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1.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107078, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399251

RESUMO

Social anxiety is a common mental health problem that increases the risk of experiencing cannabis-related problems. In fact, social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing cannabis use disorder, yet it is inconsistently related to more cannabis use. Inconsistent findings may be due to lack of attention to protective behavioral strategies (PBS) among socially anxious cannabis users. PBS are cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce cannabis use and related problems. Yet socially anxious persons may be less likely to use PBS for a variety of reasons (e.g., fear of negative evaluation for engaging in behaviors to reduce use), leading to heavier or more frequent use and related problems. The current study examined the mediating role of PBS in the relationships of social anxiety with past-month cannabis use and related problems among current (past-month) cannabis users (N = 102). Social anxiety was significantly positively related to past-month cannabis problems, but not directly related to cannabis use. Social anxiety was significantly negatively related to PBS. Social anxiety was indirectly (via PBS) related to more frequent use, greater peak use, and more cannabis problems. Serial mediation analyses indicated that social anxiety was indirectly related to more cannabis problems via the serial effects of PBS and cannabis use variables. Findings suggest that socially anxious persons may be vulnerable to heavier cannabis use and more cannabis problems due to PBS underutilization. Treatment implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Ansiedade , Medo , Humanos , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia
2.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107082, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis ("simultaneous alcohol and marijuana [SAM] use") is common among young adults and associated with negative substance-related consequences. SAM use may be tied to fluctuating mood states such as negative affect and individual characteristics including trait level of anxiety and sex. However, little is understood about their collective role. In this study, we sought to understand the daily link between SAM use and negative affect and whether this link might differ by both trait anxiety and sex. METHOD: Participants were 154 young adults (57.8% female, 72.7% White, M age = 20.2) who completed baseline surveys on trait anxiety symptoms and up to 14 consecutive daily surveys on their substance use and affective states. RESULTS: Multilevel models tested for associations of type of substance use day (i.e., alcohol-only days, cannabis-only days, and no use days relative to SAM use days) with next-day negative affect. Three-way and lower order interactions were tested for substance use day type, anxiety, and sex. Two three-way interactions between cannabis-only days, anxiety, and sex and between alcohol-only days, anxiety, and sex emerged such that SAM use was associated with greater next-day negative affect relative to single substance use days particularly among female participants with elevated anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and sex are salient factors in the link between SAM use relative to single-substance use and daily negative affect. Study findings reinforce the need to account for all of these factors in order to develop maximally efficacious substance use interventions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107079, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) may be linked to both short- and longer-term problems for young adults. Across two years of longitudinal data, we examined between- and monthly within-person associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns, including SAM, with negative alcohol-related consequences, depressive symptoms, and general health. METHODS: 773 young adults (aged 18-23 at screening; 56% women) who used alcohol in the year prior to study enrollment were surveyed monthly for 24 months. Multilevel models assessed associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns with outcomes. RESULTS: Individuals who reported a higher proportion of SAM months had more negative alcohol-related consequences (Rate Ratio [RR] = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17,1.89). At the within-person level, participants experienced more alcohol-related consequences on months when SAM was reported compared to months of alcohol-only (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10,1.25) and months of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use without simultaneous use (CAM; RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11,1.29). Compared to alcohol-only, SAM was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer general health at the between-person level and with more depressive symptoms at the monthly within-person level; however, SAM did not differ substantially from using neither alcohol nor marijuana or CAM for these outcomes at either the between- or within-person level. CONCLUSIONS: SAM use may indicate risk for negative alcohol-related consequences, both within months of SAM use and across more extended time periods. Individuals who engage in SAM may experience worse mental and physical health than individuals who use alcohol exclusively.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
4.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 46, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384483

