bears may have adverse effects both on individual and population levels. The high blood Pb concentrations found in brown bears contrast the general reduction in environmental Pb contamination over the past decades in Scandinavia and more research is needed to identify the sources and pathways of Pb exposure in the brown bears.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Chumbo , Leite , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 623, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low cost and rapidity of microsatellite analysis have led to the development of several markers for many species. Because in non-invasive genetics it is recommended to genotype individuals using few loci, generally a subset of markers is selected. The choice of different marker panels by different research groups studying the same population can cause problems and bias in data analysis. A priority issue in conservation genetics is the comparability of data produced by different labs with different methods. Here, we compared data from previous and ongoing studies to identify a panel of microsatellite loci efficient for the long-term monitoring of Apennine brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus), aiming at reducing genotyping uncertainty and allowing reliable individual identifications overtimes. RESULTS: We examined all microsatellite markers used up to now and identified 19 candidate loci. We evaluated the efficacy of 13 of the most commonly used loci analyzing 194 DNA samples belonging to 113 distinct bears selected from the Italian national biobank. We compared data from 4 different marker subsets on the basis of genotyping errors, allelic patterns, observed and expected heterozygosity, discriminatory powers, number of mismatching pairs, and probability of identity. The optimal marker set was selected evaluating the low molecular weight, the high discriminatory power, and the low occurrence of genotyping errors of each primer. We calibrated allele calls and verified matches among genotypes obtained in previous studies using the complete set of 13 STRs (Short Tandem Repeats), analyzing six invasive DNA samples from distinct individuals. Differences in allele-sizing between labs were consistent, showing a substantial overlap of the individual genotyping. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed marker set comprises 11 Ursus specific markers with the addition of cxx20, the canid-locus less prone to genotyping errors, in order to prevent underestimation (maximizing the discriminatory power) and overestimation (minimizing the genotyping errors) of the number of Apennine brown bears. The selected markers allow saving time and costs with the amplification in multiplex of all loci thanks to the same annealing temperature. Our work optimizes the available resources by identifying a shared panel and a uniform methodology capable of improving comparisons between past and future studies.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Ursidae , Alelos , Animais , DNA , Genótipo , Ursidae/genética
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(19): 4481-4497, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292654

RESUMO

The influence of climate change on wildlife disease dynamics is a burgeoning conservation and human health issue, but few long-term studies empirically link climate to pathogen prevalence. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are vulnerable to the negative impacts of sea ice loss as a result of accelerated Arctic warming. While studies have associated changes in polar bear body condition, reproductive output, survival, and abundance to reductions in sea ice, no long-term studies have documented the impact of climate change on pathogen exposure. We examined 425 serum samples from 381 adult polar bears, collected in western Hudson Bay (WH), Canada, for antibodies to selected pathogens across three time periods: 1986-1989 (n = 157), 1995-1998 (n = 159) and 2015-2017 (n = 109). We ran serological assays for antibodies to seven pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Trichinella spp., Francisella tularensis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine morbillivirus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites (T. gondii, Trichinella spp.) and bacterial pathogens (F. tularensis, B. bronchiseptica) increased significantly between 1986-1989 and 1995-1998, ranging from +6.2% to +20.8%, with T. gondii continuing to increase into 2015-2017 (+25.8% overall). Seroprevalence of viral pathogens (CDV, CPV) and N. caninum did not change with time. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was higher following wetter summers, while seroprevalences of Trichinella spp. and B. bronchiseptica were positively correlated with hotter summers. Seroprevalence of antibodies to F. tularensis increased following years polar bears spent more days on land, and polar bears previously captured in human settlements were more likely to be seropositive for Trichinella spp. As the Arctic has warmed due to climate change, zoonotic pathogen exposure in WH polar bears has increased, driven by numerous altered ecosystem pathways.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Cães , Ecossistema , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(9): 1309-1316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312523

