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1.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 24(1): 3-11, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SSRIs and SNRIs are antidepressants that have largely substituted old antidepressants like Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs). They have been widely used since 1987 when the FDA approved the first SSRI Fluoxetine and the first SNRI Venlafaxine in 1993. Since then, several new SSRIs and SNRIs have been approved and entered the market. Utilization, pricing, and spending trends of SSRIs and SNRIs have not been analyzed yet in Medicaid. AIM: To assess the trends of drug expenditure, utilization, and price of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants in the US Medicaid program, and to highlight the market share of SSRIs and SNRIs and the effect of generic drug entry on Medicaid drug expenditure. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive data analysis was conducted for this study. National pharmacy summary data for study brand and generic drugs were retrieved from the Medicaid State Outpatient Drug Utilization Data. These data were collected by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The study period was between 1991 and 2018. Study drugs include 12 different SSRI and SNRI brands and their generics available in the market, such as citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, and levomilnacipran. Data were analyzed annually and categorized by total prescriptions (utilization), total reimbursement (spending), and cost per prescription as the proxy of the price for each drug. RESULTS: From 1991 to 2018, total prescriptions of SSRI and SNRI drugs rose by 3001%. Total Medicaid spending on SSRIs and SNRIs increased from USD 64.5 million to USD 2 billion in 2004, then decreased steadily until it reached USD 755 million in 2018. The SSRIs average utilization market share was 87% compared to 13% of the SNRIs utilization market share. About 72% of total Medicaid spending on the two groups goes to SSRIs, while the remaining 28% goes to SNRIs. Brand SSRIs and SNRIs prices increased over time. On the contrary, generic drugs prices steadily decreased over time. DISCUSSION: An increase in utilization and spending for both SSRI and SNRI drugs was observed. After each generic drug entered the market, utilization shifted from the brand name to the respective generic due to their lower price. These generic substitutions demonstrate a meaningful cost-containment policy for Medicaid programs. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Our findings show the overall view of Medicaid expenditure on one of the most commonly prescribed drug classes in the US. They also provide an important insight toward the antidepressant market and the importance of monitoring different drugs and their alternatives.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/economia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicaid/economia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/economia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/economia , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Cardioversão Elétrica/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
4.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(2): 151-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544372

RESUMO

The approach to hypertensive emergiencies (HE) and urgencies (HU) may be different according to local clinical practice, despite recent guidelines and position papers recommendations. The Italian Society of Hypertension (Società Italiana della Ipertensione Arteriosa, SIIA) developed an online survey, in order to explore the awareness, management and treatment of HU in Italy, sending by e mail a 12 items questionnaire to the members of the SIIA. The results show that the definition of HU was correctly identified by 62% of the responders. Most physicians identified the role of pharmacological therapy or legal/illegal substances abuse as possible cause of BP elevation; the use of a benzodiazepine drugs was considered worthwhile by 65% of responders. The prescription of diagnostic test and drug administration significantly differed from guidelines recommendations and only 57% of the physicians reported to treat HU with oral drug administration. Sub-lingual nifedipine was prescribed by 13% or responders. This survey shows the need to further spread the updated scientific information on the management and treatment of HE and HU, along with the improvement of the interrelationship with the general practitioner health system in Italy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Geral/tendências , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375251

