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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639304

RESUMO

Similar interventions to stop the spread of COVID-19 led to different outcomes in Latin American countries. This study aimed to capture the multicausality of factors affecting HS-capacity that could help plan a more effective response, considering health as well as social aspects. A facilitated GMB was constructed by experts and validated with a survey from a wider population. Statistical analyses estimated the impact of the main factors to the HS-capacity and revealed the differences in its mechanisms. The results show a similar four-factor structure in all countries that includes public administration, preparedness, information, and collective self-efficacy. The factors are correlated and have mediating effects with HS-capacity; this is the base for differences among countries. HS-capacity has a strong relation with public administration in Bolivia, while in Nicaragua and Uruguay it is related through preparedness. Nicaragua lacks information as a mediation effect with HS-capacity whereas Bolivia and Uruguay have, respectively, small and large mediation effects with it. These outcomes increase the understanding of the pandemic based on country-specific context and can aid policymaking in low-and middle-income countries by including these factors in future pandemic response models.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguai/epidemiologia
2.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 35(1): 51-55, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Uruguay, all replacements have been registered by law since 1980. Instability is the second cause of revision in hip replacements. OBJECTIVE: To know the incidence of instability, and its relationship with the surgical approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational and analytical study of a historical cohort of 1,738 hip replacements conducted in 2014. Random sample stratified according to the surgical approach: posterior (AP) and anterolateral (AAL). All patients who had suffered any dislocation were identified, their incidence was estimated and bivariate and multivariate tests were performed, to identify factors related, associated with the patient, to the surgeon (surgical approach and experience), to the environment, and to the implant. RESULTS: 633 patients, minimum follow-up of three years and 16 patients with dislocation, with an incidence of 1.95% (95% CI: 1.14-3.31) in general, 1.4% (95% CI: 0.64-3.03) in AAL and 4.9% (95% CI: 2.67-8.83) in AP (p = 0.009, RR = 3.35). Factors associated with dislocation were: a) AP with an OR of 6.18 (CI 95%: 1.99-19.26); b) patient from the private health subsector with an OR of 13.74 (95% CI: 1.87-101.15); c) antecedent of hypothyroidism with an OR of 3.51 (IC 95%: 1.09-11.29); d) osteoarthritis secondary to inflammatory arthritis and dysplasia with an OR of 5.24 (CI 95%: 1.16-23.66); e) surgical center number three with an OR of 8.80 (CI 95%: 1.50-51.51). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of early dislocation was within the usual ranges. Posterior surgical approach with increased risk of instability from preoperative risk factors.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Luxação do Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Luxação do Quadril/epidemiologia , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Luxação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uruguai/epidemiologia
3.
Appetite ; 167: 105651, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400222

RESUMO

In May 2020, Uruguay was one of the few Latin American countries that had managed to control the outbreak of COVID-19 without mandatory curfews or quarantines. However, several social distancing measures created a major disruption in different aspects of the daily life of Uruguayan citizens. In this context, the objectives of the present work were i) to identify changes in eating habits perceived by Uruguayan citizens as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, and ii) to explore factors associated with different perceived changes on eating habits. A cross-sectional online study was conducted with 891 participants, recruited using an advertisement on Facebook and Instagram. Fifty-one percent of the participants indicated that their eating habits had changed since the detection of the first cases of COVID-19 in Uruguay. Large heterogeneity in the categorization of the changes existed: 45% of the participants regarded the changes as positive, 32% as negative and 23% as neither positive nor negative. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to study the influence of explanatory variables in the likelihood of belonging to groups who reported different changes in eating habits (no changes, positive, negative, or neither positive nor negative changes). Household income and reliance on instrumental and emotional support increased the likelihood of reporting positive changes in eating habits, whereas negative changes were associated with a reduction in household income due to COVID-19 and the coping strategies self-distraction and self-blaming. Insights for policy making to reinforce positive effects and minimize threats to healthy eating are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360522