RESUMO

In addition to habitat loss and fragmentation, demographic processes-the vagaries of births, deaths and sex ratio fluctuations-pose substantial threats to wild giant panda populations. Additionally, climate change and plans for the Giant Panda National Park may influence (in opposing directions) the extinction risk for wild giant pandas. The Fourth National Giant Panda Census showed pandas living in 33 isolated populations. An estimated 259 animals live in 25 of these groups, ~14% of the total population. We used individual-based models to simulate time series of these small populations for 100 years. We analysed the spatial pattern of their risk of extinction under current conditions and multiple climate change models. Furthermore, we consider the impact of the proposed Giant Panda National Park. Results showed that 15 populations face a risk >90%, and for 3 other populations the risk is >50%. Of the 15 most at-risk populations, national parks can protect only 3. Under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 climate change scenario, the 33 populations will probably further divide into 56 populations. Some 41 of them will face a risk >50% and 35 face a risk >90%. Although national parks will probably connect some fragmented habitats, 26 populations will be outside national park planning. Our study gives practical advice for conservation policies and management and has implications for the conservation of other species in the world that live in isolated, fragmented habitats.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos
6.
Can Vet J ; 62(7): 725-728, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219781

RESUMO

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a promiscuous bacterium that infects a variety of species but has not been reported in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Sera from 385 polar bears from the western Hudson Bay region, 1986 to 2017, were tested for reactivity to B. bronchiseptica with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using anti-canine IgG and Streptococcus protein G as secondary reagents. Sera from bears had variable reactivity to B. bronchiseptica antigens, and there was no difference among bears that had a history of coming near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, and bears that did not. Although the sources of exposure were not determined, equivalent results in both groups suggest that potential exposure to humans (aside from handling during sampling) and their animals (dogs) was not an important co-factor in sero-positivity to B. bronchiseptica.


Assuntos
Bordetella bronchiseptica , Ursidae , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Canadá , Cães , Manitoba
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3100-3126, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255979

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot a novel treatment framework called BEARS (Balancing Effort, Accuracy, and Response Speed). People with aphasia (PWA) have been shown to maladaptively balance speed and accuracy during language tasks. BEARS is designed to train PWA to balance speed-accuracy trade-offs and improve system calibration (i.e., to adaptively match system use with its current capability), which was hypothesized to improve treatment outcomes by maximizing retrieval practice and minimizing error learning. In this study, BEARS was applied in the context of a semantically oriented anomia treatment based on semantic feature verification (SFV). Method Nine PWA received 25 hr of treatment in a multiple-baseline single-case series design. BEARS + SFV combined computer-based SFV with clinician-provided BEARS metacognitive training. Naming probe accuracy, efficiency, and proportion of "pass" responses on inaccurate trials were analyzed using Bayesian generalized linear mixed-effects models. Generalization to discourse and correlations between practice efficiency and treatment outcomes were also assessed. Results Participants improved on naming probe accuracy and efficiency of treated and untreated items, although untreated item gains could not be distinguished from the effects of repeated exposure. There were no improvements on discourse performance, but participants demonstrated improved system calibration based on their performance on inaccurate treatment trials, with an increasing proportion of "pass" responses compared to paraphasia or timeout nonresponses. In addition, levels of practice efficiency during treatment were positively correlated with treatment outcomes, suggesting that improved practice efficiency promoted greater treatment generalization and improved naming efficiency. Conclusions BEARS is a promising, theoretically motivated treatment framework for addressing the interplay between effort, accuracy, and processing speed in aphasia. This study establishes the feasibility of BEARS + SFV and provides preliminary evidence for its efficacy. This study highlights the importance of considering processing efficiency in anomia treatment, in addition to performance accuracy. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14935812.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Anomia/terapia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Terapia da Linguagem , Tempo de Reação , Semântica , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Exp Biol ; 224(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137891

