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1.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(8): 583-593, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking patterns inform tobacco control policies. This study aimed to assess trends in smoking prevalence and associated socioeconomic factors in Portugal between 1987 and 2014. METHODS: We used data from National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted in 1987, 1995/96, 1998/99, 2005/06 and 2014/15. For each NHIS, we estimated gender-specific and age-standardized smoking prevalences, stratified by education, occupation, marital status and region. We constructed NHIS- and gender-specific logistic regression models, adjusting for the above-mentioned variables. We describe changes in smoking prevalence and inequalities in associated socioeconomic factors between 1987 and 2014. RESULTS: In men, smoking prevalence (32.2% and 26.7%, respectively) and inequalities for all factors except for education decreased between 1987 and 2014. For women, inequalities decreased for region, age and occupation, and these changes occurred through increasing smoking prevalence in all groups. For marital status and education, inequalities were stable but smoking prevalence increased for all groups within these variables. In both sexes, the unemployed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2014: men 2.33, women 2.76) and divorced (aOR 2014: men 2.12, women 3.18) consistently had the highest prevalences and aORs of smoking. For the first three NHIS higher aORs of smoking were observed among less-educated men and highly-educated women, while for the last two the higher odds were for the less-educated in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking trends among men showed decreasing prevalences and diminishing inequalities. For women, inequalities were stable but there was an overall increase in prevalence. The unemployed and divorced had the highest smoking prevalences in both sexes. Smoking prevention and cessation policies in Portugal should take into consideration inequalities, particularly among men, and increasing consumption among women.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 974-978, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671080

RESUMO

The Surgeon General has concluded that there is a causal relationship between depictions of smoking in movies and initiation of smoking among young persons (1). Youths heavily exposed to onscreen smoking imagery are more likely to begin smoking than are those with minimal exposure (1,2). To assess tobacco-use imagery in top-grossing youth-rated movies (General Audiences [G], Parental Guidance [PG], and Parents Strongly Cautioned [PG-13]),* 2010-2018 data from the Breathe California Sacramento Region and University of California-San Francisco's Onscreen Tobacco Database were analyzed.† The percentage of all top-grossing movies with tobacco incidents remained stable from 2010 (45%) to 2018 (46%), including youth-rated movies (31% both years). However, total tobacco incidents increased 57% from 2010 to 2018, with a 120% increase in PG-13 movies. Tobacco incidents in PG-13 fictional movies declined 57% from 511 in 2010 to an all-time low of 221 in 2018. Although the number of PG-13 fictional movies with tobacco incidents declined 40% during 2010-2018, the number of PG-13 biographical dramas with tobacco incidents increased 233%. In 2018, biographical dramas accounted for most tobacco incidents, including 82% of incidents in PG-13 movies; 73% of characters who used tobacco in these biographical dramas were fictional. Continued efforts could help reduce tobacco incidents in top-grossing movies, particularly in PG-13 biographical dramas, to help prevent youth smoking initiation.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos/economia , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1466, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Studies characterizing the prevalence of tobacco use in low-income countries are lacking. This study describes the prevalence of tobacco use in Burkina Faso and its associated factors. METHODS: Data from the 2013 Burkina Faso World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) were analyzed. The prevalence of any tobacco product use, cigarette smoking, and other tobacco use was calculated. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with tobacco use. Overall, 4691 people were included in this analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of any tobacco use was 19.8% (95% CI: 18.4-21.2). Tobacco use was higher for men (29.2% [27.0-31.5]) than women (11.8% [10.3-13.4]). The prevalence of smoked tobacco was 11.3% (10.3-12.4), with a significantly higher prevalence among men (24.5% [22.1-27.0]) than women (0.1% [0.01-0.3]). The overall prevalence of other tobacco use was 8.9% (7.4-10.7), with lower values for men (5.6% [4.1-7.2]) compared to women (11.7% [9.4-14.1]). Tobacco smoking among men was significantly associated with an increased age and alcohol consumption. The analysis of risk factors for other tobacco use stratified by gender showed that age, education, residence, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with consumption for women, and age and alcohol consumption for men. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is common in Burkina Faso. To effectively reduce tobacco use in Burkina Faso, a comprehensive tobacco control program should consider associated factors, such as gender, age, and alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1469, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some experts have emphasised the potential for e-cigarettes to facilitate cessation among smokers with low socioeconomic status (SES), there is limited evidence of their likely equity impact. We assessed the potential for electronic cigarettes and other non-combustible nicotine-containing products (NCNPs) to reduce inequalities in smoking by systematically reviewing evidence on their use by SES in countries at stage IV of the cigarette epidemic. METHODS: Ten electronic databases were searched in February 2017 using terms relating to e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); and SES. We included studies published since 1980 that were available in English and examined product use by SES indicators such as income and education. Data synthesis was based on those studies judged to be of medium- to high-quality using guidelines adapted from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. RESULTS: We identified 54 studies describing NCNP use by SES across 12 countries, of which 27 were judged of sufficient quality to include in data synthesis. We found mixed patterns of e-cigarette current use by SES, with evidence of higher use among low-income adults but unclear or mixed findings by education and occupation. In contrast, smokeless tobacco current use was consistently higher among low SES adults. There was very limited evidence on the SES distribution of NRT in adults and of all NCNPs in young people. CONCLUSIONS: The only NCNP for which there are clear patterns of use by SES is smokeless tobacco, where prevalence is higher among low SES groups. While this suggests a potentially positive impact on inequalities in smoking (if NCNP use displaces smoked tobacco use), this has not been seen in practice. These findings do not support the suggestion that e-cigarettes have the potential to reduce social inequalities in smoking, since i) current evidence does not show a clear trend of higher e-cigarette use in population groups with higher tobacco consumption, and ii) the experience of smokeless tobacco suggests that - even where NCNP use is higher among low SES groups - this does not necessarily replace smoked tobacco use in these groups.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(15)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the public health survey in the Norwegian counties is to obtain information that is useful for public health work. In 2018, two parallel data collection processes were undertaken in Hordaland county. Both samples were drawn randomly from the National Population Register, but one of these was limited to users of the helsenorge.no website. The purpose of this article is to investigate the degree to which limiting users to the helsenorge.no website leads to selection bias beyond the selection that occurs through ordinary non-participation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Services for Sensitive Data (TSD) was used in the data collection for the sample drawn from the National Population Register (n = 36 000), and the helsenorge.no platform was used in the data collection for the sample limited to users of helsenorge.no (n = 30 000). The response rate was 40.8 % and 41.5 %, respectively. RESULTS: For some outcome measures, the differences between the two datasets were modest (gender distribution, age, education and health habits). For variables that were more directly related to health, the differences were greater. In the helsenorge.no sample a higher proportion reported generally poorer health (29.4 vs. 24.0 %), mental health problems (13.6 vs. 11.6 %), disability pension (10.5 vs. 7.8 %) and long-term illness (13.3 vs. 9.3 %). Analyses of subgroups showed more pronounced differences in the proportion with generally poorer health and mental health problems between those with low education in the helsenorge.no sample and the corresponding group in the sample from the National Population Register. INTERPRETATION: Systematic and pronounced differences between the samples show that limiting recruitment to users of helsenorge.no's services results in further selection problems.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros , Viés de Seleção , Autorrelato , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 928-933, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622286