RESUMO

Uruguay has the highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in Latin America. Previous studies reported a stable incidence and a slight increase in mortality among males. We aimed to assess colorectal cancer incidence (2002-2017) and mortality trends (1990-2017) by age groups and sex, using data from the National Cancer Registry. Annual percent changes (APCs) were estimated using joinpoint regression models. We included 27,561 colorectal cancer cases and 25,403 deaths. We found an increasing incidence among both males and females aged 40-49, with annual increases of 3.1% (95%CI: 1.21-5.03) and 2.1% (95%CI: 0.49-3.66), respectively, and an increasein the rate in older males (70+) of 0.60% (95%CI: 0.02-1.20) per year between 2002 and 2017. Mortality remained stable among those younger than 50, whereas it decreased for older females aged 50-69 and 70+ (APC: -0.61% (-1.07-0.14) and -0.68% (-1.02-0.34), respectively), and increased for the oldest males (70+; APC: 0.74 (0.47-1.01)). In conclusion, we found rising colorectal cancer incidence accompanied by stable mortality in young adults. Sex disparities were also found among the older adults, with a more favorable pattern for females. Exposures to dietary and lifestyle risk factors, and inequalities in access to and awareness of screening programs, are probably among the main underlying causes and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101747, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102575

RESUMO

The resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to acaricides is a serious control problem, so its early diagnosis by a molecular technique is important. This study aims to develop a multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the para-sodium channel gene and in the GABA-Cl gene, associated with pyrethroids (cypermethrin and flumethrin) and fipronil resistance, respectively. We used 22 tick field isolates from farms with tick control problems (sampling convenience). These farms are located in departments of northern Uruguay. Three mutations in the sodium channel gene (Domain II S4-5: C190A and G215T; domain III S6: T2134A) and one in the GABA-Cl gene (A286S/L: CG856CC/TG) were studied. Mutations G215T and T213A were not detected. In all field isolates, the resistant allele (R) for C190A mutation (knockdown resistance, kdr) was detected, mainly in heterozygous individuals (SR) (11.1% to 86.7%). The highest incidence of the kdr mutant allele occurred in the Tacuarembó tick field isolates, where on 7 out of 10 farms >30% of individuals were SR and on one farm > 30% of individuals were RR. The next highest was Artigas (half of farms had>30% SR individuals and a quarter had >30% RR individuals). The resistance to dieldrin locus (rdl) mutation (CG856CC/TG) was absent in five field isolates. The highest incidenceof the mutant allele was observed in ticks from farms in Rivera (all farms had SR in >30% of individuals and two farms had RR in >12.5 and >16.7% of individuals) followed by farms in Tacuarembó (3 of 10 farms had >30% SR and 2 with >30% RR). Less than half of the farms had rdl in homozygous individuals. No significant association was observed between phenotypic bioassays and the rdl resistance allele. Several field isolates were phenotypically susceptible to the presence of the rdl allele. Several causes are possible (bioassay sensitivity, discriminating concentration). Individuals with simultaneous kdr and rdl mutations were present in 17 field isolates, and their frequency varied between 0.06% and 60%. Genotypic analysis shows that tick resistance to both acaricides, especially pyrethroids, is a serious problem. It is important to monitor the resistance using molecular techniques to plan efficient control measures. This is the first report describing kdr and rdl detection in R. microplus in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Rhipicephalus/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/genética , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Mutação , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(2): 218-223, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes (HHE) is one frequently reported neurologic adverse effect supposedly attributable to vaccination and immunization. Its long-term impact on neurodevelopment is not completely known. AIM: To characterize the post-pentavalent vaccine HHE events reported to the Uruguayan Ministry of Health (M of H) between 2014 and 2018. To perform neurodevelopment screening of those who were under 6 years of age at the time of evaluation. METHODS: Descriptive study of the reports made to the National Farmacosurveillance System of the M of H. Neurodevelopment screening was performed using the National Guidelines for Developmental Surveillance. RESULTS: 30 cases were studied. Most cases occurred after the first doses, were of short duration and during the first hours after vaccination, with spontaneous recovery. Median time between the event and this evaluation was 2 years and 2 months. Screening tests were normal in 15. Delay in the language area was detected in one case. CONCLUSIONS: HHE events had similar characteristics to those described in the literature, with no severe short-term complications. Despite the limitations of the present study, no delays nor deviations were found in the development of the children who were evaluated.


