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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127785, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182149

RESUMO

Although glyphosate is widely used for weed pest control, it might have negative side effects on natural enemies. Wolf spiders are one of the most representative predators found on soybean crops in Uruguay, preying on a wide variety of potential pests. However, the sublethal effects that pesticides might have on this group have been poorly explored for South American species. Herein, we explored the sublethal effects of glyphosate on the functional response of the wolf spider Hogna cf. bivittata against three potential pest insects, namely ant (Acromyrmex sp.), caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis), and cricket (Miogryllus sp.). We contaminated residually adult females of the species Hogna cf. bivittata with glyphosate (Roundup®) and compared their functional response against non-contaminated spiders. We did not observe any mortality during the study. We found that overall Hogna cf. bivittata showed a functional response type II against crickets and caterpillars but no functional response to ants. Contaminated spiders killed less ants and caterpillars in comparison to the control group, probably as a consequence of the irritating effects of glyphosate. We did not observe differences in functional response to crickets at the evaluated densities, probably as a consequence of the low capture rate against this prey. Although glyphosate does not specifically target spiders, it might have negative sublethal effects on native predators such as Hogna cf. bivittata. Further studies should explore effect of glyphosate on other native predators from South American crops.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Formigas , Produtos Agrícolas , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Gryllidae , Mariposas , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Uruguai
2.
Zootaxa ; 4819(2): zootaxa.4819.2.11, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055667

RESUMO

A new rove beetle species, Edrabius uruguayensis Martínez-Villar, González-Vainer Tomasco, sp. nov., associated with the subterranean rodent Ctenomys rionegrensis in Uruguay, is described and illustrated. Photographs, scanning electron micrographs and drawings of the diagnostic character states are provided. The new species is compared with other species of the genus. Nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I was reported for the first time for the genus and phylogenetic reconstruction confirms their close relationship with the other genus used from the tribe Amblyopinini (Heterothops).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Microscopia , Filogenia , Uruguai
3.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; oct. 28, 2020. 2 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127900

RESUMO

De acuerdo con la información proporcionada por el Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), desde que se declaró la emergencia sanitaria el 13 de marzo se han realizado un total de 310.963 pruebas diagnóstica, registrando 2981 casos positivos confirmados de coronavirus COVID-19. Mas del 80% de los casos confirmados se consideran recuperados a la fecha.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Uruguai/epidemiologia
4.
Toxicon ; 188: 5-10, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049244

RESUMO

Baccharis coridifolia is one of the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock in Uruguay. Poisoning occurs when animals raised in areas free of B. coridifolia are transported to pastures containing the plant. Young stock become spontaneously averted to it after ingesting non-toxic amounts of the plant. As B. coridifolia is widespread in the country, farmers selling livestock report when animals have been raised in areas with the plant, meaning that they are naturally averted and will not ingest it if introduced in B. coridifolia-containing paddocks. Of 2456 farmers from 18 departments of Uruguay selling cattle through online auctions between June 2019 and May 2020, 78% mentioned that the animals they were selling were raised in grasslands containing B. coridifolia. However, only 35.8% of the farmers from three departments of Eastern Uruguay mentioned that their cattle were raised in grasslands with B. coridifolia. Herds from these departments presented 16.7 times (95% CI: 13.1-21.3; p < 0.001) more risk of not being naturally averted to B. coridifolia ingestion than the herds of the other 15 departments of the country. In this paper we review all outbreaks of B. coridifolia poisoning reported in livestock in Uruguay from 1911 to present. We also describe three outbreaks of poisoning, one in cattle and two in sheep that were poisoned in the same farms in which the animals were raised. Intoxication occurred when the animals raised indoors and/or in cultivated pastures without B. coridifolia were introduced into grasslands of the same farms containing B. coridifolia. Typical gastrointestinal lesions were observed in pathological examinations. Furthermore, two of three necropsied heifers showed severe acute nephrosis, which had not been reported previously in this poisoning.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Plantas Tóxicas , Ovinos , Uruguai/epidemiologia
5.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106352, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892906

