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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 928-933, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622286

RESUMO

Each year, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 8 million deaths worldwide, including 7 million deaths among persons who use tobacco and 1.2 million deaths among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (1). Approximately 80% of the 1.1 billion persons who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries (2,3). The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control through the MPOWER policy package,* which includes monitoring tobacco use, protecting persons from SHS, warning them about the danger of tobacco, and enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship (tobacco advertising) (4). CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2017. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors that were assessed included current tobacco use, SHS exposure, thinking about quitting because of warning labels, and exposure to tobacco advertising. Across the assessed countries, the estimated percentage change in tobacco use from the first round to the most recent round ranged from -21.5% in Russia to 1.1% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in SHS exposure ranged from -71.5% in Turkey to 72.9% in Thailand. Estimated percentage change in thinking about quitting because of warning labels ranged from 77.4% in India to -33.0% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in exposure to tobacco advertising ranged from -66.1% in Russia to 44.2% in Thailand. Continued implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions and strategies at the country level, as outlined in MPOWER, can help reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality worldwide (3,5,6).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3199, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate self-esteem, the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other substances in outsourced workers of a public university. METHOD: a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study developed with 316 outsourced workers from a municipality in the Southeast of Brazil. Data was collected through a characterization tool, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and logistic regression. RESULTS: the majority of workers had high self-esteem and some used alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. A significant association between gender, age group and work shift with self-esteem; between the risk of developing problems related to alcohol consumption with sex, age group, marital status, religious belief and number of children; between the practice of physical activity and the risk of developing problems related to the consumption of tobacco products was found. CONCLUSION: this study contributes to the increase of knowledge due to the small number of researches involving this subject and to contribute to the nurses to have subsidies to work with this population using strategies to combat the triggers of psychic disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Serviços Terceirizados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547351

RESUMO

Policy at the local level is a critical component of comprehensive tobacco control programs. This study examined the relationships of individual and social factors with support for tobacco-related public policy using cross-sectional data (n = 4461) from adults participating in a statewide survey. Weighted multivariate, multinomial logistic regression examined associations between individual and social factors and support for tobacco-free city properties and support for limiting the number of stores that sell tobacco near schools. Oklahomans were more likely to favor policies that create tobacco-free city properties than policies that limit the number of stores that sell tobacco near schools. While non-smokers were most likely to favor both policies, support for both policies was greater than 50% among current smokers. Knowledge of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harm and female gender were predictors of support for both policies and among current, former, and never smokers. Rural-urban status was a predictor of support among former smokers and never smokers. Tobacco use among friends and family was only a predictor among never smokers' support for limiting the sale of tobacco near schools. This study demonstrates that level of support differs by policy type, individual smoking status, as well as among subpopulations, and identifies critical elements in the theory of change for tobacco control programs.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438550

RESUMO

Prior research explored reasons for tobacco use among pregnant Alaska Native (AN) women but did not address the postpartum period. This study followed up with AN women one to three years postpartum who had participated in a prenatal smoking cessation intervention study (Motivate Alaska Women (MAW) Phase 3) and had consented to be re-contacted for future studies. Of 47 eligible women, 32 (68%) participated. A semi-structured phone interview was conducted a mean of 2.0 years after delivery (range 1.6-2.8). Measures assessed self-reported tobacco use status in the 12 months after delivery, at 12 months postpartum, and at the time of the interview; reasons for maintaining abstinence, continued use, or relapse; and included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Negative Affect (NA) scale. Content analysis was used to generate themes from open-ended response items. Tobacco use was reported by 23 women (72%) at delivery, 30 (94%) within the 12 months after delivery, 27 (84%) at 12 months postpartum, and 29 (91%) at the time of the interview. Among nine women not using tobacco at delivery, seven (78%) relapsed during the 12 months after delivery. Of the 29 current tobacco users, 28 (97%) smoked cigarettes. Twenty-seven participants (84%) reported stress and 15 (52%) indicated addiction as reasons for continuing, starting, or resuming tobacco use. Types of stressors were related to parenting and traumatic experiences. Among current tobacco users, mean NA score (18.7) was significantly higher (p = 0.01) than the normative mean (14.8), but no differences were detected for PSS score. In this sample of AN women, postpartum tobacco use was highly prevalent, and stress was a primary reason that women endorsed for using tobacco. These preliminary results have several practice and research implications for exploring ways to support non-tobacco use among postpartum AN women.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Alaska , Feminino , Humanos , Percepção , Recidiva , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking is one of the health risk factors most associated with population morbidity and mortality. In Spain, legal restrictions have been introduced for the use of tobacco. The objective of this study was to analyse the smoking prevalence in Spain during the period 2009-2017, following the implementation of these legal restrictions, and the relationship and evolution between smoking and other health-related lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analyzed data in 2019 from the European Health Survey in Spain 2009 and National Health Surveys of Spain 2012 and 2017. Smoking, selfperceived health status, weight status and other health-related lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, vegetable intake, fruit intake and alcohol use). A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to obtain the odds ratio adjusted to sex and age ("odds ratio" and 95% confidence interval). RESULTS: Smoking decreased by 3.13% during 2009-2012, and by 4.81% during 2009-2017. Smoking population presenting 2 or 3 risk factors in 2009 was OR=1.17 (1.08-1.26), p<0.0001, in 2012 OR=1.23 (1.12-1, 34), p<0.0001, and in 2017 OR=1.32 (1.21-1.44), p<0.0001. For 4 or 5 risk factors it was in 2009 OR=1.51 (1.31-1.74), p<0.0001, in 2012 OR=1.60 (1.42-1.81), p <0.0001, and in 2017 OR=1.70 (1.51-1.92), p <0.0001. For ex-smokers, the probability of presenting 2 or 3 risk factors in 2009 is not significant, in 2012 OR=0.88 (0.80-0.98), p = 0.013, and in 2017 it is not significant. In the case of 4 or 5 risk factors in 2009 it is not significant, in 2012 OR=0.86 (0.75-1.00), p = 0.045, and in 2017 OR=1.15 (1.02 -1.30), p =0.028. CONCLUSIONS: There is a decrease in the smoking population in Spain during 2009-2017. People who smoke have also an unhealthy lifestyle. People who smoke presented a greater number of health-related risk factors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120972