RESUMO

AIMS: Only several empirical studies have examined substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic in general populations. Most of these studies compared self-reported substances use before the pandemic and during the pandemic's early stages. This study aims to identify the changes in substance use between the early and later waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey recruited 750 participants (ages 18-65) in two waves: (1) 427 during and following the first lockdown (April-mid-May, 2020); and (2) 323 following the second lockdown (from October to mid-November, 2020). RESULTS: Participants who experienced two lockdowns reported more frequent consumption of all alcoholic beverages and cannabis in the last 30 days than those who experienced one lockdown. After controlling for demographic variables, significant differences were found between participants who experienced one lockdown and those who experienced two lockdowns in the consumption of alcoholic beverages (F(1, 742) = 6.90, p = .01, η2 = .01). However, there was no significant association between pandemic duration and other illegal drug consumption. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between pandemic duration and alcohol consumption. Policymakers and practitioners should develop national alcohol and cannabis use prevention and harm reduction interventions during pandemics with a focus on men, singles and youth.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): 554-562, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the increasing prevalence and potential adverse health outcomes associated with marijuana use, limited research exists related to its use in women of reproductive age with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to examine the past-month marijuana use in women of reproductive age with disabilities. METHODS: Data from the 2015-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health included 76,765 women of reproductive age (18-44 years). Descriptive statistics and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between past-month marijuana use and overall disability, including the type of disability. RESULTS: In this sample, 12.6% of women reported past-month marijuana use. Approximately, 21% of women with disabilities reported past-month marijuana use, compared with only 11.1% of women without a disability. Marijuana use was more prevalent in women with disabilities who were younger (aged ≤25 years), who were non-Hispanic White, who were nonmarried, who had at least some college education, and who used alcohol or tobacco. Women with disabilities had 1.68 (95% CI=1.57, 1.80) higher odds of reporting past-month marijuana use than those with no disabilities. The odds of past-month marijuana use were higher among those with cognitive (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.64, 1.94), sensory (AOR=1.30, 95% CI=1.12, 1.51), and daily activities-related (AOR=1.64, 95% CI=1.49, 1.80) disabilities than among their counterparts without disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: This study found an increased prevalence of past-month marijuana use among women of reproductive age with disabilities. Enhanced screening and counseling using evidence-based practices during routine care for women with disabilities may be necessary to mitigate marijuana use.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108880, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States; yet, little is known about why adults use it. We examined the prevalence of past-month marijuana use by users' reasons for use-medical, recreational, and both-and identified correlates of each group. METHODS: Data from 20 states, which participated in the 2017-2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and fielded the marijuana use module, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for past-month marijuana use by reason for use. User profiles were developed to illustrate how states' policy environments influenced reported reasons for use. RESULTS: The average predicted probabilities of past-month marijuana use for medical, recreational, and both reasons were 28.6 %, 38.2 %, and 33.1 %, respectively. Age, gender, marital and employment status, income, mode and frequency of administration, and health status were associated with reasons for use. The reasons that young adult males who were infrequent marijuana users and binge drinkers gave for their marijuana use varied by state policy environment-in legal states, the average predicted probabilities were 5.3 % lower for recreational reasons and 5.0 % higher for both reasons. Reported reasons for past-month marijuana use did not significantly differ by state policy environment among daily users who were older women in poor mental and physical health. DISCUSSION: Significant differences existed in the characteristics of past-month marijuana users by reasons for use. Our estimates can serve as a baseline against which post-legalization marijuana users' reasons for use can be compared as state policy environments shift.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Drogas Ilícitas , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Idoso , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1167, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how race and ethnicity influence marijuana-specific risk and protective factors in U.S. adolescents. We examined differences in risk and protective factors of marijuana use (MU) and their associations with MU by race/ethnicity. METHODS: The present study used data from the 2015-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. A total of 68,263 adolescents (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into seven subgroups by race/ethnicity (White, Hispanic, Black, Asian, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NH/PI), and mixed race). Marijuana-specific risk and protective factors (RPFs) were examined, including perceived availability of marijuana, adolescents' perceived risk of MU and perceived disapproval of parents, peers, and close friends. Past-month, past-year, and lifetime MU were used as MU outcomes to examine the associations with RPFs as well as with race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Overall, 6.85, 12.67, and 15.52% of the sample reported past-month, past-year, and lifetime MU respectively. Weighted adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that mixed race adolescents reported the greatest perceived availability of marijuana, whereas Black and Asian adolescents had less access compared to White adolescents. The adolescents' perception of parental disapproval of MU was the lowest for Native American adolescents and highest for Asian adolescents. Mixed race adolescents experienced lower peer and close friend disapproval of MU while Black and Asian adolescents had higher. The MU risk perception was lower in most groups including Black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race adolescents, but not in Asian adolescents. Native American adolescents scored the highest on all MU outcomes, whereas Asian adolescents scored the lowest. Perceived availability of marijuana was associated with higher MU in all MU outcomes. Lower disapproval MU perceptions and lower MU risk perceptions were also associated with greater MU. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest there is considerable heterogeneity of marijuana risk and protective factors and MU across race/ethnicity among U.S. adolescents.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos , Hawaii , Humanos , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232581