RESUMO

This paper presents the levels and distribution of 210Po in different compartments of a coastal lagoon on the east coast of Uruguay (South America). Activity concentrations of 210Po have been obtained in different matrices, such as water, superficial sediments, clams (Diplodon sp.), freshwaters snails (Pomacea sp.), zooplankton, and fishes (Jenynsia sp.), collected at different points of the lagoon and during several sampling campaigns. In addition, the organic matter content of the sediment was determined to study the variation of 210Po along the lagoon. The activity concentrations of 210Po in the water samples are in the range between 1.1 ± 0.2-3.5 ± 0.4 mBq/L while in the sediment samples vary between 17.1 ± 1.4 and 540 ± 12 Bq/kg, DW. In the case of biota, the ranges obtained were 182 ± 5-265 ± 6 Bq/kg, DW in clams and 134 ± 4-1245 ± 16 Bq/kg, DW in snail samples. A good correlation of 210Po with the organic fractions of the sediment was observed (r = 0.8798, p-value < 0.001), being obtained high values for the distribution coefficient Kd (104 -105). In the biota samples, a clear difference was observed in the 210Po concentration values in both species, mainly due to the different feeding habits of both aquatic organisms, as it is reflected in the associated concentration ratios (CR). In this paper, a good set of results of 210Po, Kd, and CR have been obtained in different matrices, enhancing the limited archives available for modelers concerning these parameters for 210Po and freshwater systems.


Assuntos
Polônio , Monitoramento de Radiação , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Polônio/análise , Uruguai
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 661, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978681

RESUMO

Poor water quality in urban streams places at risk the health of urban residents and the integrity of urban environments, ultimately leading to the "urban stream syndrome." In response to growing concerns regarding urban streams in Uruguay, we evaluated the spatiotemporal variation in water quality parameters in two urban streams, the Ceibal and La Curtiembre streams, over 12-18 months. A proposal for an Urban Water Quality Index (UWQI) was developed based on national water quality standards for two stream classes to assess variability in overall stream condition over time. Both streams displayed extremely high levels of fecal coliform concentrations in mid-downstream sites and relatively high levels of total dissolved phosphorus and ammonia well above the national standards of 0.025 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. Nitrate was consistently below the national maximum of 44.3 mg/L, calling to question the adequacy of this standard for designated uses. Over 40% of samples had oxygen levels below the national standard of 5 mg/L, and a dead zone (average 1.5 mg/L) was detected in the downstream reach of the La Curtiembre stream. Despite differences in land use and urban context, monthly observations of nutrients and coliforms indicated high levels of contamination in mid-downstream reaches, which could present a health risk for the populations in Paysandú and Salto. This study highlights the degradation of urban streams in two major cities in Uruguay and the need for a comparative diagnosis of stream condition as a basis for decision-making regarding urban development and water resources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , Cidades , Fósforo/análise , Uruguai
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140136, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927574

RESUMO

Children are exposed to many potentially toxic compounds in their daily lives and are vulnerable to the harmful effects. To date, very few non-invasive methods are available to quantify children's exposure to environmental chemicals. Due to their ease of implementation, silicone wristbands have emerged as passive samplers to study personal environmental exposures and have the potential to greatly increase our knowledge of chemical exposures in vulnerable population groups. Nevertheless, there is a limited number of studies monitoring children's exposures via silicone wristbands. In this study, we implemented this sampling technique in ongoing research activities in Montevideo, Uruguay which aim to monitor chemical exposures in a cohort of elementary school children. The silicone wristbands were worn by 24 children for 7 days; they were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for 45 chemical pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), and novel halogenated flame-retardant chemicals (NHFRs). All classes of chemicals, except NHFRs, were identified in the passive samplers. The average number of analytes detected in each wristband was 13 ±3. OPFRs were consistently the most abundant class of analytes detected. Median concentrations of ΣOPFRs, ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) were 1020, 3.00, 0.52 and 3.79 ng/g wristband, respectively. Two major findings result from this research; differences in trends of two OPFRs (TCPP and TDCPP) are observed between studies in Uruguay and the United States, and the detection of DDT, a chemical banned in several countries, suggests that children's exposure profiles in these settings may differ from other parts of the world. This was the first study to examine children's exposome in South America using silicone wristbands and clearly points to a need for further studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Praguicidas , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Silicones , América do Sul , Uruguai
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886710

RESUMO

The present study focuses on an analysis of the efficacy of the online intervention program called "Hero" for promoting prosociality and other socioemotional variables related to prosocial behavior, such as empathy, positive emotions, and forgiveness, in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Uruguay. The final Argentinean sample consisted of 579 adolescents (experimental group = 319 and control group = 260), and the Uruguayan sample consisted of 330 adolescents (experimental group = 140 and control group = 169), aged 12 to 15 years old. The 'Hero' program provided evidence of efficacy for the promotion of prosociality, empathy, positive emotions, and attitudes of forgiveness. It impacted each of the dimensions comprising these variables differently depending on the country where it was applied. We discuss the differences found in each country.