RESUMO

Hibernation is characterized by depression of many physiological processes. To determine if this state is reversible in a non-food caching species, we fed hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) dextrose for 10 days to replace 53% or 100% of the estimated minimum daily energetic cost of hibernation. Feeding caused serum concentrations of glycerol and ketones (ß-hydroxybutyrate) to return to active season levels irrespective of the amount of glucose fed. By contrast, free fatty acids (FFAs) and indices of metabolic rate, such as general activity, heart rate, strength of heart rate circadian rhythm, and insulin sensitivity were restored to approximately 50% of active season levels. Body temperature was unaffected by feeding. To determine the contribution of adipose to the metabolic effects observed after glucose feeding, we cultured bear adipocytes collected at the beginning and end of the feeding and performed metabolic flux analysis. We found a ∼33% increase in energy metabolism after feeding. Moreover, basal metabolism before feeding was 40% lower in hibernation cells compared with fed cells or active cells cultured at 37°C, thereby confirming the temperature independence of metabolic rate. The partial depression of circulating FFAs with feeding likely explains the incomplete restoration of insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in hibernating bears. Further depression of metabolic function is likely to be an active process. Together, the results provide a highly controlled model to examine the relationship between nutrient availability and metabolism on the hibernation phenotype in bears.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Ursidae , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(8): 1284-1289, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162775

RESUMO

In several primates and carnivores, pronation/supination angles of the forearm skeleton were examined, and it is thought that a larger angle is useful to acquire dexterous behaviors in feeding and/or life style, including climbing. In this study, the pronation/supination angles in Asiatic black, brown and polar bears were nondestructively examined. These specimens were classified as adult or non-adult. Three or four carcasses of each group of Asiatic black and brown bears were used for CT analysis, whereas only one adult polar bear was used. The forearms were positioned within the gantry of a CT scanner in both maximally supinated and pronated states. Extracted cross-sectional CT images of two positions were superimposed by overlapping the outlines of each ulna. The centroids of the radii were detected, and then the centroid of each radius and the midpoint of a line which connects between both ends of the surface of each radius facing the ulna, were connected by lines to measure the angle of rotation as an index of pronation/supination. In adult brown and polar bears, the angles were smaller as compared with the other groups (Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears). Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears can climb trees, whereas adult brown bears and polar bears cannot. This suggests that the pronation/supination angle is related to arboreal activity in Ursidae.


Assuntos
Membro Anterior , Ursidae , Animais , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Esqueleto , Ursidae/anatomia & histologia
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(8): 2998-3009, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109451

RESUMO

Giant pandas consume different structural parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and culms) during different seasons. Previous research showed different bamboo parts have varying nutritional content and that a long-term diet consisting of a single part of bamboo resulted in remarkable metabolic changes within captive giant pandas. However, the effects on the gut microbiome of giant pandas, as a result of a single bamboo part diet, have not been investigated. Here, we evaluated the changes in gut microbial communities based on single bamboo part diets and their potential implications by using 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequencing and metagenome shotgun sequencing. We found that the composition and function of the gut microbiome from captive giant pandas fed exclusively culms were significantly different from that of individuals fed shoots or leaves. During the culm feeding period, the gut microbiome showed strongest digestive capabilities for cellulose, hemicellulose and starch, and had the highest potential abilities for the biosynthesis of bile acids, fatty acids and amino acids. This suggests the microbiome aids in breaking down culm, which is more difficult for giant pandas to digest, as a means to compensate for the nutrient poor content of the culm. Genes related to fatty acid metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were more abundant during the leaf stage diet than that in the shoot and culm stages. Thus, the microbiome may help giant pandas, which typically have low lipase levels, with fat digestion. These results illustrate that adaptive changes in the gut microbiome community and function may be an important mechanism to aid giant panda digestion when consuming different structural parts of bamboo.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ursidae , Animais , Dieta , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Environ Int ; 155: 106703, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139588

RESUMO

The mammal gut is a rich reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and the relationship between bacterial communities and ARGs has been widely studied. Despite ecological significance of microeukaryotes (fungi and protists), our understanding of their roles in the mammal gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome is still limited. Here, we used amplicon sequencing, metagenomic sequencing and high-throughput quantitative PCR to examine microbiomes and antibiotic resistomes of 41 giant panda fecal samples from individuals with different genders, ages, sampling sites and diet. Our results show that diverse protists inhabit in the giant panda gut ecosystem, dominated by consumers. Higher abundance of protistan consumers was detected in the elder compared to sub-adult and adult giant pandas. Diet is the main driving factor of variation in ARGs in the giant panda gut microbiome. Weighted correlation network analysis identified two key microbial modules from multitrophic communities, which all contributed to the variation in ARGs in the giant panda gut. Protists occupied an important position in the two modules which were dominated by fungal taxa. Deterministic processes made a more important contribution to microbial community assembly of the two modules than to bacterial, fungal and protistan communities. This study sheds new light on how key microbial modules contribute to the variation in ARGs, which is crucial in understanding dynamics of antibiotic resistome in the mammal gut, particularly endangered species.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Ursidae , Animais , Antibacterianos , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Genes Bacterianos , Masculino
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(18): 4294-4306, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101949

