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1.
Exp Psychol ; 68(2): 57-66, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155905

RESUMO

Previous studies show how time perception can be altered by cannabis consumption, but it is not clear yet whether cannabis produces temporal underproductions or overproductions after acute cannabis intoxication. The present study aimed to analyze a sample of 50 regular cannabis users controlling for cannabis strain (sativa, indica, and hybrid) and to compare their scores in a temporal production task before and after consuming cannabis with a control group of 49 nonusers. Results showed that cannabis intake leads to overproductions, suggesting that regular users' internal tempo slows down after acute intoxication. However, the analyses of main effects showed that indica users, both at baseline levels and after consuming, reported significant underproductions compared to controls, sativa, and hybrid users, and the cannabis-induced effects had a higher magnitude after smoking in the indica-strain group. Results highlight the relevance of including the type of strain consumed in cannabis studies, and they are discussed in terms of short- and long-term alterations in temporal perception under the light of the self-medication theory and the therapeutic uses of cannabis.


Assuntos
Cannabis/classificação , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Percepção do Tempo , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Humanos
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 391-401, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guided by accounts of adjustment in daily life as a key indicator of health, the current study examined prospective changes in young adults' emotions and substance behaviors assessed during a normative baseline period and during the acute COVID-19 disruption period in late March/early April 2020. The COVID-19 assessment also collected psychosocial risk factors expected to moderate changes in adjustment across time. METHOD: Participants included 295 young adults (70.8% female; ages 18-21 at baseline), drawn from an ongoing study of daily behaviors and health in college life that oversampled for recent substance behaviors, who completed both the baseline and COVID-19 assessments. Hypotheses were tested using analyses of repeated-measures data that included covariates of length of time between assessments and sampling group status. RESULTS: Direct tests in support of hypotheses indicated an increase in negative affect (d = .67, p < .001), and greater alcohol use (d = .75, p < .001) and marijuana use (d = .58, p < .001), in daily life across time. Levels of positive affect (d = .08, p > .05), nicotine use (d = .01, p > .05), and prescription drug misuse (d = .003, p > .05) did not reliably change in tests of direct models. Moderation tests indicated several risk factors for experiencing steeper increases in negative affect, and increased likelihood of marijuana and nicotine use, in daily life across time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer implications for future research and clinical efforts to improve young adult adjustment in response to the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(2): 219-227, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023117

RESUMO

Veterans are those who have served our country in one of the branches of armed forces or military reserves. The Veterans Health Administration is the largest integrated health system in the nation, providing health care services and latest research for veterans. Non-Veteran Health Administration primary care clinicians, who also take care of veterans, deserve to have an understanding of the unique challenges and conditions these individuals face and the resources that are available to improve sleep health and well-being of all veterans. This article guides these clinicians to manage sleep disorders, mental health disorders, and substance use among veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Sono , Veteranos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Nursing ; 51(5): 46-50, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871423