Assuntos
Empatia/ética , Perdão/ética , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Adolescente , Argentina , Atitude , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Uruguai
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237722, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810168

RESUMO

Various traditions have investigated the relationship between emotion and language. For the basic emotions view, emotional prototypes are lexically sedimented in language, evidenced in cultural convergence in emotional recognition and expression tasks. For constructionist theories, conceptual knowledge supported by language is at the core of emotions. Understanding emotion words is embedded in various interrelated constructs such as emotional intelligence, emotion knowledge or emotion differentiation, and is related to, but different from, general vocabulary. A clear advantage of Emotion Vocabulary over most emotion-related constructs is that it can be measured objectively. In two successive corpus-based studies, we tested the predictions of concordance and absolute agreement on the frequency of use of a total of 100 Spanish emotion labels in the eight main Spanish-speaking areas: Spain, Mexico-Central America, River Plate, Continental Caribbean, Andean, Antilles, Chilean, and the United States. In both studies, the intraclass correlation coefficient was statistically different from the null and very large, over .95, as was the Kendall's concordance coefficient, indicating broad consensus among the Spanish linguistic areas. From an applied perspective, our results provide supporting evidence for the similarity in frequency, and therefore cross-cultural generalizability regarding familiarity of the 100 emotion labels as item stems or as experimental stimuli without going through a process of additional adaptation. On a broader scope, these results add evidence on the role of language for emotion theories. In this regard, countries and regions compared here share the same Spanish language, but differ in several aspects in history, culture, and socio-economic structure.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Emoções , Idioma , Vocabulário , Argentina , Região do Caribe , Humanos , México , América do Sul , Espanha , Estados Unidos , Uruguai
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20181215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725065

RESUMO

Butia odorata is a palm native to southern Brazil and Uruguay, not domesticated, much appreciated for its fruits and economic potential. However, the extractivism and the difficulty of propagation have led to the decline of natural populations. The objective of this work was to prove the possibility of induction of somatic embryogenesis in B. odorata. Mature zygotic embryos were induced in two media, MS and Y3, combined with auxin 2,4-D and picloram in five concentrations (2,4-D: 0, 361.99, 452.49, 542.99 and 633.48 µM/L, picloram: 0, 50, 150, 300 and 450 µM/L). The results promising during induction with the formation of embryogenic calli and somatic embryos, however the regeneration of them was not efficient, this may be due to the occurrence of somatic embryos fused during its development. The roots were formed, but the aerial part remained molten, not completing its development. Auxin picloram and Y3 medium provided the most adequate conditions for calogenesis, formation of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos, with concentrations of 150, 300 and 450 µM/L. This is the first description of somatic embryogenesis in B. odorata that will serve as the basis for future research and adjustments of the methodology proposed here.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Brasil , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Uruguai
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140771, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673921

RESUMO

Overseeding legumes in natural grasslands coupled with phosphorous fertilization are management practices oriented to increase forage production and quality, and to restore nutrient losses generated by livestock. Several studies show increases in forage due to this practice, but less is known about impacts on soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to evaluate under real farm conditions changes in root C and N stocks and soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) stocks in two different soil pools, the particulate organic matter (POM) and the mineral associated organic matter (MAOM), after the introduction in natural grasslands of a legume species, Lotus subbiflorus cv. "El Rincón", accompanied with phosphorous fertilization. We also evaluated changes in the natural abundance of 15N and 13C in soils and roots to understand changes in N fixation and species composition. We selected 12 adjacent paddocks of natural grasslands (NG) and natural grasslands overseeded with legumes and fertilized with phosphorous (NGLP) located in commercial farms in Uruguay. We found that overseeding legumes increased root C and N stocks and SOC and SON stocks in some farms but decreased them in others. On average, no significant differences arose between NGLP and NG paddocks in total stocks of 0-30 cm depth. However, higher C stocks were observed in POM of NGLP paddocks in 0-5 cm layer and lower contents in 5-10 cm layer indicating a change in the vertical distribution of C in POM. Changes in δ15N suggest that atmospheric N is being fixed by legumes in NGLP paddocks, but not translated into more N or C stocks in the MAOM fraction, probably due to high N losses promoted by cattle grazing. Our work suggests that carbon sequestration can be achieved after legumes introduction in grazed natural grasslands but will depend on grazing management practices.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Fazendas , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Uruguai
12.
Odontoestomatol ; 22(35): 62-71, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB | ID: biblio-1103066