Assuntos
Hipotonia Muscular , Vacinação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Hipotonia Muscular/epidemiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Vacinas Combinadas
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 1018-1022, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160311

RESUMO

We investigated 2 outbreaks of osteomalacia as a result of phosphorus (P) deficiency in herds of lactating beef cows grazing subtropical native pastures in Uruguay. Cows exhibited pica, difficulty to stand and walk, rib fractures, and body weight loss even with adequate forage availability. Osteopenia and severe osteomalacia were observed on gross and histologic examination. The concentrations of bicarbonate-extractable P in soil (4.0, 4.1 mg P/kg), total P in pasture (0.9, 1.1 g P/kg), inorganic P in serum (1.0, 0.71 mmol P/L), and P in bone (73 mg P/mL) were all low. Although injectable and mineral salt supplements provided additional P in both outbreaks, these supplementary amounts were insufficient to prevent P deficiency. The P ingested by the cows from the pasture and supplements would have provided 20-55% of their daily P requirements of ~21 g P/d. Osteomalacia occurred in cattle at the 2 ranches as a result of severe P deficiency in the soil and forage, and inadequate P supplementation. Following diagnosis, control of P deficiency in beef cattle requires estimation of the amount of pasture P ingested and provision of sufficient additional supplementary P to meet the animals' requirements.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Osteomalacia , Fósforo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , Osteomalacia/induzido quimicamente , Osteomalacia/veterinária , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/deficiência , Uruguai/epidemiologia
9.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 79-88, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137378

RESUMO

Chytridiomycosis, an emergent infectious disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is considered one of the drivers of the current amphibian biodiversity loss. To inform endangered species conservation efforts, it is essential to improve our knowledge about the abiotic and biotic factors that influence Bd infection dynamics in the wild. Here, we analyzed variation of Bd infection in the redbelly toad Melanophryniscus montevidensis, a threatened bufonid from Uruguay. We tested the influence of temperature, precipitation, season, and host population size on Bd prevalence and intensity. Additionally, considering the sub-lethal effects of Bd, we tested if these variables, potentially through their effect on Bd, also explain the variation in host body condition. We determined a high Bd prevalence of 41% (100/241), and that population size influenced both Bd prevalence and infection intensity. We identified an effect of precipitation and season on Bd infection intensity and an effect of season on toad body condition. In addition, we found a negative effect of infection intensity on body condition; moreover, while some toads cleared the infection, their body condition did not improve, suggesting a long-term cost. This is the first report on host population size as an important factor in Bd infection dynamics in a threatened anuran species, and seasonal demographic changes appear to play an important role in the dynamics. Finally, we highlight the need for monitoring Bd in this and other endangered amphibian populations, especially those within the genus Melanophryniscus, which includes several Endangered and Data Deficient species in South America.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Animais , Batrachochytrium , Bufonidae , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Uruguai/epidemiologia
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 547-550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121706

RESUMO

Purpose: Health emergency due to COVID-19 started in Uruguay on March 13, 2020; our mastology unit tried to ensure adequate oncological care, and protect patients from the virus infection and complications. Objective: To assess the health care activities in the "peak" of the pandemic during 3 months. Materials and Methods: we collected data from the electronic health record. Results: There were a total of 293 medical appointments from 131 patients (221 face-to-face), that decreased by 16.7% compared to the same period in 2019 (352 appointments). The medical appointments were scheduled to evaluate the continuity of systemic treatment or modifications (95 patients; 72.5%), follow-up (17; 12.9%), first-time consultation (12; 9.1%), and assess paraclinical studies (7; 5.3%). The patients were on hormone therapy (81 patients; 74%), chemotherapy (CT) (21; 19%), and anti-HER2 therapies (9; 8%). New twenty treatments were initiated. Of the 14 patients that were on adjuvant/neoadjuvant CT, 9 (64.3%) continued with the same regimen with the addition of prophylactic granulocyte-colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), and 5 (35.7%), who were receiving weekly paclitaxel, continued the treatment with no changes. Of the seven patients that were on palliative CT, 2 (28.5%) continued the treatment with the addition of G-CSF, 3 (42.8%) continued with weekly capecitabine or paclitaxel with no treatment changes, and 2 (28.5%) changed their treatment regimen (a less myelosuppressive regimen was selected for one and due to progression of the disease in the other patient). The ninety patients who were receiving adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative criteria hormone therapy and/or anti-HER2 therapies, continued the treatment with no changes. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that, although medical appointments decreased by approximately 17%, we could maintain healthcare activities, continued most of the treatments while the most modified was CT with G-CSF to avoid myelosuppression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematopoese/imunologia , Humanos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/organização & administração , Triagem/normas , Uruguai/epidemiologia
11.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 47(1): 73-80, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201910