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cannabis dabbing refers to the recreational inhalation of extremely concentrated tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic cannabinoid derived from the marijuana plant. The practice carries significant health and legal risks. This article discusses what nurses need to know about dabbing and how they can educate patients who may be engaging in risky behavior.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Administração por Inalação , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 223: 108701, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial concern exists regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use behaviors. This is especially true for subpopulations like young men who have sex with men and young transgender women (YMSM-YTW) who report higher rates of substance use. This study examines changes in prevalence and frequency of marijuana and non-marijuana drug use among YMSM-YTW following the onset of the pandemic. METHOD: Data for this analysis (n = 458 participants, 1356 observations) come from an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of YMSM-YTW. A series of Bayesian multilevel models were used to examine change in prevalence and frequency of use for marijuana and non-marijuana drugs. RESULTS: Results indicated no systematic change in prevalence or frequency of marijuana use. However, a decrease in non-marijuana drug use was observed (OR = 0.60, 95 % CrI: [0.37, 0.94]) following the onset of the pandemic. Furthermore, a small increase in the frequency of non-marijuana drug use was observed (OR = 1.79, 95 % CrI: [1.02, 3.21]) among individuals who used these substances. CONCLUSIONS: These findings concur with a small number of studies identifying a decrease in drug use prevalence but increase in frequency among those who continue to use drugs. Despite the protective effect of lower drug use prevalence, higher frequency of use may lead to additional negative health outcomes of drug use, particularly among groups facing multiple health challenges such as YMSM-YTW. However, the pandemic likely has a unique impact on substance use behaviors across subpopulations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(5): 361-365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The interplay between marijuana legislation, perceptions of risks associated with marijuana use, and marijuana-related risk behaviors is an ever changing and complex issue. Marijuana impaired driving is of concern as legalization continues to expand in the United States. While driving after using marijuana has been shown to be prevalent among adults, little research has examined the behavior in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of driving after using marijuana among U.S. adolescents, with an examination of the relationship to age of marijuana initiation and marijuana usage patterns. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high schools students in the U.S. The sample was current marijuana users, defined as past 30 day use. Driving after using marijuana was the main outcome variable, with analyses examining the association between the outcome and age of initiation and patterns of use. Prevalence ratios were obtained by modeling Poisson regression to examine factors associated with driving under the influence of marijuana. RESULTS: Nearly half of all marijuana users reported driving after use during the past 30 days, and did not differ between males and females. Prevalence of driving after using marijuana was significantly higher among heavy users (PR = 2.8; 95% CI 2.1-3.6). A higher prevalence of driving after drinking alcohol (PR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.5-1.9) was also found among those who had driven after using marijuana. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescent marijuana users, the prevalence of driving after using marijuana was high. Enhanced surveillance, prevention, and control measures are necessary to mitigate the negative impacts of marijuana consumption and related behaviors.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108648, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cannabidiol (CBD) is purportedly a promising therapeutic agent to provide relief for a variety of medical conditions with mild or no psychoactive effects. However, little is known about young adults who use cannabis and CBD-dominant products, and associations between CBD use and other drug use. METHODS: Young adults (aged 24-32) who currently used cannabis (n = 239) were surveyed in Los Angeles in March 2019 through March 2020. The sample was divided into CBD-dominant (at least 1:1 CBD:THC ratio) and THC-dominant product users. We described CBD forms, reasons and conditions for CBD use and examined between-group differences in sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis practices, health and other drug use. RESULTS: CBD-dominant users were more likely to be female, use cannabis at lower frequency and amount (except for edible/drinkable/oral products), self-report medical motivation for cannabis use, use cannabis for pain and report more health problems. Oil, flower, topicals and sprays/drops/tinctures were the most prevalent CBD forms. Psychological problems and pain were commonly reported conditions and medical reasons for CBD use. CBD-dominant users were more likely to report illicit drug use, where psilocybin use was markedly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: CBD use was associated with health histories and motivations linked to pain and psychological problems. Positive association between CBD use and illicit drug use may indicate self-medication for psychological conditions. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of various CBD forms and dose regimens for treatment of pain and psychological problems, and as a potential intervention for decreasing other drug use and associated harms.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 53-66, 2021.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have investigated the relationship between personality and psychoactive substance use. Researches of personality and marijuana use suggests that certain personality traits differentiate between occasional and regular marijuana consumers. Understanding the relationship between individual persona - lity traits and marijuana use is a key step in the development of prevention and treatment methods. In the current study, we present the development of emotion regulation difficulties, coping with stress, impulsivity, external-internal control and sensation seeking in occasional and regular marijuana users. METHODS: 322 people participated in our study, within this 51 occasional and 56 regular marijuana users and 215 non-marijuana users who formed the control group. The examined personality traits were measured with the Diffi - culties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the Sensation Seeking Scale. RESULTS: Varying levels of marijuana use increased difficulty in emotion regulation as well as impulsivity. Addi tio nally, the use of emotion-oriented coping strategies were most common in occasional and regular marijuana use. Regular marijuana users were more likely to have external control than occasional users. Non-marijuana users were less sen - sation seekers that the two groups of marijuana users, however, we did not find significant difference between occasio nal and regular users.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Regulação Emocional , Comportamento Impulsivo , Controle Interno-Externo , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Personalidade , Sensação , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113695, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545431

