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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17220, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725600

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the trends in consumption of antibiotics and evaluate the antibiotic prescription rates in the pediatric population in Lithuania during 2003 to 2012.A cross-sectional study. Data of systemic antibiotic use in pediatric population for outpatient treatment was derived from National Health Insurance Fund database. Consumption was expressed as WHO ATC defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 children/day and as a number of prescriptions written in the general population per year. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS/W 20.0 software (Statistical Product and Service Solutions for Windows).Total utilization of antibiotics (expressed in DDD units) during study period increased by 8.40% (from 5.67 to 6.19 DDD/1000 children/day) and by 5.96% expressed in prescription rate (from 585.84 to 622.97 prescriptions/1000 children/year). The most popular antibiotic group was macrolides which showed the highest increase of utilization 5.9 times (from 0.27 DDD/1000 children/day in 2003 to 1.66 DDD/1000 children/day in 2012).The most common indications for antibiotic prescribing for children in 2012 were acute bronchitis (25.6%), acute tonsillitis (21.7%) and acute pharyngitis (14.6%). Amoxicillin had the highest probability to be chosen to treat acute tonsillitis (prob. [probability] = .2875) and acute pharyngitis (prob. = .5553). Clarithromycin had the highest probability to be chosen to treat acute bronchitis (prob. = .4222).Most of the diseases treated with antibiotics were viral infections. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were broad-spectrum. The consumption of antibiotics was evenly increasing during 2003 to 2012 period, but the distribution of separate antibiotic group remained the same.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Vigilância da População , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 655-663, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was developed to provide population data for medical research. The aim of this study was to estimate trends in prescription opioid use in South Korea, and to determine the association between chronic opioid use and 5-yr mortality in cancer and non-cancer patients. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted amongst the South Korean adult population using data from the NHIS. Those prescribed a continuous supply of opioids for ≥90 days were defined as chronic opioid users. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the association between chronic opioid use and 5-yr mortality. RESULTS: The proportion of chronic weak opioid users increased from 1.03% in 2002 to 9.62% in 2015. The proportion of chronic strong opioid users increased from 0.04% in 2002 to 0.24% in 2015. In the 2010 cohort (n=822 214), compared with non-users, chronic weak opioid users had a significantly lower 5-yr mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-0.96; P<0.001), and chronic strong opioid users had a significantly higher 5-yr mortality (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.28-1.63; P<0.001). Similar results were observed in non-cancer patients, but chronic weak opioid users were not significantly associated with 5-yr mortality in cancer patients (P=0.063). CONCLUSIONS: In South Korea, chronic opioid use has increased since 2002. Chronic strong opioid use was associated with a higher 5-yr mortality, and chronic weak opioid use was associated with a slightly lower 5-yr mortality. However, the findings regarding chronic weak opioid users should be interpreted carefully because there might be residual confounders in this study. Further study is needed to confirm these retrospective findings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, German hospitals have been requested to record and evaluate antibiotic use in their institution. In this publication, the use of antibiotics in hospitals belonging to the administrative district Frankfurt/Main between 2012 and 2017 is presented and discussed with regards to the targets set in 2014. These targets are to improve the perioperative prophylaxis, reduce the use of cefuroxime, and increase the penicillin/cephalosporin ratio. METHODS: Since 2012, hospitals in Frankfurt/Main have been transmitting the defined daily doses (DDD) of all antibiotics used, the absolute number of patients, and their days of treatment. Since 2013, the data have also distinguished between intensive care and other units. The Frankfurt health authority calculated the total number of antibiotics and the DDD/100 patient days for all hospitals combined as well as for every hospital compared to each other. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, the number of absolute annual patient days increased from 1,592,161 to 1,615,180. Antibiotic use decreased from 1,073,975 DDD to 953,349 DDD, leading to a decrease from 67.5 DDD per 100 patient days to 59.0 DDD per 100 patient days. Cefuroxime was the most frequently used antibiotic in all hospitals. The use of cefuroxime showed a significant decrease between 2012 and 2017 (from 250,398 in 2012 to 165,160 DDD in 2017, a decrease of 34%). The use of ceftriaxone was reduced by 27%, ciprofloxacin by 9%, and levofloxacin by 16%. DISCUSSION: The targets set in 2014 were reached in the entirety of Frankfurt hospitals. However, there were significant differences between the hospitals taking part. The results were given as feedback to the hospitals in order to support their efforts in further improving antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância da População
4.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7_Supple_C): 22-27, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256653

RESUMO