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: A pesar del aumento de mujeres en la Medicina, queda mucho por hacer en materia de equidad entre hombres y mujeres. Esta desigualdad entre ambos sexos se acentúa en especialidades quirúrgicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la situación de las cirujanas plásticas en Uruguay. Describimos el vínculo del desarrollo profesional con la familia (pareja/hijos), la formación y desempeño docente y la eventual existencia de discriminación y acoso sexual, así como la influencia de un mentor durante su etapa profesional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Realizamos una encuesta electrónica, anónima y voluntaria, sin incentivo por finalizarla, que enviamos a los miembros y no miembros de la Sociedad de Cirugía Plástica del Uruguay. RESULTADOS: Obtuvimos 86 respuestas de cirujanos plásticos titulados y residentes: 47 mujeres (54.7%) y 39 hombres (45.3%). CONCLUSIONES: Este es el primer trabajo que se realiza en nuestro país respecto a la situación de las cirujanas plásticas y su vínculo entre el trabajo, la pareja, la maternidad, el trabajo docente, la discriminación, el acoso sexual y la importancia de mentores del mismo género. Los datos obtenidos nos ponen a la par de la situación mundial en algunos aspectos. Aun así, contamos con una Sociedad con un elevado porcentaje de mujeres y que va en ascenso. Una población de cirujanos plásticos donde las edades al tener el primer hijo y el tener hijos antes o durante la residencia, no variaron entre hombres y mujeres. Una especialidad en la que la mayoría niega la presencia de acoso sexual, discriminación o haber postergado la maternidad / paternidad por la Cirugía Plástica


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the increase in women in Medicine, a lot of work still needs to be done in terms of equality between men and women. This inequality is accentuated in surgical specialties. The objective of this work is to analyze the situation of women in Plastic Surgery in Uruguay. We describe the bond between professional development with family (partner / children), academy training, discrimination and sexual harassment, and the influence of a mentor during training. METHODS: An electronic, anonymous and voluntary survey was carried out, without incentive to complete it. It was sent to the members and non-members of the Society of Plastic Surgery in Uruguay. RESULTS: Eighty-six responses were obtained from plastic surgeons and residents of the specialty: 47 women (54.7%) and 39 men (45.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study carried out in our country analyzing the situation of plastic surgeons and its bond between work, family, motherhood, academic work, discrimination, sexual harassment and the importance of mentors of the same gender. The data obtained revealed that in some aspects women surgeons in Uruguay suffer the same situation as the rest of the world. Nonetheless, we have a Society with a high percentage of women, that is increasing. A population of plastic surgeons where the age of having the first child and having children before or during residency did not vary between men and women. A specialty where the majority deny the presence of sexual harassment, discrimination or having postponed maternity/paternity due to Plastic Surgery


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialização/estatística & dados numéricos , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , 57444 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 8-11, mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202041

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer e interpretar las experiencias y los significados que las personas mayores que viven en comunidad atribuyen al envejecimiento satisfactorio. MÉTODO: Investigación cualitativa, con enfoque hermenéutico dialéctico de George Gadamer, realizada en zona metropolitana de Uruguay, años 2015-2016; participaron 23 personas mayores. RESULTADOS: se identificaron las categorías conciencia histórica con tres subcategorías: familia, sociedad y estado en el que vivimos, y categoría carga de la tradición con dos subcategorías: juicios y límites. CONCLUSIONES: se logró conocer las percepciones sobre envejecimiento satisfactorio desde las vivencias de personas mayores, enfatizando en las relaciones familiares como pilar fundamental de sostén para mantenerse activos y saludables. Es importante la promoción de la salud. Las personas mayores tienen un cuerpo que sufre dolencias; manteniéndose en actividad, son personas con salud mental, ya que ellos manifiestan que mientras la mente anda, todo puede salir bien. La expectativa se centra en ser resiliente, siendo este el punto principal de seguir día a día en el camino