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the trends and patterns of antibiotic consumption (macrolides and lincosamides) in China's healthcare institutions from 2015 to 2017. The China Drug Supply Information Platform (CDSIP) was officially launched in 2015. We collected records from this national centralized bidding procurement system between 2015 and 2017. The use of J01F antibiotics (macrolides or lincosamides) was calculated in a defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID).Purchase data from 70,366 national medical facilities included in the CDSIP were collected. The procurement data of 66,007 medical facilities have not changed over 3 years. There is a slight decline in the consumption of J01F antibiotics, which decreased from 3.03 DID in 2015 to 2.91 DID in 2017. Azithromycin (20.6%) was the most commonly used antibiotic in 2017 among all classes, followed by clindamycin (17.9%) and erythromycin (13.7%). Parenteral antibiotics accounted for 32.0% of total antibiotic consumption and 59.6% of total antibiotics expenditure in 2017. The overall consumption of most antibiotics decreased slightly over the 3-yearstudy period. This may be owing to China's health-related policies in the past few years. A gap still exists in antibiotic use between regions and dosage forms. Further studies are needed to optimize antibiotic prescribing and reduce antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lincosamidas/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , China , Assistência à Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105169, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk of early recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation may be high. ASA/AHA guidelines provide imprecise recommendations on the timing and anticoagulant choice for this indication. We assessed current opinions of stroke neurologists. METHODS: Case scenarios describing patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) were presented to US board-certified stroke neurologists in an internet-based questionnaire. Questions assessed timing and choice of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention, factors prompting earlier anticoagulation, reasons for specific anticoagulant choice, and alternatives to anticoagulation in ineligible patients. Open-ended comments were also solicited. RESULTS: Responses were available from 238/1239 stroke neurologists surveyed. In patients with small AIS without hemorrhagic transformation (HT), 51% elected to start anticoagulation within 96 hours. With increased stroke severity and asymptomatic HT, only 29% and 26% respectively chose to anticoagulate within 7 days. Few requested stability imaging before starting anticoagulation. With symptomatic HT the majority (79%) waited >14 days. 93% would anticoagulate earlier if left atrium/left atrial appendage or acute left ventricular thrombi, or mechanical heart valve were present. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were the preferred anticoagulation strategy (64%), and the remaining 38% preferred Warfarin. Aspirin was preferred by 57% in anticoagulation ineligible. CONCLUSION: Apart from AIS with symptomatic HT, there is a remarkable lack of consensus among stroke neurologists regarding the timing of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AIS due to PAF. DOACs are the preferred anticoagulation strategy. More studies are required to clarify anticoagulant management in this patient population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neurologistas/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
9.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 950-954, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an opioid epidemic in the United States. With the increased concern of over-prescribing opioids, physicians are seeking alternative pain management strategies. The purpose of this study is to review the impact of instituting a multimodal analgesia (MMA) guideline on decreasing opioid use in trauma patients at a Level 1 trauma center. METHODS: In 2017, an MMA guideline was developed and included anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants, neuropathic agents, and local analgesics in addition to opioids. Staff were educated and the guideline was implemented. A retrospective review of medications prescribed to patients admitted from 2016 through 2018 was performed. Patients admitted in 2016 served as the control group (before MMA). In 2018, all patients received multimodal pain therapy as standard practice, and served as the comparison group. RESULTS: A total of 10 340 patients were admitted to the trauma service from 2016 through 2018. There were 3013 and 3249 patients for review in 2016 and 2018, respectively. Total morphine milligram equivalents were 2 402 329 and 1 975 935 in 2016 and 2018, respectively, a 17.7% decrease (P < .001). Concurrently, there was a statistically significant increase in the use of multimodal pain medications. A secondary endpoint was studied to evaluate for changes in acute kidney injury; there was not a statistically significant increase (0.56% versus 0.68%, P = .55). DISCUSSION: Implementation of an MMA guideline significantly reduced opioid use in trauma patients. The use of nonopioid MMA medications increased without an increased incidence of acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgesia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
11.
N Z Med J ; 133(1518): 33-42, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683430

RESUMO

AIMS: The overall rate of community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand in recent decades has been high when compared with many other nations, but since 2015 has consistently declined each year. We aimed to determine whether the magnitude of reductions in community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand between 2015 and 2018 differed in relation either to the patient's demographic features or in relation to the primary health organisation of the patient's registered general practitioner. METHODS: Demographic data on all patients registered with a general practice in New Zealand, and on all community pharmacy antibiotic dispensing for these patients during 2013-2018 were obtained from national healthcare databases. The rates of dispensing for patients registered with a general practitioner were measured as antibiotic courses dispensed per 1,000 population per day, and as defined daily doses per 1,000 population per day. RESULTS: Total community antibiotic dispensing in New Zealand, measured as defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day, decreased by 13.8% during 2015-2018, an average annual reduction of 4.6% per year, with especially large reductions in dispensing of amoxicillin/clavulanate, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The reductions in dispensing were greatest in children aged 0-4 years old, but lesser reductions were seen in all age groups. Antibiotic dispensing declined regardless of patient ethnicity or level of socioeconomic deprivation. There were marked differences between primary health organisations in the size of the reductions in antibiotic dispensing during 2015-2018, which ranged between 4.8% for the Te Tai Tokerau PHO to 21.5% for the Ngati Porou Hauora Charitable Trust PHO. CONCLUSIONS: Total community antibiotic dispensing has reduced significantly in New Zealand between 2015 and 2018, with large disparities between primary health organisations in the size of the reductions. The overall rates of antibiotic dispensing remain high for non-Maori and non-Pacific people, and prescribers should aim to further reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for these populations. However, the overall rate of antibiotic dispensing for Maori and Pacific people may now approximate an optimal level. Prescribers should aim to further reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, but also to increase appropriate antibiotic prescribing for these populations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 421-429, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669223