AIMS: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) provides improved early functional outcomes and less postoperative morbidity and pain compared with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Opioid prescribing has increased in the last two decades, and recently states in the USA have developed online Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs to prevent overprescribing of controlled substances. This study evaluates differences in opioid requirements between patients undergoing TKA and UKA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 676 consecutive TKAs and 241 UKAs. Opioid prescriptions in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs), sedatives, benzodiazepines, and stimulants were collected from State Controlled Substance Monitoring websites six months before and nine months after the initial procedures. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed for patients who had a second prescription and continued use. RESULTS: Patients undergoing UKA had a second opioid prescription filled 50.2% of the time, compared with 60.5% for TKA (p = 0.006). After controlling for potential confounders, patients undergoing UKA were still less likely to require a second prescription than those undergoing TKA (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.81; p = 0.001). Continued opioid use requiring more than five prescriptions occurred in 13.7% of those undergoing TKA and 5.8% for those undergoing UKA (p = 0.001), and was also reduced in UKA patients compared with TKA patients (adjusted OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.67; p = 0.022) in multivariate analysis. The continued use of opioids after six months was 11.8% in those undergoing TKA and 8.3% in those undergoing UKA (p = 0.149). The multivariate models for second prescriptions, continued use with more than five, and continued use beyond six months yielded concordance scores of 0.70, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with TKA, patients undergoing UKA are less likely to require a second opioid prescription and use significantly fewer opioid prescriptions. Thus, orthopaedic surgeons should adjust their patterns of prescription and educate patients about the reduced expected analgesic requirements after UKA compared with TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B(7 Supple C):22-27.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Osteoporos Int ; 30(9): 1817-1825, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263921

RESUMO

Although Scandinavian countries have the highest incidence of hip fracture in the world, trends in anti-osteoporosis medication use have not been studied. We found less than one-third of Danish hip fracture patients had dispensing of anti-osteoporosis medication over a 10-year period using routinely collected data from population-based registries. INTRODUCTION: To examine trend in dispensing of anti-osteoporosis medication before and after hip fracture surgery in Denmark over a 10-year period using routinely collected data from population-based registries. METHODS: From the Danish Multidisciplinary Hip Fracture Registry, we included 65,011 patients aged 65 years or older with an incident hip fracture in 2005-2015. We calculated, for each calendar year of hip fracture diagnosis, the prevalence of use of anti-osteoporosis medication (at least one dispensing of bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, denosumab, selective estrogen receptor modulators, or teriparatide) in the year before and in the year following hip fracture diagnosis. Among those without a dispensing in the year before hip fracture, we computed 1-year cumulative incidence of use following hip fracture. We treated death as a competing risk and stratified the analysis on sex, age, and comorbidity. RESULTS: The prevalence of use before hip fracture varied between 7 and 12%, increasing slightly from 2005 to 2015. The cumulative incidence of use following hip fracture decreased from 16% in 2005 to 13% in 2010, whereupon it increased to 20%. A similar pattern was seen with each stratum of sex, age groups, and comorbidity. The overall prevalence of use after hip fracture was below 22% in all calendar years. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one-third of hip fracture patients had dispensing of anti-osteoporosis medication up to 1 year after hip fracture. We observed only a slight increase in dispensing after hip fracture over the study period, irrespective of patient sex, age, and comorbidity at the time of hip fracture.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(4): 859-863, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313002

RESUMO

Background Globally Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been in the spotlight. Despite some controversies, treatment of ADHD remains the cornerstone of patient care. Objective To describe the consumption of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in the private healthcare sector in South Africa over a four-year period (2013-2016). Method Data were extracted from the Intercontinental Marketing Service (IMS) database for the drug utilisation study. Consumption patterns were expressed as number of Defined Daily Doses (DDDs)/1000 inhabitants/day and number of DDDs/1000 inhabitants/month. Results Methylphenidate (95.85%) was the medication of choice when compared to atomoxetine (4.15%) in 2013. The corresponding figures for 2016 were 96.40% and 3.60%. Consumption of ADHD medication showed slight changes over the 4-year period. If only the private healthcare sector population is considered, consumption of methylphenidate was 6.010 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, and 7.827 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day in 2016. A previous study (1994-1996) reported 0.12 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day for methylphenidate. Consumption of atomoxetine was 0.044 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013 and 0.050 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day in 2016. Conclusion Consumption showed an increase in use of methylphenidate in South Africa, with small changes observed over the study period. Further studies are required.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul
7.