RESUMO

Understanding which tobacco products adolescents use first can lead to insights for tobacco prevention interventions and policies. We used cross-sectional data from high school students who reported ever using a tobacco product from the 2017 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1,053). In multivariable regressions, we examined how demographic and psychosocial factors were associated with adolescents' first product tried and how first product tried was associated with current tobacco use (i.e., no use, use of a single product, use of multiple products) and frequency of tobacco use. Cigarettes (34.8%) and e-cigarettes (33.7%) were the most frequently reported first products tried, followed by cigars (15.6%), smokeless tobacco (10.7%), waterpipe (4.0%), and other tobacco products (i.e., pipe tobacco or some other tobacco product) (1.2%). Demographic differences in adolescents' first product tried existed, with Black adolescents having higher odds of initiating tobacco use via cigars (aOR: 6.17, 95% CI: 3.75, 10.14). Adolescents who initiated tobacco use via cigars (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.31, 4.13) or smokeless tobacco (aOR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.04) had higher odds of being a multiple current tobacco product user, whereas adolescents who initiated tobacco use via e-cigarettes (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93) had lower odds of being a multiple current tobacco product user. Additionally, adolescents who initiated tobacco use via smokeless tobacco had higher odds of currently using at least one tobacco product frequently (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.48), while adolescents who initiated tobacco use via e-cigarettes had lower odds of currently using at least one tobacco product frequently (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.70). These findings suggest that most adolescents reported initiating tobacco use via cigarettes or e-cigarettes and that trying certain products first (e.g., cigars, smokeless tobacco) was associated with higher odds of multiple current tobacco product use.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fumar/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(6): 873-884, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the status of tobacco and marijuana as two of the most commonly used substances in the U.S., both have detrimental health and social consequences for disfranchized African-Americans. Substance use may be shaped by social contextual influences from families and peers in African-American communities, and little research has examined perceptions of wrongfulness, harms, and dangers associated with daily tobacco and marijuana use among African-American women. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the effects of African-American women's social context and substance use perceptions (wrongfulness/harmfulness/dangerousness) on daily tobacco and marijuana use. METHODS: Survey data was collected in-person from 521 African-American women. Multivariate logistic models identified the significant correlates of women's daily use of tobacco and marijuana in the past six months. RESULTS: 52.59% of participants reported daily tobacco use and 10.56% used marijuana daily. Multivariate models indicated that women were more likely to be daily tobacco users if they had a family member with a substance use problem or perceived tobacco use to be wrong, harmful, or more dangerous than marijuana. In the models with marijuana as the dependent variable, women who lived with a person who used drugs were more likely to use marijuana daily. Perceiving marijuana use as wrong or harmful to one's health was protective against daily marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings stress the need for prevention and intervention efforts for African-American women that highlight social context influences and promote greater awareness of the health risks associated with daily tobacco and marijuana use.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Meio Social , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(5): 841-851, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful deployments in combat areas are known to increase the risk of substance abuse in military personnel. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare deployment on stressful, high-intensity missions (HIMs) to deployment on low-intensity missions (LIMs) in order to understand factors associated with substance use variations across the mission. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on a one-shot self-questionnaire was performed four months after their return on two samples of male French Army service members: one returning from an HIM and one from an LIM. The questionnaire focused on tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and psychoactive medication use at three times: before, during, and after the mission. RESULTS: During an HIM, the frequency of tobacco use increased, alcohol use remained stable - although 38% declared a decrease in consumption - and illicit drug use decreased. During an LIM, tobacco and alcohol use increased, cannabis use remained stable, and only cocaine and medication use decreased. After their return, use levels among both samples reverted to values similar to those reported before the mission, except for a decrease in tobacco use observed at return from an HIM. The main factors perceived as related to variations were stress in an HIM and low cost in an LIM. Conclusions/importance: The study suggests a differential impact of deployment on substance use according to the operational intensity of the mission. Variations in use are predominant during the mission with a washout effect after returning home.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 28, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No study has examined the prevalence of tobacco, other substance use, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and rates of comorbidities among the orthopaedic trauma population, despite the impact they have on recovery from surgery. This study aims to 1) describe the rates of symptoms and substance use; 2) compare rates of symptoms and substance use among smokers versus non-smokers; and 3) examine the relationship between symptoms and substance use with smoking status. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of orthopaedic trauma patients was conducted in two Australian public hospitals. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, recent cannabis use, and symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were examined. Differences between current and non-smokers were compared using Pearson Chi2 tests. Multivariate logistic regression explored variables related to tobacco smoking. RESULTS: Eight hundred nineteen patients participated. Over one-fifth (21.8%) identified as a current smoker, half (51.8%) reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels in the last 12 months, and about 10% stated that they had used cannabis in the last 30 days (9.7%), or experienced symptoms of either anxiety (12.4%), or depression (12.9%) in the last two weeks. Over one-fifth of current tobacco smokers (21.8%) reported drinking heavily in the last 12 months and using cannabis recently. Males, with a lower educational attainment, who were unmarried, had used cannabis recently, and report drinking heavily were more likely to be current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Health behaviour interventions addressing comorbidities are warranted among the orthopaedic trauma population given the high rate of comorbidity and impact these may have on recovery.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/psicologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/tendências
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(3): 449-458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in tobacco use exist across regions in the United States. The Central Appalachian region carries some of the very high rates of tobacco use prevalence but research on tobacco use initiation is sparse. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intention to try tobacco and its associated factors among nonsmoking youth. METHOD: Data were obtained from school-based tobacco surveys (n = 539) conducted in 11 middle schools (6th-8th grades; aged 10-15 years) in Northeast Tennessee in 2015-2016. Nonsmoking participants without firm commitment to abstain from trying tobacco in the next year were considered to have an intention to try tobacco. The Full Information Maximum Likelihood estimation (FIML) method in Mplus was employed to conduct a multivariable logistic regression analysis to delineate correlates of intention to try tobacco. RESULTS: Overall, 20.0% of participants had intention to try tobacco. Among participants with intention to try tobacco, 53.7% owned tobacco-branded item(s), 86.1% believed that tobacco users have more friends, and 88.9% lived with tobacco users. In the adjusted logistic model, ever use of tobacco products, home smoking rules, owning tobacco-branded item(s), living with tobacco users, believing that tobacco users have more friends, and perception of easy access to tobacco products were significantly associated with intention to try tobacco (p < .02). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that individual, interpersonal, and community level factors influence intention to try tobacco in this environment where tobacco pre-emption laws impede development of local tobacco control policies and regulations. Thus, efforts should focus on tobacco use initiation preventive programs, including school-based tobacco control programs.