RESUMO

Objective: The current study prospectively investigated the relationship between cigarette use and the onset of, persistence of, and relapse to cannabis use disorder (CUD) 3 years later among adults in the United States.Methods: Analyses included respondents who completed Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-2002 and 2004-2005, respectively) and responded to questions about cigarette use, cannabis use, and CUD (n = 34,653). CUDs were defined by DSM-IV criteria using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic Version IV. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of CUD onset, persistence, and relapse at Wave 2 by Wave 1 cigarette use status. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, nicotine dependence, and alcohol and other substance use disorders.Results: Cigarette use at Wave 1 was associated with onset of CUD at Wave 2 among those without Wave 1 cannabis use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.35-1.94) but not among those with Wave 1 cannabis use (AOR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.19). Cigarette use at Wave 1 was also associated with persistence of CUD at Wave 2 among those with CUD at Wave 1 (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.30-2.00) and relapse to CUD at Wave 2 among those with remitted CUD at Wave 1 (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45).Conclusions: Among adults, cigarette use is associated with increased onset and persistence of and relapse to CUD 3 years later. Additional attention to cigarette use in community prevention and clinical treatment efforts aimed at reducing CUD may be warranted.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Postgrad Med ; 133(7): 791-797, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096455

RESUMO

Background: With increasing utilization of cannabis in the United States (US), clinicians may encounter more cases of Gastroparesis (GP) in coming years.Objective: The primary outcome was inpatient mortality for GP with cannabis use. Secondary outcomes included system-based complications and the burden of the disease on the US healthcare system.Methods: From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we identified adult hospitalizations with a primary discharge diagnosis of GP for 2016 and 2017. Individuals ≤18 years of age were excluded. The study population was subdivided based on a secondary diagnosis of cannabis use. The outcomes included biodemographic characteristics, mortality, complications, and burden of disease on the US healthcare system.Results: For 2016 and 2017, we identified 99,695 hospitalizations with GP. Of these hospitalizations, 8,870 had a secondary diagnosis of cannabis use while 90,825 served as controls. The prevalence of GP with cannabis use was 8.9%. For GP with cannabis use, the patients were younger (38.5 vs 48.1 years, p < 0.001) with a Black predominance (Table 1) and lower proportion of females (52.3 vs 68.3%, p < 0.001) compared to the non-cannabis use cohort. Additionally, the cannabis use cohort had higher percentage of patients with co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a history of smoking. The inpatient mortality for GP with cannabis use was noted to be 0.27%. Furthermore, we noted shorter mean length of stay (LOS) (3.4 vs 4.4 days, aMD: -0.7, 95%CI: -0.9 - [-0.5], p < 0.001), lower mean total hospital charge (THC) ($30,400 vs $38,100, aMD: -5100, 95%CI: -6900 - [-3200], p < 0.001), and lower rates of sepsis (0.11 vs 0.60%, aOR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.91, p = 0.036) for GP hospitalizations with cannabis use compared to the non-cannabis use cohort.Conclusion: Inpatient mortality for GP hospitalizations with cannabis use was 0.27%. Additionally, these patients had shorter LOS, lower THC, and lower sepsis rates.