Seizure ; 70: 77-81, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the change in the number of female valproate users in Lithuania from 2013 to 2018 and determine the presumed impact of two distinct European Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory interventions on the observed trend. METHOD: An interrupted time series analysis was performed using reimbursement data from the National Health Register Fund to detect changes in user trends after a selected regulatory event in time. RESULTS: The absolute number of female patients under 50 using valproate is seen decreasing over time. After an EMA regulatory procedure in 2014, there was only a delayed decrease in female valproate users under 15 (a change in trend of -4.83, 95%CI = -9.45 to -0.22, P = 0.041, a decrease in level 15 months post-intervention of -40.06, 95%CI = -79.26 to -0.86, P = 0.046). An increase in new prescriptions for patients with epilepsy was noted post-intervention (change in trend 13.75, 95%CI = 6.03-21.48, P = 0.004). The EMA referral procedure in 2017-2018 was followed by a lasting decrease in female valproate users of reproductive age and older (level effect 3 months post-intervention: -201.28, 95%CI = -310.61 to -91.96, P = 0.001 and -170.60, 95%CI = -287.73 to -53.48, P = 0.007, respectively). However, the rate of new initiations on valproate for patients with either epilepsy or mood disorders remained constant. CONCLUSIONS: The number of female patients under 50 using valproate is decreasing over time. The 2018 EMA referral procedure was followed by a notable reduction in female valproate users.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lituânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent publications should have resulted in increased hydroxyurea usage in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that hydroxyurea use in children with SCD increased over time and was associated with decreased acute care visits. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Truven Health Analytics-IBM Watson Health MarketScan Medicaid database from 2009 to 2015. The multistate, population-based cohort included children 1 to 19 years old with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth or 10th Revision diagnosis of SCD between 2009 and 2015. Changes in hydroxyurea were measured across study years. The primary outcome was the receipt of hydroxyurea, identified through filled prescription claims. Acute care visits (emergency department visits and hospitalizations) were extracted from billing data. RESULTS: A mean of 5138 children each year were included. Hydroxyurea use increased from 14.3% in 2009 to 28.2% in 2015 (P < .001). During the study period, the acute-care-visit rate decreased from 1.20 acute care visits per person-year in 2009 to 1.04 acute care visits per person-year in 2015 (P < .001); however, the drop in acute care visits was exclusively in the youngest and oldest age groups and was not seen when only children enrolled continuously from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant increase in hydroxyurea use in children with SCD between 2009 and 2015. However, in 2015, only ∼1 in 4 children with SCD received hydroxyurea at least once. Increases in hydroxyurea were not associated with consistently decreased acute care visits in this population-based study of children insured by Medicaid.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Medicaid , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/tendências , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 554, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to describe the changes in prescribing practices of antibiotics to treat acute pyelonephritis (APN) in Korea. METHODS: The claim data base of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with ICD-10 codes N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, not specified as acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis during 2010-2014. Consumption of each class of antibiotics was converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/event. RESULTS: Throughout the five-year period, the average antibiotic consumption were 11.3 DDD per inpatient event and 6.0 DDD per outpatient event. The annual average antibiotic consumption increased for inpatients (P = 0.002), but remained stable for outpatients (P = 0.066). The use of parenteral antibiotics increased for inpatients (P < 0.001), but decreased for outpatients (P = 0.017). As for the the antibiotic classes, 3rd generation cephalosporins (3rd CEPs) was the most commonly prescribed (41.4%) for inpatients, followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs) (28.5%); for outpatient, FQs (54.8%) was the most commonly prescribed, followed by 3rd CEPs (13.1%). The use of 3rd CEPs (P < 0.001), beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (P = 0.007), and carbapenems (P < 0.001) increased substantially for the treatment of hospitalized APN patients. In particular, carbapenems use increased 3.1-fold over the 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics increased much for the treatment of APN in Korea during 2010-2014.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/tendências , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Pielonefrite/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/uso terapêutico