Assuntos
Intenção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
11.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 140-147, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181033

RESUMO

Este estudio trata de determinar cuáles son las prácticas habituales en relación a la participación en actividades físicas y deportivas junto con el consumo de sustancias nocivas en adolescentes. Se realizó un diseño descriptivo correlacional transversal. Participaron en el estudio 1140 sujetos (edad: 18.75 ± 6.35 años; género: masculino 46.7%, femenino 53.3%), de los cuales 790 eran universitarios y 350 no universitarios en la comunidad de Castilla-La Mancha (España). Se utilizó el Cuestionario de Evaluación de los Hábitos relacionados con la Salud (Gil Madrona, González Villora, Pastor Vicedo, y Fernández Bustos, 2010). El análisis descriptivo reveló que un alto porcentaje no practica actividad física de forma regular. El análisis inferencial marcó valores estadísticamente significativos en la relación entre los hábitos de práctica de actividad física y aquellos relacionados con el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y/o drogas. Se concluye por tanto la necesidad de programas que fomenten la práctica de actividad física


This research attempts to determine which are the common practices related to the participation in sport and physical activities within the consumption of harmful substances in adolescents. A descriptive, correlational and transversal design was performed. A total of 1,140 subjects participated in the study (Mean age: 18.75 ± 6.35 years old; gender: male 46.7%, female 53.3%), of wich 790 were undergraduates and 350 non-undergraduates from the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). It was used the Evaluation Questionnaire of the Habits related to the Health (Gil-Madrona, González-Víllora, Pastor-Vicedo, & Fernández-Bustos, 2010). Descriptive analysis revealed that a high percentage of adolescents do not practice sport regularly. The differential analysis showed significant statistical values which relates the sport habit with the tobacco, alcohol and/or drugs consumption. It was concluded that the design and development of programmes which foster physical activity are a need