RESUMO

Introducción: La boca del recién nacido se contamina inmediatamente con microorganismos maternos. Caufield determinó la colonización con SGM para niños americanos a los 26 meses de edad. Estudios latinoamericanos la ubican entre los 14,9-18 meses. Objetivos: Identificar el momento de adquisición y colonización del SGM en una población de niños uruguayos y relacionarlo con factores del niño y maternos. Establecer el tiempo necesario para la recolección de la muestra y estudio de su pérdida. Método: Estudio observacional, longitudinal prospectivo, de 83 pares madre-hijo de un policlínico de Montevideo. De 83 pares examinados, 20 completaron el estudio. Se incluyeron niños de 0-9 meses, con/sin dientes y primera toma salival negativa para SGM. Resultados: Edad promedio de adquisición del SGM 16,4 meses (±4,13) y colonización 18,6 meses (±3,80) de edad. La pérdida de la muestra fue 71,42%. Conclusiones: La colonización resultó similar a la encontrada por Florio (Brasil), observándose diferencias significativas con Caufield (EEUU).


Introduction: The newborn's mouth is immediately contaminated with maternal microorganisms during birth. Caufield determined that the average age of colonization with Streptococcus Mutans (SM) for American children was 26 months old. Latin American studies indicate that it occurs at an age between 14.9 and 18 months old. Objectives: To identify the time of Sm acquisition and colonization in a population of Uruguayan children and to relate it with various child and mother factors. To establish the time needed to collect the sample and its loss. Methods: Observational, longitudinal prospective study, of 83 mother-child pairs from a medical center in Montevideo. From the 83 pairs examined, 20 completed the study. Children between 0-9 months old, with/without teeth, whose first salivary sample was negative for Sm, were included. Results: The mean age of Sm acquisition was 16.4 months (± 4.13), and colonization occurred at 18.6 months (± 3.80) of age. The sample loss was 71.42%. Conclusions: The colonization found was similar to that found by Florio (Brazil) but showed significant differences with Caufield's results (USA).


Introdução: A boca do recém-nascido é imediatamente contaminada por microrganismos maternos. Caufield determinou a colonização com SGM para crianças americanas aos 26 meses de idade. Estudos latino-americanos o situam entre 14,9-18 meses. Objetivos: Identificar o momento de aquisição e colonização do SGM em uma população de crianças uruguaias e relacioná-lo com fatores da criança e da mãe. Estabeleça o tempo necessário para coletar a amostra e estudar sua perda. Método: Estudo observacional, longitudinal prospectivo, de 83 pares mãe-filho da uma policlínica de Montevidéu. Dos 83 pares examinados, 20 completaram o estudo. Foram incluídas crianças de 0-9 meses com / sem dentes e primeira amostra salivar negativa para SGM. Resultados: Idade média de aquisição do SGM 16,4 meses (± 4,13) e colonização 18,6 meses (± 3,80) de idade. A perda estabelecida da amostra foi 71,42%. Conclusões: A colonização foi semelhante aos de Florio (Brasil), observando diferenças significativas com Caufield (EUA).