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Optimal pharmacological treatment (OPT) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) includes prescription of lipid lowering drugs, antithrombotics, and antihypertensives to symptomatic patients affected by intermittent claudication or chronic limb threatening ischaemia. This study sought to determine sex disparities and time trends in prescription of OPT in this population (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03909022). METHODS: Using data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER, data on patients with an index admission for symptomatic PAOD between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2018 with follow up until the end of 2018 were analysed. Sex disparities in post-discharge prescription status six months after index admission were tested and adjusted for patient and healthcare variables using bivariable tests and logistic regression analysis. Time trends in the prescription prevalence of OPT were analysed and tested. RESULTS: There were 83 867 patients (mean age 71.9 years and 45.8% women) eligible for inclusion in the study. When compared with men, women had lower rates of prior outpatient care for PAOD (39.8% vs. 47.0%), were admitted more often with ischaemic rest pain (13.9% vs. 10.4%) and were older (74 vs. 70 y). After discharge, women had a lower rate of prescriptions for lipid lowering drugs (52.4% vs. 59.9%), while they received antihypertensive drugs more often (86.7% vs. 84.1%). We found evidence for a lower prescription prevalence of OPT in females (37.0% vs. 42.7%). Differences in patient and healthcare variables (e.g. demographics, comorbidities, prior treatment) between women and men explained 56% of this gap. The sex prescription gap did not narrow over time despite an overall upward trend in prescription prevalence for both women and men. CONCLUSION: Although presenting older and with more severe symptoms at the index admission for PAOD, women have a lower prescription prevalence of OPT compared with men, particularly with respect to lipid lowering drugs.


Assuntos
Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104912, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke accounts for approximately as 5.0% of disability-adjusted years of life and 10.0% of all deaths worldwide. Secondary stroke prevention in surviving individuals, which includes the use of statins, reduces atherothrombotic stroke recurrence, complications and mortality. The present study aimed to characterize the Brazilian population with stroke history and estimate the prevalence of statin use as secondary prevention. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Brazilian urban areas. A total of 41.433 individuals were interviewed, representing 171 million of Brazilians, based on post-stratification weights. We included only participants aged 20 years or older who answered "yes" to the following question: "Did any doctor ever tell you that you had a stroke?" The main outcome was the prevalence of statin use among individuals who answered affirmatively. To identify the factors associated with stroke occurrence, the participants were categorized according to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Only 24.2% (95% CI 19.9 - 29.1) of those who reported history of stroke regardless of other conditions also reported statin use. However, the results indicated that 52.9% (95% CI 43.6 - 62.0) of individuals who reported a previous diagnosis of dyslipidemia stated the use of statins. Regarding patients who reported stroke and did not report dyslipidemia history, only 9.1% (95% CI 5.9 - 13.8) referred to use statins. CONCLUSION: This study showed a low prevalence of statin use by individuals with a history of stroke in Brazil. Actions involving the organization of services and training of professionals may positively impact the rates of stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Drug Saf ; 43(8): 699-709, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572842

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that hit the world in 2020 triggered a massive dissemination of information (an "infodemic") about the disease that was channeled through the print, broadcast, web, and social media. This infodemic also included sensational and distorted information about drugs that likely first influenced opinion leaders and people particularly active on social media and then other people, thus affecting choices by individual patients everywhere. In particular, information has spread about some drugs approved for other indications (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, favipiravir, and umifenovir) that could have led to inappropriate and therefore hazardous use. In this article, we analyze the rationale behind the claims for use of these drugs in COVID-19, the communication about their effects on the disease, the consequences of this communication on people's behavior, and the responses of some influential regulatory authorities in an attempt to minimize the actual or potential risks arising from this behavior. Finally, we discuss the role of pharmacovigilance stakeholders in emergency management and possible strategies to deal with other similar crises in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/ética , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Farmacovigilância , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais/ética , Mídias Sociais/normas , Medicina Social/ética , Medicina Social/normas
15.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(6): 541-547, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with sepsis have high rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the literature, but the stratification of those at risk has been limited. Statin indicated groups provides clear criteria for therapy, but the risk of MACE after sepsis based on these groups has never been assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis conducted on adult patients admitted from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013, with suspected or confirmed sepsis and data available on statin use. Patients' past medical history; statin use prior, during, or at time of discharge; and occurrence of MACE were recorded from electronic health records. RESULT: A total of 321 patients were screened and 265 were found to have data available on statin use. The mean age of the patients was 59 ± 15 years and 47% were female. Overall, 9% were observed to have a MACE at 1 year, with significantly higher rates in those in a statin indicated group (12.2%). On admission, 174 patients were not taking a statin out of whom 52% were in a statin indicated group. Among those in a statin indicated group who survived to hospital discharge, only 10% not on a statin on admission received a statin on discharge, whereas 89% on a statin on admission received a statin on discharge. CONCLUSION: There is a high risk of MACE after sepsis especially among those in statin indicated groups with significant clinical inertia in prescribing practices.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525965