10.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 125(4): 360-369, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188534

RESUMO

In 2016, all prescription drugs included in the reimbursement system in Sweden were made available for children (age 0-17 years) without any patient fees. Our aim was to estimate the association between this intervention and the dispensing patterns of asthma medications among children. Dispensing data on asthma medications for all children living in Stockholm County during 2014-2017 were selected to include two years before (January 2014-December 2015) and after (January 2016-December 2017) the intervention. In an uncontrolled before and after study, the measures of utilization were as follows: the proportion of children with at least one dispensed asthma medication (prevalence); the number of children initiated on treatment after an 18-month drug-free period (incidence); the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) dispensed per child; and the number of children with at least two prescriptions with controller medication (inhaled corticosteroid or leukotriene receptor antagonist) dispensed during 18 months (persistence). In an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis, all measures were included except for persistence. Socio-economic status was defined using Mosaic data. The prevalence increased after the intervention (from 11.9% to 13.0%). However, the ITS analysis showed a positive trend already before the intervention, and consequently, the increase was not attributable to the intervention. For incidence, similar patterns were observed. There was an increase in dispensed volumes related to the intervention, 46.3 DDDs/child/month before and 51.1 after the intervention (P-value 0.01). The proportion of children with persistent asthma medication increased from 46.0% to 51.9% in children with low socio-economic status. In conclusion, the intervention was only modestly associated with changes in the dispensing patterns of asthma medication, with the volume dispensed per child increasing slightly, particularly in children with low socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Honorários Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Honorários Farmacêuticos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Assistência Médica/tendências , Classe Social , Suécia
11.
Drugs Aging ; 36(8): 769-780, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic drug use is high in nursing homes in Belgium. A practice improvement initiative (including education, professional support and the transition towards person-centred care) achieved significant reductions in psychotropic drug use. The initiative outline was transcribed into a general intervention template, and consequently implemented in five nursing homes (in mixed locations and with a mixed character) in preparation for a future broader roll-out in Belgium. The impact of the intervention on the use of psychotropic drugs in these five nursing homes is reported in this paper. METHODS: The general intervention template was fitted into the individual nursing home setting. Education for the nursing home personnel on psychotropic drugs and non-pharmacological alternatives, as well as details for a transition to person-centred care was provided. Psychotropic drug use was recorded using a dynamic cohort study design with cross-sectional observations (November 2016-November 2017). RESULTS: At baseline, participants' (n = 677) mean age was 85.6 years (range 54-109 years), with 72.6% female. Mean medication intake was 8.5 (range 1-22), predominantly central nervous system drugs (Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification N, 88.8%). Long-term (> 3 months) psychotropic drug use (62.0%) and concomitant psychotropic drug use (31.5% taking two or more medications) were high. After 12 months, the prevalence of long-term psychotropic drug use decreased significantly (from 62.0 to 52.9%, p < 0.001), likewise the combined use of psychotropic drugs (from 31.5 to 24.0%, p = 0.001). The decrease in the prevalence of antidepressant and hypnosedative use was significant (respectively, from 32.2 to 23.4%, p < 0.001, and from 35.3 to 28.7%, p = 0.006) in contrast to antipsychotic use (from 17.1 to 15.9%, p = 0.522). CONCLUSIONS: The stand-alone adaptation of the previously reported initiative using a general template was possible. This intervention resulted in a significant decrease in psychotropic drug use (predominantly hypnosedatives and antidepressants) among nursing home residents after 12 months.