RESUMO

Each year, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 8 million deaths worldwide, including 7 million deaths among persons who use tobacco and 1.2 million deaths among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (1). Approximately 80% of the 1.1 billion persons who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries (2,3). The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control through the MPOWER policy package,* which includes monitoring tobacco use, protecting persons from SHS, warning them about the danger of tobacco, and enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship (tobacco advertising) (4). CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2017. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors that were assessed included current tobacco use, SHS exposure, thinking about quitting because of warning labels, and exposure to tobacco advertising. Across the assessed countries, the estimated percentage change in tobacco use from the first round to the most recent round ranged from -21.5% in Russia to 1.1% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in SHS exposure ranged from -71.5% in Turkey to 72.9% in Thailand. Estimated percentage change in thinking about quitting because of warning labels ranged from 77.4% in India to -33.0% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in exposure to tobacco advertising ranged from -66.1% in Russia to 44.2% in Thailand. Continued implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions and strategies at the country level, as outlined in MPOWER, can help reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality worldwide (3,5,6).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623056

RESUMO

SummaryTobacco smoke exposure has obvious and complex effects on the immune system of the human upper respiratory tract, including pro-inflammatory and anti-immune effects. Exposure to tobacco smoke is closely related to the occurrence and development of allergic rhinitis, the common rhinitis and sinusitis. The innate immune system is influenced by tobacco smoking through its effects on the respiratory mucosa and its adjuncts, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils and innate immune receptors. Cigarette smoke can also affect the humoral immunity and cellular immunity, altering the acquired immune condition of the upper respiratory tract. Tobacco smoke exposure promotes the occurrence and development of the upper respiratory tract infectious diseases and allergic diseases by changing the composition of microflora in the upper respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Nariz , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Rinite , Sinusite , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/imunologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3199, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate self-esteem, the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other substances in outsourced workers of a public university. METHOD: a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study developed with 316 outsourced workers from a municipality in the Southeast of Brazil. Data was collected through a characterization tool, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and logistic regression. RESULTS: the majority of workers had high self-esteem and some used alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. A significant association between gender, age group and work shift with self-esteem; between the risk of developing problems related to alcohol consumption with sex, age group, marital status, religious belief and number of children; between the practice of physical activity and the risk of developing problems related to the consumption of tobacco products was found. CONCLUSION: this study contributes to the increase of knowledge due to the small number of researches involving this subject and to contribute to the nurses to have subsidies to work with this population using strategies to combat the triggers of psychic disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Serviços Terceirizados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1265, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As smoking rates decreased, the use of Swedish snus (smokeless tobacco) concordantly increased in Norway. The role of snus as possible contributor to the reduction of smoking has been widely discussed. Our aim was to quantitate transitions in snus use, smoking and dual use of snus and cigarettes in a young male population. METHODS: This prospective cohort study includes 1346 boys participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Young-HUNT1 1995-97, age 13-19 and in HUNT3 2006-08, age 23-30. Participants reported on tobacco use at both points of time. Models with binominal regression were applied to examine relative risks (RRs), of adolescent ever snus users, dual users or smokers (reference: never tobacco use), to be current snus only users, smokers (including dual users), or tobacco free in adulthood. RESULTS: Current tobacco use in this male cohort increased from 27% in adolescence to 49% in adulthood, increasing more for snus only use and dual use than for smoking only. The adjusted RR (95% CI) of becoming a smoker as young adult, was 2.2 (CI 1.7-2.7) for adolescent snus users, 3.6 (CI 3.0-4.3) for adolescent dual users, and 2.7 (CI 2.2-3.3) for adolescent smokers. RR to become snus only users as adults was 3.1 (2.5-3.9) for adolescent dual users, 2.8 (2.2-3.4) for adolescent snus users and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) for adolescent smokers. The adjusted RR for the transition from adolescent tobacco use to no tobacco use in adulthood was similar for snus users and smokers with RR 0.5 (CI 0.4-0.7), but considerably lower for dual users with RR 0.2 (CI 0.2-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The use of snus, with or without concurrent smoking, carried a high risk of adult smoking as well as adult snus only use. Dual use seemed to promote the opportunity to become snus only users in adulthood, but made it also more difficult to quit. The benefit of snus use for harm reduction is not evident in our cohort, as the combination of smoking and dual use resulted in high smoking rates among the young adults.


Assuntos
Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438550

RESUMO

Prior research explored reasons for tobacco use among pregnant Alaska Native (AN) women but did not address the postpartum period. This study followed up with AN women one to three years postpartum who had participated in a prenatal smoking cessation intervention study (Motivate Alaska Women (MAW) Phase 3) and had consented to be re-contacted for future studies. Of 47 eligible women, 32 (68%) participated. A semi-structured phone interview was conducted a mean of 2.0 years after delivery (range 1.6-2.8). Measures assessed self-reported tobacco use status in the 12 months after delivery, at 12 months postpartum, and at the time of the interview; reasons for maintaining abstinence, continued use, or relapse; and included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Negative Affect (NA) scale. Content analysis was used to generate themes from open-ended response items. Tobacco use was reported by 23 women (72%) at delivery, 30 (94%) within the 12 months after delivery, 27 (84%) at 12 months postpartum, and 29 (91%) at the time of the interview. Among nine women not using tobacco at delivery, seven (78%) relapsed during the 12 months after delivery. Of the 29 current tobacco users, 28 (97%) smoked cigarettes. Twenty-seven participants (84%) reported stress and 15 (52%) indicated addiction as reasons for continuing, starting, or resuming tobacco use. Types of stressors were related to parenting and traumatic experiences. Among current tobacco users, mean NA score (18.7) was significantly higher (p = 0.01) than the normative mean (14.8), but no differences were detected for PSS score. In this sample of AN women, postpartum tobacco use was highly prevalent, and stress was a primary reason that women endorsed for using tobacco. These preliminary results have several practice and research implications for exploring ways to support non-tobacco use among postpartum AN women.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Alaska , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Recidiva , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 166-177, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182711