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) and cannabis use are highly comorbid and are each associated with cognitive impairment.  Given the prevalence of cannabis use in people with BD, it is important to understand whether the two interact to impact cognitive function. We performed a systematic scoping review to determine what is currently known in this field. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for studies on the relationship between cannabis use and cognition in people with BD or relevant animal models. Six observational human studies and no animal studies met inclusion criteria. Two studies found cannabis use in BD was associated with better performance in some cognitive domains, while three studies found no association. One study found cannabis use in BD was associated with worse overall cognition. Overall, most identified studies suggest cannabis use is not associated with significant cognitive impairment in BD; however, the scope of knowledge in this field is limited, and more systematic studies are clearly required. Future studies should focus on longitudinal and experimental trials, and well-controlled observational studies with rigorous quantification of the onset, frequency, quantity, duration, and type of cannabis use, as well as BD illness features.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Humanos
10.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(3): 320-325, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research suggests African American men use cannabis to cope with racial discrimination. This conjecture may also be true for incarcerated African American men, who report high rates of cannabis use prior to and after incarceration. However, no studies to date have examined the association between race-related stress and chronic cannabis use among incarcerated African American men. As this population encounters pervasive negative cultural stereotypes and devaluation from larger society, cultural race-related stress may predict cannabis use among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this brief report was to examine the relationship between cultural race-related stress and years of regular cannabis use among a sample of incarcerated African American men. METHOD: Study staff completed interviews with N = 177 African American men nearing release from four prisons in Kentucky. The interviews focused on mental health, drug use, and HIV risk behaviors. Participants provided their demographics (e.g., age, years of education, and length of incarceration), self-reported their years of regular cannabis use (3 times or more per week), and completed the Brief Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS-B; Utsey, Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 1999, 32, 149). RESULTS: Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated cultural race-related stress was significant and positively associated with the number of years of regular cannabis use (p = .003) among this population. CONCLUSIONS: This finding has implications for culturally tailored substance abuse treatment, specifically for cannabis use, with African American men upon their community re-entry from prison. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cannabis , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1753-1763, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638699

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is increasing interest in and evidence for the negative impacts of cannabis use in cognitive performance and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with age of first cannabis use as a potential amplifier of these associations. However, the existing literature is inconsistent, which may be due to methodological limitations, including small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE: To examine current cannabis use and age of first cannabis use in relation to neurocognitive task performance and ADHD symptoms in a large sample of binge-drinking young adults. METHODS: Participants were young adults (N=730, M age=21.44, 52.6% female) assessed for current cannabis use, neurocognitive task performance, and ADHD symptoms. Three-group ANCOVAs compared individuals reporting frequent (daily/multiple times daily), occasional (weekly/monthly), or no cannabis use. RESULTS: Covarying alcohol use, tobacco use, age, sex, income, and education, daily cannabis users exhibited significantly more impulsive delay discounting and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms compared to both other groups. However, cannabis use was not associated with inattentive ADHD symptoms, verbal intelligence, working memory, probability discounting, short-term verbal memory, or behavioral inhibition. Age of initiation of cannabis use exhibited neither main effects nor interactions in relation to any domains of cognitive performance or ADHD symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings provide support for a link between cannabis use in relation to immediate reward preference and symptoms of hyperactive-impulsive ADHD in young adults, but only among frequent users. No other neurocognitive domains exhibited associations with cannabis and age of first use was neither independently nor interactively associated with cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/complicações , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(5): 1351-1361, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241479

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive processing impairments have been associated with acute cannabis use, but there is mixed evidence regarding the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use. Several neuroimaging studies have noted selective-attention processing differences in those who chronically use cannabis, but the neural dynamics governing the altered processing is unclear. METHODS: Twenty-four adults reporting at least weekly cannabis use in the past 6 months on the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test - Revised were compared to 24 demographically matched controls who reported no prior cannabis use. All participants completed a visual selective attention processing task while undergoing magnetoencephalography. Time-frequency windows of interest were identified using a data-driven method, and spectrally specific neural activity was imaged using a beamforming approach. RESULTS: All participants performed within normal range on the cognitive task. Regular cannabis users displayed an aberrant cognitive interference effect in the theta (4-8 Hz) frequency range shortly after stimulus onset (i.e., 0-250 ms) in the right occipital cortex. Cannabis users also exhibited altered functional connectivity between the right prefrontal cortex and right occipital cortices in comparison to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a history of regular cannabis use exhibited abnormal theta interference activity in the occipital cortices, as well as altered prefrontal-occipital functional connectivity in the theta range during a visual selective attention task. Such differences may reflect compensatory processing, as these participants performed within normal range on the task. Understanding the neural dynamics in chronic, regular cannabis users may provide insight on how long-term and/or frequent use may affect neural networks underlying cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(2): 215-223, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority (SM) young adults have higher rates of substance use than heterosexuals, but little is known about daily use of multiple substances, which confer numerous health risks for this population. Using daily diary data from a smartphone-based study, we examined the associations between sexual identity (i.e., SM vs. heterosexual) and patterns of same-day multiple substance use (i.e., cigarettes and alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis, alcohol and cannabis, and all 3 substances). METHOD: Young adult smokers (N = 147, aged 18-26, 51.7% female, 41.5% SM, 40.8% White) reported consecutive daily assessments on substance use over 30 days. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between sexual identity and patterns of same-day multiple substance use, controlling for demographic factors and psychological distress. RESULTS: Of 2,891 daily assessments, 16.7% reported same-day use of cigarettes and alcohol, 18.1% cigarettes and cannabis, 1.5% alcohol and cannabis, and 15.0% use of all 3 substances. SM participants (vs. heterosexuals) had significantly greater odds of reporting days with use of cigarettes and cannabis [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.05, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.04, 4.01]] and use of all three substances (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.51, 5.14]) than days with single substance use or no use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings warrant tailored interventions addressing multiple substance use among SM young adults and temporally accurate measures of multiple substance use patterns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Cannabis , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(1): 99-115, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437193