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Casas de Saúde/tendências , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Bélgica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(15): 1105-1121, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Historical trends and factors likely to influence future pharmaceutical expenditures are discussed, and projections are made for drug spending in 2019 in nonfederal hospitals, clinics, and overall (all sectors). METHODS: Drug expenditure data through calendar year 2018 were obtained from the IQVIA National Sales Perspectives database and analyzed. New drug approvals, patent expirations, and other factors that may influence drug spending in hospitals and clinics in 2019 were also reviewed. Expenditure projections for 2019 for nonfederal hospitals, clinics, and overall (all sectors) were made through a combination of quantitative analyses and expert opinion. RESULTS: U.S. prescription sales in calendar year 2018 totaled $476.2 billion, a 5.5% increase from 2017 spending. The top 3 drugs by expenditures were adalimumab ($19.1 billion), insulin glargine ($9.3 billion), and etanercept ($8.0 billion). Prescription expenditures in nonfederal hospitals totaled $35.8 billion, a 4.8% increase from 2017. Expenditures in clinics in 2018 increased by 13.0% to $80.5 billion. The increase in spending in nonfederal hospitals was largely driven by new products and increased utilization of existing products. The list of the top 25 drugs by expenditures in nonfederal hospitals and clinics was dominated by specialty drugs. CONCLUSION: We predict continued moderate growth of 4-6% in overall drug expenditures (across the entire U.S. market). We expect the clinic sector to continue to experience high (11-13%) growth in drug spending in 2019. Finally, for nonfederal hospitals we anticipate growth in the range of 3-5%. These estimates are at the national level. Health-system pharmacy leaders should carefully examine local drug utilization patterns to determine their own organization's anticipated spending in 2019.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(3): 373-380, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146891

RESUMO

The role of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains uncertain. Previous analyses compare PPCI outcomes with clopidogrel plus GPI, versus without GPI. This does not reflect modern contemporary PPCI practice with ticagrelor or prasugrel. Nor does it answer the important question faced daily by PPCI operators: should GPI be used routinely or selectively? We aim to determine whether a strategy of routine use of GPI in contemporary PPCI practice is superior to selective GPI use. A total of 110,327 consecutive PPCIs performed in England were prospectively recorded in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database (2009 to 2015). The cohort was divided into routine and selective GPI usage groups based on the PPCI operator's strategy, defined as GPI used in >75% and <25% PPCIs, respectively. Overall, GPI use declined from 73.1% to 43.3% of PPCIs. Routine compared with selective GPI usage was associated with lower all-cause 1-year mortality: 9.7% versus 11.0%, p < 0.001. There was a consistent survival benefit for routine GPI usage as compared with selective GPI usage: univariable analysis (hazard ratio = 0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.93], p < 0.001), multivariable analysis (hazard ratio = 0.82 [0.77 to 0.88], p < 0.001). For survival, there was no interaction between GPI usage and the type of P2Y12-inhibitor used. In conclusion, a strategy of routine GPI usage in patients who underwent PPCI was associated with lower all-cause mortality as compared with selective GPI usage. This benefit was maintained despite 44.3% of patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Abciximab/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Eptifibatida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