RESUMO

Approximately 20%-30% of plant and animal species are at risk of extinction by the end of the 21st century owing to climate change. Range shifts and range contractions in plant species will dramatically affect the distribution of animals relying on them for food and shelter. The negative impacts of climate change on forested landscapes of the northern highlands of Pakistan (NHP) could change the species composition and distribution. The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), a forest-dwelling species, primarily depends on plants for foraging, and is assumed to be affected by climate change in NHP. Scat analyses and indigenous knowledge from Machiara National Park revealed the maximum consumption of Quercus species (natural food) and Zea mays (human grown food) by the Asiatic black bear in autumn season. We collected the occurrence data of the Asiatic black bear and its commonly used food (three Quercus spp.) in the NHP. We used the MaxEnt model to simulate current and future (in 2050 and 2070) distribution of the species under RCP4.5 (medium carbon emission scenario) and RCP8.5 (extreme carbon emission scenario). The results predict range reduction and extreme fragmentation in the habitats of all the Quercus spp. Besides, a dramatic decrease in the suitable (SH) and very highly suitable (HSH) habitats was predicted in the future. Range shift and range reduction of Quercus spp. may interrupt the denning chronology of Asiatic black bears, escalate the human-black bear conflicts and local extirpation of the species. Given the extent and magnitude of climate change, it will likely not be enough to focus solely on the conservation of the Asiatic black bear. We need more dynamic planning aiming at mitigating the effect of climate change in forested landscapes including the Quercus forests.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Humanos , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
13.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 683, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083709

RESUMO

In marine ecology, dietary interpretations of faunal assemblages often rely on nitrogen isotopes as the main or only applicable trophic level tracer. We investigate the geographic variability and trophic level isotopic discrimination factors of bone zinc 66Zn/64Zn ratios (δ66Zn value) and compared it to collagen nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) values. Focusing on ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from multiple Arctic archaeological sites, we investigate trophic interactions between predator and prey over a broad geographic area. All proxies show variability among sites, influenced by the regional food web baselines. However, δ66Zn shows a significantly higher homogeneity among different sites. We observe a clear trophic spacing for δ15N and δ66Zn values in all locations, yet δ66Zn analysis allows a more direct dietary comparability between spatially and temporally distinct locations than what is possible by δ15N and δ13C analysis alone. When combining all three proxies, a more detailed and refined dietary analysis is possible.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Focas Verdadeiras/metabolismo , Ursidae/metabolismo , Isótopos de Zinco/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Geografia , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113077, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146778

RESUMO

Eco-tourism is rapidly developing in giant panda nature reserves in China, and is considered a popular tool for biodiversity conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on whether eco-tourism promotes the conservation behavior of local communities members, who live around nature reserves. To this end, this study constructed a framework to measure households' forest conservation activities, and conducted a questionnaire survey in 12 giant panda nature reserves in Sichuan Province, China. A total of 686 valid samples were obtained. A logit model was used to confirm whether income from community-based ecotourism (CBET) could enhance households' conservation behavior. The results show that households prefer three types of conservation practices, and CBET could significantly improve the income of households engaged in it. Income from CBET has motivated local households to participate in conservation activities; however, but the effects are different. In all three conservation activities, income from CBET has shown significant effects on promoting forest maintenance and protection activities, but not on reforestation ones. The results of this research could help us better understand the relationship between CBET and local households' conservation behavior. It also provides information for policymakers seeking for the best way to balance conservation and development.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Turismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112363, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087735