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Streptococcus mutans , Uruguai , Lactente
13.
Odontoestomatol ; 22(35): 80-88, jul. 2020. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB | ID: biblio-1103069

RESUMO

Proyectado en varias etapas, el edificio de la Facultad de Odontología se inauguró en 1940, cumpliendo uno de los anhelos de la comunidad de odontólogos en Uruguay. La construcción realizada transparentaba su lógica funcional y estructural, utilizaba elementos industrializados y apostaba por la abstracción en sus acabados. Además, carecía prácticamente de elementos clásicos, con lo cual denotaba una vez más su pretensión de objetividad. Esta, con su ineludible carga estética, hacía referencia al mundo de las máquinas, la revolución científica y la precisión, mundo al cual la odontología como disciplina no era ajena. No obstante, los diferentes proyectos del edificio demuestran que su proyectista no siempre sostuvo estas ideas y también jugó con proyectos más expresivos, con alusiones a otras tradiciones arquitectónicas.


Projected in several stages, the building of the School of Dentistry was opened in 1940, fulfilling one of the wishes of the community of dentists in Uruguay. The construction made transparent its functional and structural logic, used industrialized elements and opted for abstraction in its finishes. In addition, it practically lacked classical elements, which denoted once again its claim to objectivity. This, with its inescapable aesthetic load, referred to the world of machines, the scientific revolution and precision, a world to which dentistry, as a discipline, was not alien. However, the different projects of the building show that its designer did not always support these ideas and toyed with more expressive projects, alluding to other architectural traditions.


Projetado em várias etapas, o prédio da Faculdade de Odontologia foi inaugurado em 1940, cumprindo um dos desejos da comunidade de dentistas no Uruguai. A construção tornou transparente a sua lógica funcional e estrutural, utilizou elementos industrializados e optou pela abstração em seus acabamentos. Além disso, praticamente não possuía elementos clássicos, o que denotava mais uma vez sua reivindicação de objetividade. Isso, com sua inescapável carga estética, referia-se ao mundo das máquinas, à revolução científica e à precisão, um mundo do qual a odontologia como disciplina não era alheia. No entanto, os diferentes projetos do edifício mostram que o projetista nem sempre apoiou essas ideias e também jogou com projetos mais expressivos, com alusões a outras tradições arquitetônicas.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Odontologia , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , História da Odontologia , Uruguai
14.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52470

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. El principal objetivo del Programa de Formación en Salud Pública para la Frontera Brasil-Uruguay fue fortalecer las capacidades formativas locales en salud pública a través del desarrollo de habilidades y competencias junto a trabajadores de salud de cuatro zonas fronterizas. El diseño metodológico del Programa, basado en talleres docentes con aplicación de metodologías activas de la formación en salud y mediados por tecnologías educacionales, favoreció la organización de un espacio dialógico permanente entre docentes, gestores y actores de la práctica de ambos países que, entre 2017 y 2018, resultó en: a) el desarrollo de capacidades locales para el mapeo de los principales problemas de vigilancia de la salud en las cuatro zonas fronterizas participantes; b) la discusión de los límites y perspectivas de acción de los servicios de salud existentes en ambos países, dentro de los principios y lineamientos del campo de la salud pública; c) la apropiación de herramientas y procesos pedagógicos que permitieron la incorporación del aspecto de salud pública y de la vigilancia de la salud en los diferentes procesos y espacios organizativos del sector salud local; y d) la construcción de una capacidad permanente para el desarrollo de habilidades y competencias junto a trabajadores del sector salud, en una lógica de educación permanente en salud. Los logros del Programa y sus contribuciones a los servicios de salud locales lo habilitan, de manera efectiva, como acción estratégica para el fortalecimiento de capacidades formativas y de investigación en la frontera Brasil-Uruguay.


[ABSTRACT]. The main objective of the Public Health Training Program on the Brazil-Uruguay Border was to strengthen local training capacities in public health through the development of skills and competencies together with health workers from four border areas. The methodological design of the Program, based on workshops with the application of active methodologies in health training and mediated by educational technologies, favored the organization of a permanent dialogical setting between instructors, managers and practice professionals from both countries that, between 2017 and 2018, resulted in a) development of local capacities for the mapping of the main health surveillance problems in the four participating border areas; b) discussion of the limits and perspectives of action of the existing health services in both countries, within the principles and guidelines of the public health field; c) appropriation of pedagogical tools and processes that allowed for the incorporation of public health and health surveillance into the different organizational processes and settings of the local health sector; and d) building of a permanent capacity for the development of skills and competencies together with health workers, within a framework of permanent education in health. The Program’s achievements and its contributions to local health services effectively qualify it as a strategic action for strengthening training and research capacities on the Brazil-Uruguay border.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde na Fronteira , Brasil , Uruguai , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Educação Profissional em Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde na Fronteira , Brasil
15.
Salud trab. (Maracay) ; 28(1): 47-60, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1104337