Assuntos
Gastroparesia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Gastroparesia/mortalidade , Preços Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108788, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceptions of risk of using marijuana have decreased significantly in the US over the last decade, while marijuana use has increased. In order to educate people on the risks associated with marijuana use, large-scale health messaging campaigns have been deployed to educate the public about the risks associated with marijuana use, particularly in states where medical or recreational marijuana is legal. Few studies have examined how messages about marijuana affect the audiences' cognitive and emotional responsivity to these messages. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, this study used psychophysiological assessment (heart rate, skin conductance, facial action coding) and self-report measures to explore the impact of different marijuana risk messages on real-time cognitive and affective responses and self-reported message receptivity, likeability, and intentions to use marijuana in a sample of 50 young adult marijuana users and non-users. Each participant saw six messages. Three messages were used from each of two campaigns, representing one of three risks (cognitive ability, driving, health harms). RESULTS: Psychophysiological responses showed that the driving-themed messages for both campaigns had the greatest cognitive resource allocation to encoding the message, the greatest arousal, and the most positive emotional response, regardless of user status. Self-reports showed a less consistent pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, psychophysiological measures provided a more consistent picture of message processing and effects than self-report measures. Findings from this study provide immediately useful data for improving the development and effectiveness of marijuana health-risk prevention campaigns by elucidating cognitive and emotional processes that could be targeted in future programs.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E703-E710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recreational cannabis use was legalized in Canada in October 2018. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of cannabis consumption among pregnant individuals in a single Canadian city following national legalization. METHODS: Over the period May to October 2019, we distributed an anonymous cross-sectional survey to pregnant patients attending family practice, midwifery, and low-risk and high-risk obstetrics clinics in Hamilton, Ontario. Eligibility was based on English literacy and current pregnancy. The survey included questions regarding lifetime and in-pregnancy cannabis use, intent for postpartum use and patterns of use. We also collected demographic information. We calculated descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to explore the relations between cannabis consumption and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of 531 pregnant individuals approached, 478 agreed and were able to participate, for a 90% participation rate. Among these 478 respondents, 54 (11%) reported consuming cannabis at some point during the pregnancy and 20 (4%) reported currently consuming cannabis. Among the 460 respondents who intended to breastfeed, 23 (5%) planned to consume cannabis during the postpartum period. Of 20 current users, 13 (65%) reported consuming cannabis at least weekly and 19 (95%) reported nausea, sleep problems or anxiety as reasons for use. Respondents without postsecondary education had 10.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6-23.5) greater odds of prenatal cannabis consumption than university-educated respondents. In addition, respondents who reported that their partners used cannabis had 3.9-fold (95% CI 2.2-7.3) greater odds of prenatal cannabis consumption than those who reported that their partners did not use cannabis. INTERPRETATION: Lower educational attainment and partners' cannabis consumption were associated with greater odds of inpregnancy cannabis use. These results may help to inform early intervention strategies to decrease cannabis consumption during this vulnerable period of fetal and neonatal development.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Uso da Maconha , Complicações na Gravidez , Cônjuges , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Período Periparto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 226, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Marijuana policies in the United States have become more permissive, motivating research on demographic and policy-based differences in behaviors and attitudes towards driving after marijuana use. The Traffic Safety Culture Index is an annual survey with national scope and multiple measures relevant to driving after marijuana use. We tabulated responses to questions about driving after marijuana use from the Traffic Safety Culture Index based on demographic factors, recreational and medical marijuana policies, and per-se marijuana laws. RESULTS: Male, younger, lower-income, and lower-education respondents self-reported driving after marijuana use more than their demographic counterparts, more often reported such behavior to be personally acceptable, and exhibited lower support per-se laws. Drivers in states that legalized medical marijuana self-reported driving after marijuana use slightly more than drivers in states where both medical and recreational were illegal. Support for per-se laws was higher among those in states that legalized recreational marijuana and in states with per-se laws. Demographic differences in our outcomes were consistent and cohesive. On the other hand, we found no predominant pattern suggesting that those in states with liberal marijuana policies were more tolerant of driving after marijuana use.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha , Atitude , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Políticas , Gestão da Segurança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 316-322, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126426