14.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(10): e43, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2016, over half of the states in the United States have passed mandatory limits on opioid prescriptions, with limited evidence of effectiveness. In this study, we evaluated postoperative opioid prescriptions following orthopaedic surgery before and after the implementation of one of the earliest such laws. METHODS: Following the implementation of state legislation limiting opioid prescriptions for opioid-naïve patients, 2 patient cohorts (pre-law and post-law) were compared. Both opioid-tolerant and opioid-naïve patients undergoing 6 common orthopaedic procedures (total knee arthroplasty, rotator cuff repair, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, open reduction and internal fixation for a distal radial fracture, open reduction and internal fixation for an ankle fracture, and lumbar discectomy) met inclusion criteria. Patients undergoing >1 primary procedure in the same operative session were excluded. All benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions from 30 days before to 90 days after the surgical procedure were recorded. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for prolonged postoperative opioid use. RESULTS: In this study, 836 pre-law patients were compared with 940 post-law patients. The 2 groups were similar with regard to demographic variables, baseline opioid tolerance, and recent benzodiazepine use (all p > 0.05). Post-law, for all patients, there were decreases in the initial prescription pill quantity (49.65 pills pre-law and 22.08 pills post-law; p < 0.001) and the total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) (417.67 MMEs pre-law and 173.86 MMEs post-law; p < 0.001), regardless of patient preoperative opioid exposure (all p < 0.001). Additionally, there were decreases in the mean cumulative 30-day MMEs (790.01 MMEs pre-law and 524.61 MMEs post-law; p < 0.001) and the 30 to 90-day MMEs (243.51 MMEs pre-law and 208.54 MMEs post-law; p = 0.008). Despite being specifically exempted from the legislation, opioid-tolerant patients likewise experienced a significant decrease in cumulative 30-day MMEs (1,304.08 MMEs pre-law and 1,015.19 MMEs post-law; p = 0.0016). Opioid-tolerant patients required more postoperative opioids at all time points and had an increased likelihood of prolonged opioid use compared with those who were opioid-naïve preoperatively (odds ratio, 8.73 [95% confidence interval, 6.21 to 12.29]). CONCLUSIONS: A clinically important and significant reduction in opioid utilization after orthopaedic surgery was observed following the implementation of statewide mandatory opioid prescription limits. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: After implementation of mandatory opioid prescription regulations, a clinically important and significant decline in the volume of opioids dispensed in the short term and intermediate term following orthopaedic surgery was observed. Furthermore, important clinical predictors of prolonged postoperative opioid use, including preoperative opioid use and preoperative benzodiazepine use, were identified. These findings have important implications for public health, as well as the potential to influence policymakers and to change practice among orthopaedic surgeons.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island , Fatores de Risco
15.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(5): 326-329, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061356

RESUMO

The National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in Japan aims to achieve a 50% reduction in the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials (cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones) from 2013 to 2020. Based on the national sales data for antimicrobials, we estimated the regional antimicrobial use (AMU) from 2013-2016 and evaluated the differences in the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials among three regions in which differences had been identified previously. The AMU was standardized based on the defined daily dose (DDD) and described as the DDDs/1,000 inhabitants/day (DID). Annual combined total oral and parenteral AMU during 2013-2016 was 14.9, 14.5, 14.7, and 14.6 DID, respectively. The change in mean ± standard deviation in the total AMU at the prefectural level was - 0.2 ± 0.8 DID. Among the 47 prefectures, decreasing trends were observed in 34, while in the remaining 13 prefectures increasing trends were recorded. In 2016, no significant differences in the mean usage of oral cephalosporins among the three regions were observed. The mean usage of oral macrolides in the eastern (4.1 DID) was significantly lower than that in the central region (4.7 DID) (p = 0.009) and the western (4.8 DID) (p = 0.002). The mean usage of oral quinolones in the western (3.2 DID) was significantly higher than that in the eastern (2.3 DID) (p < 0.001) and central (2.7 DID) (p = 0.001) regions. To determine appropriate targets for the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship for reducting the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials, further studies are required to identify the reasons underlying these differences.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Japão
16.