OBJECTIVE: To know and interpret the experiences and meanings attributed by elderly people living in community to satisfactory aging. METHOD: qualitative research, with a dialectical hermeneutic approach by George Gadamer, carried out in the metropolitan area of Uruguay, 2015-2016; 23 elderly people participated. RESULTS: categories were identified: historical awareness with three subcategories: family, society and state in which we live; another category carries the tradition with two subcategories: judgments and limits. CONCLUSIONS: it was possible to know the perceptions of successful aging from the experiences of older people, emphasizing family relationships as a fundamental pillar of support to stay active and healthy; health promotion is important, older people have a body that suffers ailments, staying active, they are people with mental health, since they referenced that while the mind walks everything can go well. The expectation is focused on being resilient, this being the main point to follow day by day along the way


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica , Rememoração Mental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Institucionalizada , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia
13.
s.l; Ministerio de Salud Pública; feb. 23, 2021. 38 p. ilus..
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151280

RESUMO

La respuesta de la OPS/OMS ha consistido en activar equipos regionales y nacionales del sistema de gestión de incidentes para transmitir orientación técnica y brindar apoyo directo a los ministerios de salud de los países en materia de vigilancia, capacidad de laboratorios, servicios de apoyo a la atención de salud, prevención y control de infecciones, manejo clínico y comunicación de riesgos, todo en consonancia con líneas de acción prioritarias. A través del Centro de Operaciones de Emergencia (COE) de la OPS se planifica, coordina y controla la respuesta. Para ello se recolecta y analiza información que permite a la OPS y a los estados miembros tomar decisiones efectivas y a tiempo. La comunicación de información clara y de calidad y la participación de la comunidad también es un área priorizada en el trabajo. Para ello se asistió a los gobiernos en las capacidades para generar la comunicación del riesgo, ampliando las capacidades locales. Además, la OPS/OMS contribuyó al fortalecimiento de las capacidades de detección y vigilancia del SARS-CoV-2 capacitando a laboratorios nacionales en los protocolos recomendados y asegurando la disponibilidad de reactivos y pruebas para las mismas. También se trabajó en el desarrollo de vacunas y generaron mecanismos de acceso, investigación de tratamientos (ejemplo ensayo Solidaridad) y fortalecimiento de sistemas de salud. El acompañamiento y la cooperación técnica han sido los postulados principales en el vínculo con la Autoridad Sanitaria Nacional en el Uruguay. Los indicadores de la respuesta a la pandemia constituyen pruebas de la preparación y capacidad de respuesta, de los que subrayamos nueve factores: 1. Según el "Informe Mundial de la Protección Social 2017-2019" de la OIT y el Reporte del Banco Mundial (2013), Uruguay cuenta con "uno de los sistemas de protección social más desarrollados de América Latina, comparable, en algunos aspectos, a los de países de la OCDE". Contar con una protección social sólida ayuda a que los países desarrollen una respuesta más efectiva. 2. La información requiere provenir de fuentes verificadas y la respuesta de la sociedad uruguaya fue responsable eligiendo cumplir el distanciamiento físico voluntario.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Serviços Públicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Uruguai/epidemiologia
14.
s.l; Ministerio de Salud; feb. 15, 2021. 12 p. ilus..
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151282

RESUMO

El presente informe brinda la actualización de la situación epidemiológica nacional en referencia a COVID-19, con la información disponible según las estrategias de vigilancia epidemiológica actualmente vigentes en el país. A la fecha la OMS reporta la ocurrencia de 109.729.579 casos confirmados en todo el mundo, con 2.424.897 defunciones. Se han reportado casos en 192 países. A continuación, se presenta la situación epidemiológica de COVID-19 en Uruguay actualizada a la fecha, utilizando como fuente de datos el SG-DEVISA. El día 13 de marzo, se realizó la primera confirmación de un caso de COVID-19 en Uruguay. Desde la fecha se han confirmado por laboratorio 48909 casos (incidencia acumulada de 1385,17 casos por 100.000 habitantes).