RESUMO

Marijuana use may increase schizophrenia risk, and this effect may be genetically moderated. We investigated how hypothetical genetic test results indicating the presence or absence of heightened schizophrenia risk in reaction to marijuana use would affect attitudes toward marijuana use. In two experiments, participants were randomized to hypothetical scenarios in which genetic testing showed the presence or absence of a predisposition for marijuana use to increase their schizophrenia risk, or to a control condition with no mention of genetic testing. Experiment 1 used a sample of 801 U.S. young adults recruited via Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk platform. Experiment 2 replicated the same procedures with a nationally representative sample of 800 U.S. adults aged 18-30. In Experiment 1, those in the predisposition condition, compared to the control condition, rated the likelihood and importance of their avoiding marijuana as significantly higher, whereas those in the no-predisposition condition rated both as significantly lower. In experiment 2, these findings were largely replicated for the predisposition condition but not the no-predisposition condition, and prior marijuana use was a significant moderator, with the effects of the predisposition condition confined to participants who reported having used marijuana. If these results are predictive of responses to actual genetic testing, they suggest that genetic test results indicating that marijuana use will increase one's schizophrenia risk may incentivize abstinence, especially for those with prior marijuana use. Future research could further investigate whether genetic test results indicating the absence of such a predisposition might disincentivize abstinence from marijuana use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/genética , Fumar Maconha/genética , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(9): 1305-1311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998373

RESUMO

Background: Social anxiety has been associated with higher levels of and more problematic marijuana use. Research suggests that safety behaviors may play a role in the development and maintenance of marijuana problems. However, the safety behaviors that are most commonly associated with social anxiety have not been investigated, nor has the potential moderating role of gender on this relationship. Method: A diverse sample of regular marijuana users (N = 279) completed measures of social anxiety, safety behaviors related to social situations, and marijuana use problems. Results: Social anxiety and safety behavior use were both positively correlated with marijuana use problems. These relationships were stronger in men than in women. Among men only, tendencies to use safety behaviors to cope with social situations accounted for the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and marijuana-related problems. Discussion: The avoidant coping style that characterizes safety behaviors in social anxiety may also underlie problematic patterns of marijuana use, particularly for men. The present study is the first to report an association between safety behaviors in social situations and marijuana use problems and suggests the importance of examining the effect of reducing safety behaviors in social situations, in regular marijuana users with comorbid social anxiety.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108753, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adults who engage in simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use may be more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors including riding with impaired drivers and driving after alcohol and/or marijuana use. METHODS: Young adult SAM users (N = 408) self-reported their behavior for five 14-day bursts, yielding daily-level responses on a total of 14,675 substance use days. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) estimated the likelihood of riding with an impaired driver and of driving after use on SAM use days compared to alcohol- or marijuana-only use days. RESULTS: More frequent SAM users were more likely to ride with an impaired driver and to drive after use than less frequent SAM users (between-persons). On SAM use days, there were greater odds of riding with an impaired driver, compared to alcohol-only days (AOR = 1.28) and marijuana-only days (AOR = 2.22), and of driving after use, compared to marijuana-only days (AOR = 1.25). Driving after use was more likely on days with non-simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use compared to SAM use (AOR = 1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Riding with an impaired driver is common among young adult substance users, and more likely following simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana compared to other types of alcohol and marijuana use. Driving after use is more likely after SAM use than marijuana-only use days, but most likely on days when both alcohol and marijuana were used but not simultaneously. Future research on situation-level predictors of riding and driving-related risks among young adults is warranted.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 100-104, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024627