Drugs Aging ; 36(6): 571-579, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One quarter of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have a diagnosis of CHD or stroke and over half use at least one preventative cardiovascular medication. There have been no studies that have investigated the longitudinal change in secondary preventative cardiovascular medication use in residents in LTCFs over time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the change in cardiovascular medication use among residents with coronary heart disease (CHD) and prior stroke in nursing homes (NHs) and assisted living facilities (ALFs) in Finland over time, and whether this change differs according to dementia status. METHODS: Three comparable cross-sectional audits of cardiovascular medication use among residents aged 65 years and over with CHD or prior stroke in NHs in 2003 and 2011 and ALFs in 2007 and 2011 were compared. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, mobility, cancer and length of stay were performed to examine the effect of study year, dementia and their interaction on medication use. RESULTS: Cardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD (NHs: 89% vs 70%; ALFs: 89% vs 84%) and antithrombotic medication use among residents with stroke (NHs: 72% vs 63%; ALFs: 78% vs 69%) declined between 2003 and 2011 in NHs and 2007 and 2011 in ALFs. Decline in the use of diuretics, nitrates and digoxin were found in both groups and settings. Cardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD and dementia declined in NHs (88% [95% CI 85-91] in 2003 vs 70% [95% CI 64-75] in 2011) whereas there was no change among people without dementia. There was no change in cardiovascular medication use among residents with CHD in ALFs with or without dementia over time. Antithrombotic use was lower in residents with dementia compared with residents without dementia in NHs (p < 0.001) and ALFs (p = 0.026); however, the interaction between dementia diagnosis and time was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The decline in cardiovascular medication use in residents with CHD and dementia suggests Finnish physicians are adopting a more conservative approach to the management of cardiovascular disease in the NH population.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
17.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(6-7): 400-409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including apixaban, are recommended for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). AIMS: To describe the characteristics of patients starting anticoagulant treatment, identify the characteristics associated with apixaban prescription, and describe apixaban use in France. METHODS: This was a non-interventional multicentre French study. Patients with NVAF (aged≥18 years) with anticoagulant treatment started in the preceding 3 months were evaluated in four groups (NOAC [apixaban, dabigatran or rivaroxaban] or vitamin K antagonist [VKA]). RESULTS: Data from 2027 patients were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 73.0±11.2 years, 56.6% were men and 80.2% were anticoagulant naïve. Stage≥4 chronic kidney disease was present in 2.2% of patients prescribed apixaban, none of those prescribed dabigatran or rivaroxaban, and 16.8% of those prescribed VKAs. The median CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3 for all three NOACs and 4 for VKAs; the median HAS-BLED score was≥3 for 2.5-5.9% of patients prescribed NOACs and 12.0% of those prescribed VKAs. Apixaban was more likely to be prescribed than other NOACs in older patients with higher bleeding risk and decreased renal function, and VKAs in patients with lower bleeding risk and better renal function. Patients received a reduced dose (5mg/day; 30.4% patients) or a full dose (10mg/day; 69.6% patients) of apixaban. Only 79.3% of patients prescribed apixaban had doses consistent with the summary of product characteristics; underdosing was more frequent than overdosing. Off-label use of apixaban was observed, mainly in elderly patients, despite normal renal function and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of apixaban versus NOACs was more common among patients with increased age, higher bleeding risk and decreased renal function, whereas initiation of apixaban versus VKAs was more common among patients with lower bleeding risk and better renal function.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Embolia/diagnóstico , Embolia/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Off-Label , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(8): 1153-1160, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are increasingly used, and knowledge about adverse effects is scarce based on clinical studies. The purpose of the present study was to characterise adverse effects reports of AEDs in Norway relative to changes in utilisation in various indications from population-based data to elucidate important safety aspects of use of AEDs. METHODS: Aggregated data of adverse effects reported for AEDs in Norway from the EudraVigilance-database (2004-2013) in addition to indication-specific use of AEDs during 2004-2015 from the Norwegian Prescription Database were used. RESULTS: The use of AEDs increased twofold the last decade due