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Uruguai/epidemiologia
15.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(2): 977-988, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575990

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and mortality cause significant losses to the dairy industry. The preweaning dairy calf mortality risk in Uruguay is high (15.2%); however, causes for these losses are largely unknown. This study aimed to assess whether various pathogens were associated with NCD and death in Uruguayan dairy calves and whether these infections, diarrhea, or deaths were associated with the failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI). Contemporary diarrheic (n = 264,) and non-diarrheic (n = 271) 1- to 30-day-old calves from 27 farms were sampled. Feces were analyzed by antigen-capture ELISA for Cryptosporidium spp., rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, and Escherichia coli F5+, RT-PCR for bovine astrovirus (BoAstV), and bacterial cultures for Salmonella enterica. Blood/serum was analyzed by RT-PCR or antigen-capture ELISA for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Serum of ≤ 8-day-old calves (n = 95) was assessed by refractometry to determine the concention of serum total proteins (STP) as an indicator of FTPI. Whether the sampled calves died before weaning was recorded. At least one pathogen was detected in 65.4% of the calves, and this percentage was significantly higher in diarrheic (83.7%) versus non-diarrheic (47.6%) calves. Unlike the other pathogens, Cryptosporidium spp. and rotavirus were associated with NCD. Diarrheic calves, calves infected with any of the pathogens, and calves infected with rotavirus had significantly lower concentrations of STP. Diarrheic calves had higher chances of dying before weaning than non-diarrheic calves. Diarrheic calves infected with S. enterica were at increased risk of mortality. Controlling NCD, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, and rotavirus infections, and improving colostrum management practices would help to reduce calf morbi-mortality in dairy farms in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Diarreia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Uruguai/epidemiologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 26, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are highly invasive and threaten animal and human health in the Americas. The screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) is listed by the World Organization for Animal Health as a notifiable infestation because myiasis cases affect livestock, wildlife, and humans in endemic areas, and outbreaks can have major socioeconomic consequences in regions where the screwworm has been eradicated. However, a knowledge gap exists on screwworm infestation of feral swine in South America, where the screwworm is endemic. Here, we report screwworm infestation of feral swine harvested in Artigas Department (Uruguay), where the Republic of Uruguay shares borders with Brazil and Argentina. METHODS: Myiasis caused by the larvae of screwworm were identified in feral swine with the support and collaboration of members of a local feral swine hunting club over a 3-year period in the Department of Artigas. Harvested feral swine were examined for the presence of lesions where maggots causing the myiasis could be sampled and processed for taxonomic identification. The sites of myiasis on the body of infested feral swine and geospatial data for each case were recorded. The sex and relative size of each feral swine were also recorded. Temperature and precipitation profiles for the region were obtained from public sources. RESULTS: Myiases caused by screwworms were recorded in 27 of 618 the feral swine harvested. Cases detected in males weighing > 40 kg were associated with wounds that, due to their location, were likely caused by aggressive dominance behavior between adult males. The overall prevalence of screwworm infestation in the harvested feral swine was associated with ambient temperature, but not precipitation. Case numbers peaked in the warmer spring and summer months. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on myiasis in feral swine caused by screwworm in South America. In contrast to myiasis in cattle, which can reach deep into host tissues, screwworms in feral swine tended to cause superficial infestation. The presence of feral swine in screwworm endemic areas represents a challenge to screwworm management in those areas. Screwworm populations maintained by feral swine may contribute to human cases in rural areas of Uruguay, which highlights the importance of the One Health approach to the study of this invasive host species-ectoparasite interaction.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Calliphoridae/patogenicidade , Saúde Única , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/epidemiologia , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Suínos , Uruguai/epidemiologia
17.
s.l; Ministerio de Salud; Ene. 26, 2021. 15 p. ilus..
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151283

RESUMO

El presente informe brinda la actualización de la situación epidemiológica nacional en referencia a COVID-19, con la información disponible de las diferentes estrategias de vigilancia epidemiológica actualmente vigentes en el país. A la fecha la OMS reporta la ocurrencia de 85.141.293 casos confirmados en todo el mundo, con 1.843.479 defunciones. Se han reportado casos en 191 países. A continuación se presenta la situación epidemiológica de COVID-19 en Uruguay actualizada a la fecha. Las fuentes de datos utilizadas son el SG-DEVISA, la base de datos de mortalidad de la Unidad de Estadísticas Vitales del MSP, la base de CIH vinculada a plan invierno y centros centinelas de ETI e IRAG y la base de monitoreo de consultas en unidades móviles de DEVISA.El día 13 de marzo, se realizó la primera confirmación de un caso de COVID-19 en Uruguay. Desde la fecha se han confirmado por laboratorio 20823 casos (incidencia acumulada de 589,73 casos por 100.000 habitantes).