RESUMO

The affordability of pharmaceuticals has been a major challenge in US health care. Generic substitution has been proposed as an important tool to reduce the costs, yet little is known how the prices of more expensive brand-name drugs would be affected by an increased utilization of generics. We aimed to examine the trend of overall utilization and the total costs of brand-name oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), the most widely used form of contraception, and its association with the pharmaceutical market concentration among the OCPs. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2011-2014, a nationally representative survey of healthcare utilization, were extracted on the utilization of generic and brand-name OCPs. A multiple logit regression analysis was conducted to assess the trend in utilization of brand-name OCPs over time. Total costs, including the costs to the payers and consumers, were synthesized. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), an index describing market concentration, was constructed, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the brand-name OCP prices and the market share of individual brand-name drugs. The odds of utilizing brand-name drugs decreased steadily in 2012, 2013, and 2014 compared to 2012 (AOR 0.87, 0.73, 0.55, respectively, p<0.05) controlling for patient mix. Despite significant decline in total utilization, there was a 90% increase in the price of brand-name OCPs, resulting an 18% increase in revenue from 2011 to 2014 for the industry. During this time, pharmaceutical market concentration for OCPs increased (HHI increased from 1105 in 2011 to 2415 in 2014). Each percentage point increase in the market share by a brand-name OCPs was associated with a $3.12 increase in its price. Market mechanisms matter. Practitioners and policy makers need to take market mechanisms into account in order to realize the benefits of generic substitutions.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Adulto , Anticoncepção/economia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/tendências , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Competição Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competição Econômica/tendências , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 818, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) treatment are debated topics because of the risk they can cause to the patients. Despite the current information on the risk-benefit balance of these drugs, their consumption remains particularly high. We determined the trend in the consumption prevalence of benzodiazepines (BZDs) and drugs related to BZDs (Z-drugs) in the population of the Health Region of Lleida to explore patterns of use and the associated characteristics associated between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: An analysis of secular trends was carried out between 2002 and 2015; the databased included all individuals from the Health Region of Lleida, which had 358,157 inhabitants in 2015, that consumed BZDs. The consumption of BZDs was evaluated using prescription billing data from the Public Health System. All types of BZDs and BZD analogues that had been approved by the drug agency were included. Trends by age and sex were investigated. RESULTS: Over the whole study period, a total of 161,125 individuals accounted for 338,148 dispensations. Overall, 59% were women, and the mean age was 56 years. The dispensing prevalence of BZDs use in 2015 was 14.2% overall -18.8% in women and 9.6% in men-and was 36% in those over 65 years. According to the half-life of BZDs, the prevalence of short-intermediate BZD use, intermediate-long BZD use, and Z-drugs use was 9.7, 5.5 and 0.8%, respectively. The evolution of the annual prevalence of BZD dispensing showed a progressive decline, from 15.3% in 2002 to 14.2% in 2015, which was attributed to a decrease in the consumption of intermediate-long half-life BZDs (8.0% vs. 5.5%) and Z-drugs (1.4% vs. 0.8%). CONCLUSION: The dispensing prevalence of BZDs and Z-drugs was high, although a small reduction was observed during this time period. The dispensing prevalence was especially high in the population over 65, despite the risk of cognitive decline and falls. Integral actions are required to lower the BZD prescription rate.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use and psychotherapeutic polypharmacy is increasing. This study was designed to assess annual rates of ADHD medication prescribing and psychotherapeutic polypharmacy among patients 2 to 24 years old in the United States, identify commonly prescribed ADHD medications and concomitant psychotropic agents, and assess if specific characteristics are associated with polypharmacy. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used publicly available ambulatory health care data sets to evaluate ADHD and psychotropic polypharmacy use in patients 2 to 24 years old from 2006 to 2015. National rates were estimated by using sampling weights, and common ADHD and psychotropic drugs prescribed were identified. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the strength of association between polypharmacy and patient or provider characteristics. RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2015, ADHD medication prescribing increased from 4.8% to 8.4%. ADHD polypharmacy increased from 16.8% to 20.5%, whereas psychotropic polypharmacy increased from 26.0% to 40.7%. The most common ADHD combinations were stimulants and α-2 agonists (67.1%), whereas the most common concomitant psychotropic agents were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (14.4%) and second-generation antipsychotics (11.8%). Factors associated with polypharmacy were age, female sex (psychotropic), nonprivate insurance, northeast and south regions (ADHD), receipt of mental health counseling or psychotherapy, and calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD and psychotropic polypharmacy use is increasing and associated with specific patient characteristics. These patterns should spark further inquiry about the appropriateness, efficacy, and safety of psychotherapeutic polypharmacy in children and young adults, particularly within subgroups in which the use is high.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Polimedicação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(6-7): 401-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines have been published concerning patient management after hospitalization for heart failure. The French national healthcare database (Systèmenationaldesdonnéesdesanté; SNDS) can be used to compare these guidelines with real-life practice. AIMS: To study healthcare utilization 30 days before and after hospitalization for heart failure, and the variations induced by the exclusion of institutionalized patients, who are less exposed to outpatient healthcare utilization. METHODS: We identified the first hospitalization for heart failure in 2015 of adult beneficiaries of the health insurance schemes covering 88% of the French population, who were alive 30 days after hospitalization. Outpatient healthcare utilization rates during the 30 days after hospitalization and the median times to outpatient care, together with their interquartile ranges, were described for all patients, and for a subgroup excluding institutionalized patients. RESULTS: Among the 104,984 patients included (mean age 79 years; 52% women), 74% were non-institutionalized (mean age 78 years; 47% women). The frequencies of at least one consultation after hospitalization and the median times to consultation were 69% (total sample) vs. 78% (subgroup excluding institutionalized patients) and 8 days (interquartile range 3; 16) vs. 7 days (3; 15) for general practitioners, 20% vs. 21% and 14 days (7; 23) vs. 16 days (9; 24) for cardiologists and 58% vs. 69% and 3 days (1; 9) vs. 2 days (1; 7) for nurses, with reimbursement of diuretics in 77% vs. 86%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in 48% vs. 55% and beta-blockers in 55% vs. 63%. Departmental variations, excluding institutionalized patients, were large: general practice consultations (interquartile range 74%; 83%), cardiology consultations (11%; 23%) and nursing care (68%; 77%). CONCLUSIONS: Low outpatient healthcare utilization rates, long intervals to first healthcare utilization and departmental variations indicate a mismatch between guidelines and real-life practice, which is accentuated when including institutionalized patients.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiologistas/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , França , Medicina Geral/tendências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Enfermagem/tendências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Med Vasc ; 45(3): 107-113, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402424