to use in psychiatry and neuropathic pain: lamotrigine, pregabalin, gabapentin, valproate, and carbamazepine. There were 1593 adverse effects reported (403 Individual Case Safety Reports, 2/3 women), 0-95 years (mean 46). Most adverse effects were reported for pregabalin (593), carbamazepine (265), lamotrigine (206), gabapentin (144), and valproate (119), where pregabalin had by far the highest reports in relation to the number of users. The most frequently reported adverse drug effects included rash, dizziness, cross-sensitivity reactions, and pyrexia. Overall, nervous system disorders constitute the largest organ class with the majority of the reports. Reporting of fatal outcomes is mandatory, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was reported in 34 occasions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that most adverse effects reported concerned AEDs increasingly used in non-epilepsy indications: neuropathic pain (pregabalin, gabapentin, carbamazepine) and psychiatry (lamotrigine, valproate, carbamazepine). Pregabalin had the highest prevalence of adverse effects reported in relation to number of users. This elucidates an important part of pharmacovigilance for improved safety and considerations in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pregabalina/efeitos adversos , Prevalência
19.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(3): 259-265, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management committee established a pain performance improvement plan in 2012. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the trends in analgesic consumption in a tertiary teaching hospital and the associated economic impact. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted between 2011 and 2015. The analysis included: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products non-steroids, opioid analgesics and other analgesics and antipyretics. Data are converted into DDD/100 bed-days to analyze consumption trends. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: assessment of the analgesic consumption after the implementation of a pain performance improvement plan. RESULTS: Overall, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products consumption decreased in 24.8 DDD/100 bed-days (-28.3%), accounting for most of the total analgesic consumption decrease (-13%) and total cost (-44.3%). Opioid consumption increased markedly from 22.3 DDD/100 bed-days in 2011 to 26.5 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015 (+18.9%). In 2011, the most consumed opioid was morphine (8.6 DDD/100 bed-days). However, there was an increasing trend in fentanyl consumption (from 8.1 to 12.1 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015), which resulted in fentanyl replacing morphine from the most consumed opioid in 2015 (12.1 DDD/100 bed-days). In 2015, the group of other analgesics and antipyretics represented 46.2% of the total analgesic consumption. Acetaminophen was the most commonly consumed analgesic drug (53.2 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015) and had the highest total cost, it represented 55.4% of the overall cost in 2015. CONCLUSION: Opioid consumption showed an increasing trend during the 5 year period, with fentanyl replacing morphine as the most used opioid. In general, analgesics diminished use was due to the decreasing trend of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Drugs Aging ; 36(6): 559-570, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use is a major cause for the development of antimicrobial resistance in nursing homes (NHs); however, little is known about antimicrobial use at NHs in Singapore compared with NHs in other countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, practice and challenges of antimicrobial prescribing in Singapore NHs compared with those in other countries. METHODS: A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted from August to October 2017. Data on antimicrobial use and the quality of documentation were retrieved from medical and/or medication records of NH residents. Informed consent was obtained from the NH management. RESULTS: Nine of 73 NHs in Singapore, with a total of 1760 residents, participated in the PPS. The prevalence of oral antibiotic and topical antimicrobial use was 2% and 11%, respectively, and the worldwide point prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing in NHs ranged from 1-17% (median 8%). The key challenges identified locally were different from those of overseas NHs, including incomplete documentation of antimicrobial duration and indication of use, as well as the high prevalence of topical antimicrobial use. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of oral antibiotic use in NHs in Singapore was lower, while topical antimicrobial use was higher, compared with NHs in other countries. Variability in antimicrobial prescribing and challenges in practice among local and overseas NHs implied that a comprehensive PPS could be beneficial to aid in the design of effective and practicable antimicrobial stewardship strategies appropriate for the NH.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Uso de Medicamentos , Casas de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
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