RESUMO

En Uruguay, la información sobre absentismo laboral en trabajadores vinculados a la salud mental ha presentado dificultades en su sistematización. Surge entonces, la posibilidad de abordar dicha problemática en el único hospital psiquiátrico público del país, dado el interés de autoridades, profesionales y constatar la existencia de mejoras en la calidad de los registros institucionales. Objetivo general: Caracterizar el absentismo laboral en trabajadores del hospital psiquiátrico Vilardebó de Montevideo, durante el año 2013, según certificaciones médicas. Metodología: Convergen aspectos exploratorios, descriptivos y correlaciones, bajo un diseño cuantitativo, no experimental, transversal, retrospectivo. Resultados: El mayor ausentismo laboral se observó en el turno matutino, en mujeres auxiliares de enfermería; sin embargo, los mayores ausentismos días promedio se dieron en hombres por causa de salud mental. Asimismo, 33, 6% de la población estudiada presentó más de 2 certificaciones. Dado el Test Chi-Cuadrado se constató la no independencia entre: motivo de certificación en función del turno y/o cargo del trabajador/a. Discusión: algunos de los resultados se reconocen en otros estudios; siendo uno de los primeros trabajos en la materia se sugiere la realización de nuevas investigaciones con el fin de observar la dinámica temporal del fenómeno estudiado, dadas sus implicancias individuales, colectivas, asistenciales e institucionales(AU)


In Uruguay, the systematic gathering of information on worker absenteeism due to mental health has been difficult. We had an opportunity to address this problem in the only public psychiatric hospital in the country, given the interest of authorities, professionals on verifying improvements in the quality of institutional records. Overall objective. To describe the medical certifications of workers of the Vilardebó psychiatric hospital in Montevideo in 2013. Methodology. Approach that brings together exploratory, descriptive and correlation aspects, using a quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional, retrospective study design. Results. The greatest absenteeism from work was observed in the morning shift among female nursing assistants; however, the highest average number of absenteeism days 33.6% of the study population had more than two medical certifications. Based on chi-square statistics, non-independence was found between the reason for medical certification depending on the shift and / or job title of the worker. Discussion. Some of the results are consistent with prior studies. However, being one of the first studies on this subject, more research is needed to further examine the temporal dynamics of these observations, given their individual, collective, healthcare and institutional implications(AU)


Assuntos
Uruguai , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Absenteísmo , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Categorias de Trabalhadores
16.
Toxicon ; 181: 53-56, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353569

RESUMO

An outbreak of cattle abortion associated with the consumption of Hesperocyparis (Cupressus) macrocarpa and Cupressus arizonica needles has been reported in Uruguay. Twenty-five of 125 pregnant heifers in late-term pregnancy aborted after being introduced into a paddock containing numerous H. macrocarpa, C. arizonica and Casuarina cunninghamiana trees. There were no significant macroscopic or histological findings in the two fetuses analyzed. Abortifacient labdane acids were detected in the needles of H. macrocarpa (1.68%, D.W.) and C. arizonica (0.36%, D.W.) but none were found in C. cunninghamiana.


Assuntos
Abortivos/toxicidade , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Cupressus , Aborto Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Uruguai
17.
Transplant Proc ; 52(4): 1066-1069, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249051

RESUMO

The detection of brain death (BD) plays a fundamental role in the management of hospital donation. Delayed diagnosis of BD is the main cause of donor loss. A tool for monitoring and prognosis in the neurocritical patient is essential to meet these objectives. The most used prognostic scores in intensive care units are Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II. A predictive model of good performance (ModSPN) in predicting BD in neurocritical patients with Glasgow Coma Scale score < 8 was published in 2014. With the objective of analyzing the predictive capacity of ModSPN and comparing it with SAPS II and APACHE II, 2307 patients admitted to the neurocritical patient monitoring (SPN) program of the INDT were analyzed. The predictive capacity for death and brain death of SAPS II, APACHE II, and ModSPN was compared using receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the curve showed a better APACHE II performance for the prediction of death and the ModSPN being a better predictor of the probability of dying in BD. Therefore, for the prediction of death in the neurocritical patient, APACHE II was superior, but for the prediction of encephalic death, the ModSPN presented the best predictive power for all causes of brain injury.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Escala Psicológica Aguda Simplificada , Uruguai
18.
Zootaxa ; 4728(1): zootaxa.4728.1.8, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230589