RESUMO

Different patterns of cannabis use can be traced directly back to different interactions between 2 types of variables: pharmacological and environmental. As legal cannabis expands in the U.S. and around the world, state and national regulatory agencies are gaining control over these variables. Specifically, regulatory agencies are increasingly capable of altering (a) the pharmacological properties of cannabis products and (b) the way these products are distributed to the population. Consequently, cannabis regulatory agencies are in a unique position to use evidence from psychological science to alter cannabis consumption patterns in ways that mitigate potential harm to public health. However, most state-level legal cannabis regulatory systems in the U.S. are not yet evidence-based or public health-oriented. This applied review and commentary draws on evidence from the psychological science literature to help regulators better understand the types of behaviors they must address and guide empirically supported regulation of THC-laden cannabis, whether used putatively for medical or recreational reasons. This review is organized into 3 parts that correspond to the 3 primary agents within the cannabis regulation ecosystem: (a) the cannabis consumer, (b) the cannabis industry, and (c) the cannabis regulatory agency. Within this structure, the review addresses critical psychological variables that drive cannabis consumer and industry behaviors and discusses how regulatory agencies can use this information to protect public health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Cannabis , Ecossistema , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Psychol Assess ; 33(2): 180-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151731

RESUMO

Prior research suggests that cannabis expectancies are related to cannabis misuse and problems. Although there are established measures of cannabis expectancies, existing measures have psychometric limitations and/or are lengthy. Existing measures typically have a two-factor structure of positive and negative expectancies, but recent conceptualizations of alcohol expectancies support a valence- (positive vs. negative) and arousal-based (high vs. low arousal) structure. Thus, the present study sought to test a similar structure for cannabis. Cannabis expectancy items underwent 2 preliminary studies, assessing item valance/arousal (n = 233) and relevance to cannabis (n = 124). A final pool of 76 items underwent exploratory factor analysis (n = 303), and remaining items underwent confirmatory factor analysis in a separate sample (n = 469). Lastly, an additional sample (n = 435) examined validity. Results suggested a 3-factor structure (general positive, high arousal negative, low arousal negative) for the 17-item Anticipated Effects of Cannabis Scale (AECS), which was invariant across cannabis use frequency, sex, and race/ethnicity. Positive expectancies were strongly associated with cannabis use, whereas low arousal negative expectancies were protective against cannabis frequency; high arousal negative expectancies were strongly associated with more negative consequences and dependence symptoms. In addition, the proposed interpretation of AECS test scores showed evidence of incremental validity relative to another abbreviated measure. The current study provides initial support for the AECS, a brief, psychometrically sound cannabis expectancies measure. The AECS captures the full range of cannabis effects and may be suited to test discrepancies between cannabis expectancies and subjective response. Additional research is needed to validate its structure and predictive utility. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Condicionamento Psicológico , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Motivação , Testes Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108404, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether frequency of marijuana and alcohol use are cross-sectionally associated with indicators of social and emotional well-being including loneliness, psychological distress, and flourishing across important life domains among young adults. METHOD: The study sample included 562 participants ages 22-29 who were originally recruited from an urban Pacific Northwest region in the US as part of a longitudinal study of social role transitions and alcohol use. At one assessment, participants completed an online survey that included a 3-item measure of loneliness, a 4-item measure of depression and anxiety symptoms, and a 12-item measure of flourishing as well as measures of marijuana and alcohol use frequency. Linear and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations of marijuana and alcohol use frequency with indicators of well-being. RESULTS: Greater frequency of marijuana use was associated with higher levels of loneliness, higher levels of psychological distress, and lower levels of flourishing, with the greatest difference observed for daily marijuana users compared to non-users. However, these indicators of well-being did not significantly differ by levels of alcohol use frequency. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that frequent users of marijuana, but not alcohol, may experience more loneliness, more psychological distress, and less flourishing. Intervention approaches for frequent marijuana users may be warranted to reduce impacts of loneliness and psychological distress and improve overall well-being.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cannabis , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fumar Maconha , Saúde Mental , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 33(1): 31-42, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201114