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Uruguai/epidemiologia
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1040-1045, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799421

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Clinical presentation of hepatitis E mainly occurs as an acute and self-limited disease, though chronic cases are now being commonly reported in immunocompromised individuals. In high-income developed areas and non-endemic regions, HEV is mainly transmitted by the zoonotic route through direct contact with infected animals or by consumption of contaminated meat products. Although pigs and wild boars are the main reservoirs of the disease, HEV can also infect deer, camels, and rats and seems to have an ever-expanding host range. Peccaries (Tayassuidae family, superfamily Suoidea), the 'new world pigs', share susceptibility to several pathogens with domestic pigs and wild boars. Herein, we performed a serological and molecular survey of two captive populations of white-collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) from Uruguay, with the aim to assess the role of the species as an HEV reservoir. One-hundred and one serum samples were analysed for anti-HEV antibodies. Further evidences of active HEV infection were investigated in stool by RT-nested PCR. Animals from both wildlife reserves were exposed to HEV with an overall prevalence of 24.7%. Moreover, HEV RNA could be detected in peccaries' stool samples from one of the reserves. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the strains within HEV-3, closely related to both human and swine isolates. Our work provides the first evidences supporting the notion that white-collared peccaries are susceptible to HEV. However, these data should not be overinterpreted. Further research is needed concerning the role of peccaries in the transmission of HEV.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/análise , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uruguai/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 51-65, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306459

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and declared by the World Health Organization a global public health emergency. Among the severe outbreaks across South America, Uruguay has become known for curtailing SARS-CoV-2 exceptionally well. To understand the SARS-CoV-2 introductions, local transmissions, and associations with genomic and clinical parameters in Uruguay, we sequenced the viral genomes of 44 outpatients and inpatients in a private healthcare system in its capital, Montevideo, from March to May 2020. We performed a phylogeographic analysis using sequences from our cohort and other studies that indicate a minimum of 23 independent introductions into Uruguay, resulting in five major transmission clusters. Our data suggest that most introductions resulting in chains of transmission originate from other South American countries, with the earliest seeding of the virus in late February 2020, weeks before the borders were closed to all non-citizens and a partial lockdown implemented. Genetic analyses suggest a dominance of S and G clades (G, GH, GR) that make up >90% of the viral strains in our study. In our cohort, lethal outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly correlated with arterial hypertension, kidney failure, and ICU admission (FDR < 0.01), but not with any mutation in a structural or non-structural protein, such as the spike D614G mutation. Our study contributes genetic, phylodynamic, and clinical correlation data about the exceptionally well-curbed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Uruguay, which furthers the understanding of disease patterns and regional aspects of the pandemic in Latin America.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) ; 112(5): 414-424, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The skin is a fundamental organ in the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The newborn infant experiences physiological changes and often presents benign, transient skin characteristics that vary according to maternal, gestational, and neonatal factors. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of various dermatologic findings during the first 72hours of life and to identify their association with maternal, gestational, or neonatal factors. METHODS: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study from April to July 2015 and July to November 2017 in the maternity ward of Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. We examined the skin of neonates within 72hours of birth. Proportions and 95% CI were calculated for all findings. Associations between findings and factors were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2811 neonates were included. We observed at least one neonatal skin finding in all of the neonates and found a median (interquartile range) of 8 (6-9) findings (minimum-maximum, 1-16). We observed 42 of the 46 possible characteristics we looked for; 99.9% of the findings were benign and transient. Among the findings were lanugo (98%; 95% CI, 97.7%-98.7%), physiological scaling (79.7%; 95% CI: 78.2%-81.1%), and sebaceous hyperplasia (73.3%; 95% CI: 71.6%-74.9%). Lanugo (P=.001), physiological scaling (P<.001), and erythema toxicum (P=.001) were observed significantly more often in full- and late-term neonates. Sebaceous hyperplasia (P=.001) and transient hyperpigmentation (P<.001) were found more often in newborn males. Erythema toxicum was more common after vaginal births (P=.008). Transient hyperpigmentation (P<.001) and dermal melanocytosis (P<.001) were seen more often in neonates of African descent. CONCLUSIONS: All neonates have skin characteristics that are part of their adaptation to extrauterine life. Most are benign and transient. Maternal age, type of delivery, and certain neonatal factors such as gestational age, birth weight, sex, and ethnicity are associated with specific findings.


Assuntos
Eritema , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Uruguai/epidemiologia
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