RESUMO

El aneurisma de aorta abdominal (AAA) es una patología vascular con una elevada tasa de morbimortalidad y una prevalencia que, en varones de más de 65 años, puede alcanzar el 8%. En esta enfermedad, habitualmente asintomática, se produce una dilatación progresiva de la pared vascular que puede llevar a su rotura, un fenómeno mortal en más de un 80% de los casos. El tratamiento de los pacientes con aneurismas asintomáticos se limita al seguimiento periódico con pruebas de imagen, el control de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y un tratamiento con terapia antiagregante y estatinas, si bien actualmente no existe ningún tratamiento farmacológico efectivo capaz de limitar su progresión o evitar su rotura. En la actualidad el diámetro aórtico es el único marcador de riesgo de rotura y determina la necesidad de reparación quirúrgica cuando alcanza valores superiores a 5,5 cm. En esta revisión se tratan los principales aspectos relacionados con la epidemiología, los factores de riesgo, el diagnóstico y el manejo terapéutico del AAA, se exponen las dificultades para disponer de buenos biomarcadores de esta enfermedad y se describen las estrategias para la identificación de nuevas dianas terapéuticas y biomarcadores en el AAA


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular pathology with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and a prevalence that, in men over 65 years, can reach around 8%. In this disease, usually asymptomatic, there is a progressive dilatation of the vascular wall that can lead to its rupture, a fatal phenomenon in more than 80% of cases. The treatment of patients with asymptomatic aneurysms is limited to periodic monitoring with imaging tests, control of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment with statins and antiplatelet therapy. There is no effective pharmacological treatment capable of limiting AAA progression or avoiding their rupture. At present, the aortic diameter is the only marker of risk of rupture and determines the need for surgical repair when it reaches values greater than 5.5 cm. This review addresses the main aspects related to epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis and clinical management of AAA, exposes the difficulties to have good biomarkers of this pathology and describes the strategies for the identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers in AAA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Hipertensão/complicações , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315187

RESUMO

Since the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2004, Pakistan has taken various measures of tobacco control. This study examines how these tobacco control measures are associated with change in household-level tobacco consumption patterns in Pakistan over the decade (2005 to 2016) after FCTC ratification. We used multiple waves of the household survey data of Pakistan from 2004-2005 to 2015-2016 for analyzing household-level tobacco use. We find that tobacco consumption remains at a significantly high level (45.5%) in Pakistan despite the recent declining trend in the post-FCTC era. During the preparatory phase of FCTC implementation between 2005 and 2008, the smoking rate was on the rise, and smokeless tobacco use was declining. Over the implementation phase of FCTC policies between 2008 and 2016, the pattern of change in tobacco use reversed-the smoking rate started to decrease while smokeless tobacco use started to rise. However, the decrease in the smoking rate was slower and the increase in smokeless tobacco use at the national level was driven by an increase among the poor and middle-income households. These trends resulted in the growing burden of tobacco expenditure among the poor and middle-income households relative to the wealthier households.