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutant (POPs) contamination was analyzed in samples collected from wild and captive giant pandas to characterize seasonal variation in concentrations of POPs and possible sources. POP concentrations in bamboo and fecal samples collected from captive pandas showed significant fluctuations compared with those collected from wild pandas in each season. The highest polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations were 1380 pg g-1 dw and 3140 pg g-1 dw, respectively, which were observed in captive bamboo samples in the summer. PCBs varied seasonally, whereas OCPs did not show apparent seasonal variation. Based on the seasonal variability, component analysis, and the positive matrix factorization results, we determined that the secondary volatilization of POPs during periods of high temperatures was the leading cause of the exposure of pandas to pollutants (45%), and atmospheric transport played a crucial role in the secondary distribution of pollutants in panda food. The other two sources of pollution were historical residues transmitted over long distances to protected areas (28%), as well as UP-POPs and new inputs from agricultural activities (27%). The concentrations of pollutants in bamboo shoots were significantly lower than those in bamboo. Therefore, bamboo shoots should be incorporated into the diet of captive pandas in the spring to reduce their exposure to pollutants. The absorption capacity of pollutants associated with the consumption of bamboo shoots was significantly lower than that associated with the consumption of bamboo. The diet of young captive pandas in the summer should also be managed with caution given their slightly stronger ability to absorb pollutants.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ursidae/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados , Estações do Ano
16.
Oecologia ; 196(1): 223-234, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934223

RESUMO

Apex predators can shape communities via cascading top-down effects, but the degree to which such effects depend on predator life history traits is largely unknown. Within carnivore guilds, complex hierarchies of dominance facilitate coexistence, whereby subordinate species avoid dominant counterparts by partitioning space, time, or both. We investigated whether a major life history trait (hibernation) in an apex carnivore (black bears Ursus americanus) mediated its top-down effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of three sympatric mesocarnivore species (coyotes Canis latrans, bobcats Lynx rufus, and gray foxes Urocyon cinereoargenteus) across a 15,000 km2 landscape in the western USA. We compared top-down, bottom-up, and environmental effects on these mesocarnivores using an integrated modeling approach. Black bears exerted top-down effects that varied as a function of hibernation and were stronger than bottom-up or environmental impacts. High black bear activity in summer and fall appeared to buffer the most subordinate mesocarnivore (gray foxes) from competition with dominant mesocarnivores (coyotes and bobcats), which were in turn released by black bear hibernation in winter and early spring. The mesocarnivore responses occurred in space (i.e., altered occupancy and site visitation intensity) rather than time (i.e., diel activity patterns unaffected). These results suggest that the spatio-temporal dynamics of mesocarnivores in this system were principally shaped by a spatial predator cascade of interference competition mediated by black bear hibernation. Thus, certain life history traits of apex predators might facilitate coexistence among competing species over broad time scales, with complex implications for lower trophic levels.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Lynx , Ursidae , Animais , Clima , Raposas
17.
Biomater Sci ; 9(13): 4755-4764, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036978

RESUMO

The immune system plays a key role in restraining tumor progression. Therefore, enhancing immune functions using immune stimulants, such as unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides, has emerged as a promising strategy for antitumor therapy. However, poor cellular uptake of negatively charged oligonucleotides and M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages remain two major challenges for CpG-based immunotherapy. Herein, we construct a spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-like nanogel assembled by a CpG-grafted polycaprolactone (CpG-g-PCL) brush and an anti-STAT3 siRNA crosslinker for synergistic tumor immunotherapy. After accumulation at the tumor site, this dual siRNA- and CpG-bearing nanogel (CpGgel-siSTAT3) can efficiently trigger M1 type macrophage activation and deter its M2 polarization via block STAT3 signaling, increase the intratumor CD8+ T cell infiltration, and thus successfully restrain tumor growth. Our study demonstrates the new potential of a nucleic acid nanogel platform for the co-delivery of different therapeutic oligonucleotides and combinatorial CpG-based immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Ursidae , Animais , Imunoterapia , Nanogéis , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(7): 1059-1067, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994428