RESUMO

Multiple observational studies have demonstrated an association with cannabis use and acute myocardial infarction, especially among young adults. However, little is known about the connection with subclinical or electrocardiographic myocardial injury. We hypothesized that cannabis use would be associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury as defined by the cardiac infarction and/or injury score (CIIS). This analysis included 3,634 (age 48.0 ± 5.9 years, 47.1% male, 68.7% Caucasians) participants from the Third National Health and Examination Survey. Cannabis use was defined by self-report. Those with history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Myocardial injury was defined as electrocardiographic CIIS ≥ 10. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between cannabis use and myocardial injury. The consistency of this association was tested among subgroups stratified by race, gender, tobacco smoking status, and comorbidities. About 26.0% (n = 900) of participants were ever-cannabis users and 15.5% (n = 538) had myocardial injury. In a model adjusted for potential confounders, ever-cannabis users had 43% increased odds of myocardial injury compared to never users (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.43 (1.14, 1.80); p = 0.002). This association was stronger among participants with a history of hypertension versus those without (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.83 (1.36, 2.47) vs 1.17 (0.83, 1.64), respectively; interaction p value 0.04). Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury among those without cardiovascular disease with effect modification by co-existent hypertension. These novel findings underscore the harmful effects of cannabis use on cardiovascular health and also merit a personalized risk assessment when counseling patients with hypertension on its use.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108770, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging literature shows increased drug use during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, limited research has examined the change in marijuana use among persons living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate how marijuana use changed in a cohort of PLWH during the first year of the pandemic and identify factors associated with the change. METHOD: 222 PLWH (mean age = 50.2 ± 11.2, 50.9 % female, 14.5 % Hispanic, 64.7 % Black, 15.8 % White, 5 % other, 80.2 % persons using marijuana [at least weekly use], 19.8 % persons not using marijuana) completed a baseline survey on demographics and behavioral/health characteristics between 2018 and 2020 and a brief phone survey between May and October 2020 that assessed changes in marijuana use and overall/mental health, and perceived risks/benefits of marijuana use during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: During the pandemic, 64/222(28.8 %) of the whole sample reported increased marijuana use, 36(16.2 %) reported decreased use, and 122(55 %) reported no change. Multinomial logistic regression results indicated that: Compared to those reporting no change, increased marijuana use during the pandemic was associated with more frequent marijuana use and PTSD symptoms at baseline, worsened mental health during the pandemic, and not perceiving marijuana use as a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. More frequent marijuana use at baseline was the only factor significantly associated with decreased marijuana use during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in marijuana use among a considerable proportion (45 %) of PLWH. Future research is needed to understand the temporality of the increases in marijuana use with worsening mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 391-401, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guided by accounts of adjustment in daily life as a key indicator of health, the current study examined prospective changes in young adults' emotions and substance behaviors assessed during a normative baseline period and during the acute COVID-19 disruption period in late March/early April 2020. The COVID-19 assessment also collected psychosocial risk factors expected to moderate changes in adjustment across time. METHOD: Participants included 295 young adults (70.8% female; ages 18-21 at baseline), drawn from an ongoing study of daily behaviors and health in college life that oversampled for recent substance behaviors, who completed both the baseline and COVID-19 assessments. Hypotheses were tested using analyses of repeated-measures data that included covariates of length of time between assessments and sampling group status. RESULTS: Direct tests in support of hypotheses indicated an increase in negative affect (d = .67, p < .001), and greater alcohol use (d = .75, p < .001) and marijuana use (d = .58, p < .001), in daily life across time. Levels of positive affect (d = .08, p > .05), nicotine use (d = .01, p > .05), and prescription drug misuse (d = .003, p > .05) did not reliably change in tests of direct models. Moderation tests indicated several risk factors for experiencing steeper increases in negative affect, and increased likelihood of marijuana and nicotine use, in daily life across time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer implications for future research and clinical efforts to improve young adult adjustment in response to the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(2): 219-227, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023117

RESUMO

Veterans are those who have served our country in one of the branches of armed forces or military reserves. The Veterans Health Administration is the largest integrated health system in the nation, providing health care services and latest research for veterans. Non-Veteran Health Administration primary care clinicians, who also take care of veterans, deserve to have an understanding of the unique challenges and conditions these individuals face and the resources that are available to improve sleep health and well-being of all veterans. This article guides these clinicians to manage sleep disorders, mental health disorders, and substance use among veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Sono , Veteranos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
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