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 15% of patients treated by anticoagulant for a venous thromboembolic event are also treated with antiplatelet therapy; and this association increases the risk of bleeding. The aim of this survey was to evaluate general practitioner's management of antiplatelet therapy at the initiation of anticoagulation, and at six months compared to French vascular physicians' management. METHODS: A questionnaire including 4 clinical situations was established and the physicians were asked to detail antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy management. From September 2017 to December 2017, an e-mail invitation and a reminder were sent to members of the departmental councils who participated; 218 questionnaires were obtained. RESULTS: Overall, 91.3% of physicians considered that there was an increased risk of bleeding when antiplatelet therapy is associated with anticoagulation. After initiating anticoagulation, 67% of respondents continued antiplatelet therapy, while 30% stopped. Three strategies were used: 49.0% of physicians maintained concomitant antiplatelet therapy with full-dose anticoagulant, both at anticoagulant initiation and at 6 months; 23% of physicians stopped antiplatelet therapy and prescribed full-dose anticoagulant at initiation and at 6 months; 12.4% of physicians prescribed antiplatelet therapy associated with reduced-dose anticoagulation at 6 months regardless of the strategy at anticoagulant initiation. CONCLUSION: One third of general practitioners stopped antiplatelet therapy at the initiation of an anticoagulation for a venous thromboembolic event. Prospective controlled trials are needed to clarify the best way to treat these patients in this situation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Clínicos Gerais/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Especialização/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
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