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an exacerbating factor responsible for the drastic decline of sloth bear population in India. In this study, a multipronged approach based on antigen detection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) employing G1/G2 and LigBF/LigBR primers, antibody detection using Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) and recombinant LigBCon1-5 antigen based Latex Agglutination Test (rLigBCon1-5 LAT), serum biochemistry using hepatic (serum glutamate oxalo acetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and renal biomarkers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine) and gross/histopathological evidence in liver and kidneys were employed to investigate leptospirosis in captive sloth bears. A total of 133 serum samples collected from Agra (n=113) and Bannerghatta (n=20) sloth bear rescue centers were screened using MAT and rLigBCon1-5 LAT. A total of 87 and 78 sera tested positive by MAT and LAT respectively. Pyrogenes was the leading serovar obtained using MAT followed by Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Grippotyphosa, Canicola and Tarassovi. The relative sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of rLigBCon1-5 LAT in comparison to MAT were 89.66%, 100% and 93.23% respectively. PCR performed on hepatic and renal tissues showed amplicon of 285 and 219 base pairs for G1/G2 and LigBF/LigBR primers respectively. Gross evidence (icteric liver, severely engorged hepatic sinusoids, congested kidneys with necrotic white spots on sub capsular surface), histopathology (severe hepatic degeneration and tubulointerstitial nephritis) and elevated hepatic/renal biomarkers were suggestive of leptospirosis. This study suggests that rLigBCon1-5 LAT can be employed as a pen-side test for detecting leptospirosis in sloth bears.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Bichos-Preguiça , Ursidae , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Índia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(13): 3109-3119, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793039

RESUMO

Arctic climate change poses serious threats to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as reduced sea ice makes seal prey inaccessible and marine ecosystems undergo bottom-up reorganization. Polar bears' elongated skulls and reduced molar dentition, as compared to their sister species the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos), are adaptations associated with hunting seals on sea ice and a soft, lipid-rich diet of blubber and meat. With significant declines in sea ice, it is unclear if and how polar bears may be altering their diets. Clarifying polar bear dietary responses to changing climates, both today and in the past, is critical to proper conservation and management of this apex predator. This is particularly important when a dietary strategy may be maladaptive. Here, we test the hypothesis that hard-food consumption (i.e., less preferred foods including bone), inferred from dental microwear texture analysis, increased with Arctic warming. We find that polar bears demonstrate a conserved absence of hard-object feeding in Alaska through time (including approximately 1000 years ago), until the 21st century, consistent with a highly conserved and specialized diet of soft blubber and flesh. Notably, our results also suggest that some 21st-century polar bears may be consuming harder foods (e.g., increased carcass utilization, terrestrial foods including garbage), despite having skulls and metabolisms poorly suited for such a diet. Prior to the 21st century, only polar bears with larger mandibles demonstrated increased hard-object feeding, though to a much lower degree than closely related grizzly bears which regularly consume mechanically challenging foods. Polar bears, being morphologically specialized, have biomechanical constraints which may limit their ability to consume mechanically challenging diets, with dietary shifts occurring only under the most extreme scenarios. Collectively, the highly specialized diets and cranial morphology of polar bears may severely limit their ability to adapt to a warming Arctic.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Dieta , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113925, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878663

RESUMO

Scholars, activists, and medical professionals critique Crisis Pregnancy Centers (CPCs) for disseminating medical misinformation and deceptive counseling practices. Yet much of the scholarship examining CPC's counseling and medical practices relies upon discourse analyses or surreptitious approaches. I use observational data from client appointments in an evangelical CPC in the U.S. West and in-depth interviews with clients and staff to explore how guided ultrasounds construct the experience of pregnancy. I describe the "medical model of care" at this CPC and then analyze how the ultrasound becomes a socio-religious practice that shapes the social and physical experience of pregnancy. I argue this is a unique form of 'religious biopower' (Foucault 1990). Importantly, clients overwhelming describe these appointments as positive and point to how centers seemingly fill a void of care in the healthcare system. These findings reveal processes whereby faith-based, antiabortion organizations produce a 'digital quickening' through ostensibly neutral medical technologies of visualization, reinforce conservative discourses about fetal personhood and motherhood, and spread medical misinformation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Ursidae , Animais , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
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