RESUMO

Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. is introduced based on material from the continental shelf off Uruguay. Bilaminar fragments of this species were also found in mid-Holocene deposits of Destacamento Río Salado Member, Canal de las Escobas Formation (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), ca. 6,000 yr BP. Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. resembles H. brasiliensis Ramalho, Muricy Taylor, 2008, but differs from this species in its more triangular and protruding avicularia occurring in just a small proportion of zooids. Hippomonavella charrua n. sp. is the third species of the genus with both fossil and Recent representatives. The tatiform ancestrula and the early astogeny are described for the first time in a species of Hippomonavella.


Assuntos
Briozoários , Animais , Argentina , Fósseis , Uruguai
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1215-1218, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140836

RESUMO

A novel lymphocystivirus causing typical signs of lymphocystis virus disease in whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) on the coast of Uruguay was detected and described recently. Based on genetic analysis of some partially sequenced core genes, the virus seemed to differ from previously described members of the genus Lymphocystivirus. In this study, using next-generation sequencing, the whole genome of this virus was sequenced and analysed. The complete genome was found to be 211,086 bp in size, containing 148 predicted protein-coding regions, including the 26 core genes that seem to have a homologue in every iridovirus genome sequenced to date. Considering the current species demarcation criteria for the family Iridoviridae (genome organization, G+C content, amino acid sequence similarity, and phylogenetic relatedness of the core genes), the establishment of a novel species ("Lymphocystis disease virus 4") in the genus Lymphocystivirus is suggested.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Iridoviridae/classificação , Iridoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , Composição de Bases , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Iridoviridae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Uruguai
20.
Environ Res ; 184: 109351, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172075

RESUMO

In order to assess the impact of sewage pollution on the diet of the strict detritivorous and migratory South American fish, Prochilodus lineatus, 16 sterol biomarkers were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from fish muscle (n: 144) collected along 1200 km in the Rio de la Plata basin. Sterol concentrations were fairly homogeneous (2.4 ± 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight), but their proportion in lipids was highly variable and inversely related to both body mass and lipid contents, reflecting the more conservative character of sterols compared to the rapid accumulation of fat as fish grows. As expected, the muscle sterol signature was widely dominated by cholesterol (92 ± 4.5% of total sterols), but it exhibited a remarkable diversity with variable proportions of fecal coprostanol (4.0 ± 4.4%) and plant sterols (3.1 ± 1.9%, e.g. sitosterol and campesterol). Muscle sterols exhibited contrasting geographical differences associated with dietary shifts from plant-derived detritus in the northern reaches of the basin (N: Paraná and Uruguay Rivers), to sewage dominated inputs at Buenos Aires (BA). Fish from BA are fattier (lipids: 35 ± 18 vs. 15 ± 9.0% at N), with higher total sterol contents (2.6 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 mg g-1), abundant coprostanol (5.3 ± 4.4 vs. 0.46 ± 1.1%) and lower plant sterols (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 4.6 ± 2.0%), reflecting a diet shifted to anthropogenic organic matter as opposed to vegetal detritus in the north. Accordingly, BA fish presented lower phyto/fecal sterol ratios (0.37 ± 0.21 vs. 0.91 ± 0.12 at N) and higher copro/epicoprostanol ratios (0.95 ± 0.082 vs 0.51 ± 0.25 at N), indicating fresh fecal inputs which provide a valuable supply of easily absorbed organic matter at this site. In addition, the sterol signature allowed to distinguish migratory fish from BA collected 900 km north (previously identified by their pollutant fingerprint and biochemical composition). In fact, coprostanol concentrations show a direct relationship with human populations along the basin, highlighting the usefulness of fecal sterol biomarkers as tracers of polluted fish stocks.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Argentina , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Esgotos/análise , Esteróis/análise , Uruguai , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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