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking is one of the health risk factors most associated with population morbidity and mortality. In Spain, legal restrictions have been introduced for the use of tobacco. The objective of this study was to analyse the smoking prevalence in Spain during the period 2009-2017, following the implementation of these legal restrictions, and the relationship and evolution between smoking and other health-related lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analyzed data in 2019 from the European Health Survey in Spain 2009 and National Health Surveys of Spain 2012 and 2017. Smoking, selfperceived health status, weight status and other health-related lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, vegetable intake, fruit intake and alcohol use). A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratio adjusted to sex and age ("odds ratio" and 95% confidence interval). RESULTS: Smoking decreased by 3.13% during 2009-2012, and by 4.81% during 2009-2017. Smoking population presenting 2 or 3 risk factors in 2009 was OR=1.17 (1.08-1.26), p<0.0001, in 2012 OR=1.23 (1.12-1, 34), p<0.0001, and in 2017 OR=1.32 (1.21-1.44), p<0.0001. For 4 or 5 risk factors it was in 2009 OR=1.51 (1.31-1.74), p<0.0001, in 2012 OR=1.60 (1.42-1.81), p <0.0001, and in 2017 OR=1.70 (1.51-1.92), p <0.0001. For ex-smokers, the probability of presenting 2 or 3 risk factors in 2009 is not significant, in 2012 OR=0.88 (0.80-0.98), p = 0.013, and in 2017 it is not significant. In the case of 4 or 5 risk factors in 2009 it is not significant, in 2012 OR=0.86 (0.75-1.00), p = 0.045, and in 2017 OR=1.15 (1.02 -1.30), p =0.028. CONCLUSIONS: There is a decrease in the smoking population in Spain during 2009-2017. People who smoke have also an unhealthy lifestyle. People who smoke presented a greater number of health-related risk factors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tobacco use during pregnancy is detrimental to pregnant women and to the fetus. In Galicia, the data regarding prevalence of tobacco use during pregnancy is outdated and the characteristics of women who continue to smoke during pregnancy are not known. The objectives of this work were to estimate, before and during pregnancy, the prevalence of tobacco use and characterize its consumption, and to identify factors associated with the maintenance of tobacco use during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 targeting women who had given birth within the previous 12 months (n=6.436) in Galicia. Information was collected regarding the mother's status before and during pregnancy, at the time of delivery and survey. Smoking prevalence was estimated both globally and by women related characteristics. Regression models were performed to identify variables associated with smoking maintenance. Prevalence and odds ratio are presented accompanied with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was 11.9% (11.1-12.8). Among women who maintain tobacco consumption during pregnancy, the percentage of cigarette smokers decreased, but prevalence of rolled tobacco remain stable. The maintenance of smoking during pregnancy was related to being Spanish, education or having been a daily smoker before pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that more than half of Galician women stop smoking during pregnancy, smoking prevalence remains at 12%. The different demographic factors identified in this study as predictors of smoking maintenance, should be kept in mind when intervention programs focused on pregnant women will be design.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 2167-2176, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350981

RESUMO

Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) acts as a modifier of erythrocyte and platelet membranes by disrupting antioxidant system with the concomitant increase in free radical production and induction of apoptosis. Methods: The SLT users was that individuals used gutkha and khaini products (Khaleja/mahak chaini brand respectively) habitually, at least >20 times per week consists of 50-60 g during the last 2-4 years. Results: The gutkha and khaini users found to be significantly increased levels of iNOS (Inducible nitric oxide synthase) enzyme in plasma, erythrocytes, and platelet membranes when compared to normal controls. The gutkha and khaini users exhibited that the significant increase in the levels of gene expression of apoptotic proteins (Bcl2-B cell lymphoma gene 2, Bax, caspases 8, caspase 10, and caspase 12), IL-6 (Interleukin-6), and decreased levels of TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and decreased expression of caspase 12 of khaini users were observed from blood samples. The significant increase in the concentrations of peroxynitrites (ONOO-), nitric oxide (NO) (Nitrates and nitrites), malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol, and phospholipids were reported in the smokeless tobacco users of erythrocytes and platelets. The experimental subjects showed that the increased osmotic fragility and decreased membrane fluidity of erythrocytes and platelets in comparison with non-tobacco users. The normal subjects had been exposed that the proper functioning of antioxidant enzymes and decreased enzyme activities of antioxidants were reported by SLT users. Conclusion: The smokeless tobacco products are exerted chronic damage to membranes of erythrocytes and platelets and elevation of apoptosis in the prolonged periods of human male volunteers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Apoptose , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Membrana Eritrocítica/patologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Prognóstico , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 52-65, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-layered association between tobacco use and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is well established. However, global epidemiological patterns of tobacco use among T2DM patients are not well documented; this review thus aims to estimate the overall global burden of tobacco use in T2DM. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published from Jan 1, 1990 to October 5, 2017 was undertaken, comprising: a comprehensive literature search on multiple electronic databases; quality assessment of studies; data extraction for the primary (prevalence of tobacco use in T2DM patients) and secondary outcomes (patterns of tobacco use in T2DM patients); and a meta-analysis. The review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines. A protocol for this review is available on PROSPERO (CRD42016038793). FINDINGS: 74 studies were included in the review, reporting data from 3.2 million participants across 33 countries. Global mean prevalence of tobacco use in T2DM was 20·81% (95% CI 18·93-22·76), and was higher in the WHO East Asia and Pacific and South Asia regions, compared to the Americas, Middle East and North Africa, Europe and Central Asia. In studies which compared prevalence of tobacco use in patients to non-patients, patients with T2DM were 26% less likely to use tobacco (pooled OR = 0·74 (CI 0·61-0·88). INTERPRETATION: Tobacco is used by one in five T2DM patients globally, but usage is less likely in patients than in non-patients. Global patterns of use demonstrated by this review have implications for both prevention and The understanding of diabetes burden, and the success of tobacco cessation strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Prevalência
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