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cribado sistemático del consumo problemático de cannabis no incluye las motivaciones que llevan al consumo, aunque desde una perspectiva de atención centrada en la persona, este dato sea fundamental. El presente estudio explora las motivaciones de consumo de cannabis en adultos y su relación con el patrón de consumo y consumo problemático. Método. Consumidores adultos de cannabis (en los últimos 60 días) fueron reclutados en la provincia de Barcelona (n = 468). Se pasó un cuestionario para explorar datos sociodemográficos, patrón de uso, la Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) y la motivación principal para el consumo. Los motivos de consumo se categorizaron a posteriori según la Marijuana Motives Measures (MMM). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo e inferencial para explorar la relación entre la motivación categorizada y variables sociodemográficas, patrón de consumo y puntuaciones de la CAST. RESULTADOS: Consumir cannabis para mejorar las emociones positivas (35%), por costumbre (29%) y para afrontar emociones negativas (25%) fueron las motivaciones más frecuentes. Respecto a otras motivaciones, el "afrontamiento" se relaciona con mayor cantidad consumida (4 vs 3 porros/día, p = 0,005), mayor probabilidad de tener un consumo problemático (77% vs 64%, p = 0,05), y mayor vulnerabilidad social (desempleo 56% vs 37%, p = 0,001; y bajo nivel de estudios (14% vs 8%, p = 0,042)). CONCLUSIONES: El afrontamiento está presente en uno de cada cuatro usuarios de cannabis, es un marcador de vulnerabilidad social y de mayor cantidad de consumo de cannabis y probabilidad de consumo problemático. Una atención centrada en la persona junto con estrategias preventivas (educación emocional y social) y clínicas (psicoterapia) pueden ser de utilidad en esta población de mayor riesgo


INTRODUCTION: Systematic screening of problematic cannabis use does not include the motivations that lead to consumption, although from a person-centered perspective this is fundamental. The present study explores the motivations for cannabis use in adults and its relationship with cannabis use patterns and problematic use. Method. Adult cannabis users (previous 60 days) were recruited in the province of Barcelona (n = 468). Information on their sociodemographic data, cannabis use pattern, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and the main motivation for use were collected. Motivations were categorized a posteriori according to the Marijuana Motives Measures (MMM). A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out to link the motivations to sociodemographic variables, consumption pattern and probability of suffering problematic cannabis use (CAST). RESULTS: Using cannabis to heighten positive feelings (35%), out of habit (29%) and to cope with negative feelings (25%) were the most frequent motivations. In comparison to other motivations, coping is related to a greater quantity of cannabis used (4 vs 3 joints per day, p = 0.005), higher probability of problematic cannabis use (77% vs 64%, p = 0.05), and greater social vulnerability (unemployment 56% vs 37%, p = 0.001; and low educational level 14% vs 8%, p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Coping as a motivation for cannabis use is present in one out of four users and is a marker of social vulnerability, greater quantity of cannabis used and higher risk of problematic use. Patient-centered care together with preventive (emotional and social education) and clinical strategies (psychotherapy) can be useful for this population at higher risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Vulnerabilidade Social
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113640, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since conduct problems (CP) vary distinctly across youths, better subtyping CP may be an important vehicle to study specific risk factors associated to differential patterns of CP. In a sample of 63,196 adolescents, we employed a two-step method to the identify such CP patterns and to help classify youths based on several sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors associated with CP. METHODS: K-means clustering methods were first used to reduce the heterogeneity of CP by analyzing patterns of aggressive (AGG) and rule-breaking (RB) behaviors. A multi-class Classification and Regression Tree approach was further employed to examine the hierarchical interactions between risk factors specific to the emergence of different CP patterns. RESULTS: Results revealed a three-cluster solution: (i) Low AGG-RB, (ii) High AGG and low RB, and (iii) High AGG-RB. The frequency of cannabis use, level of victimization and hyperactivity symptoms were the three factors best discriminating youths' membership to distinct patterns of CP. The model displayed a moderate to strong discriminatory capacity. CONCLUSION: Although this study provides evidence of key factors that may increase the risk of youths following specific patterns of disruptive behavior, additional research is necessary to clarify the etiology, longitudinal trajectories and outcomes related to these patterns.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying , Cannabis , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
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