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Exercício/psicologia
13.
Scand J Public Health ; 47(4): 439-445, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671371

RESUMO

AIMS: Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence. METHODS: The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
14.
Tob Control ; 28(2): 220-226, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India. We used in-class self-administered questionnaires of high school students, face-to-face interviews with tobacco vendors and compliance checks of tobacco POS environments. Logistic regression models with adjustments for clustering were used to measure associations between student tobacco use, psychological risk factors and tobacco POS compliance. RESULTS: Compliance with POS laws was low overall and was associated with lower risk of student current tobacco use (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.91) and current smokeless tobacco use (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77), when controlling for student-level and community-level tobacco use risk factors. Compliance was not associated with student intention to use tobacco (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.18) and perceived ease of access to tobacco (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Improving vendor compliance with tobacco POS laws may reduce student tobacco use. Future studies should test strategies to improve compliance with tobacco POS laws, particularly in low-income and middle-income country settings like urban India.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 271-278, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific components of individual social capital promote or protect against substance use and whether such effects vary across the life course. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary memberships and volunteering on alcohol and tobacco consumption in age comparison. METHODS: Preregistration is accessible at https://osf.io/qhkrn/. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2015), where alcohol consumption was assessed in 2006, 2008, and 2010 and smoking was assessed at least biennially since 1998. We divided participants into three age groups (14-29, 40-50, and 65-75 years of age at baseline). To disentangle intraindividual change over time and interindividual differences (potential selection effects), we employed multilevel analysis. RESULTS: At the within level, voluntary memberships at one occasion predicted higher alcohol consumption a year later in middle-aged and older adults, but memberships had no significant longitudinal effects on smoking. Several positive effects of volunteering on alcohol and tobacco use one year later were found in males. No significant differences in the longitudinal effects between age groups or between nonpolitical and political volunteering emerged. At the between level, voluntary memberships and volunteering were usually associated with more alcohol consumption at low and moderate levels but with less smoking. DISCUSSION: Over time, voluntary memberships and volunteering in Germany appear to promote, rather than to protect against, alcohol and tobacco use. On average, more engaged individuals drink more (at moderate levels) and smoke less, which may be due to selection effects.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(3): 300-308, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young adulthood (aged 18-24) is a crucial period in the development of long-term tobacco use patterns. Tobacco advertising and promotion lead to the initiation and continuation of smoking among young adults. We examined whether vulnerability factors moderated the association between tobacco advertisement liking and tobacco use in the United States. METHODS: Analyses were conducted among 9109 US young adults in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study wave 1 (2013-14). Participants viewed 20 randomly selected sets of tobacco advertisements (five each for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco) and indicated whether they liked each ad. The outcome variables were past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use. Covariates included tobacco advertisement liking, age, sex, race or ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, poverty level, military service, and internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms. RESULTS: Liking tobacco advertisements was associated with tobacco use, and this association was particularly strong among those with lower educational attainment (cigarettes, cigars) and living below the poverty level (e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco). CONCLUSIONS: The association between tobacco advertisement liking and tobacco use was stronger among young adults with lower educational attainment and those living below the poverty level. Policies that restrict advertising exposure and promote counter-marketing messages in this population could reduce their risk. IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that liking tobacco advertisements is associated with current tobacco use among young adults, with stronger associations for vulnerable young adults (ie, lower education levels and living below the poverty level). Findings suggest a need for counter-marketing messages, policies that restrict advertising exposure, and educational interventions such as health and media literacy interventions to address the negative influences of tobacco advertisements, especially among young adults with a high school education or less and those living below the poverty level.


Assuntos
/métodos , Marketing/métodos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(5): 724-736, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have uncovered a relationship between parenting styles and the likelihood that adolescents use tobacco, alcohol or illegal drugs. OBJECTIVES: This paper extends existing research in two ways. First, we consider a longer time-frame, investigating the relationship between parenting in adolescence and substance use in adulthood. Second, we explore the pathways by which this relationship is expressed, in particular the extent to which the relationships in question are mediated by age at first use and depression. METHODS: Our analysis is based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), N = 2954, and is conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM). We consider warmth and control as distinct dimensions of parenting, as well as a typology of parenting which combines the two dimensions. RESULTS: Warmth is associated with reduced risks of problem substance use in adulthood, via reduced risks of early initiation and a lower risk of depression. Parental control also has a protective effect via reduced risks of early initiation, but this is offset by a detrimental effect on depression, particularly in the case of older adolescents. We also find that indulgent parenting is not associated with extra risk of any kind compared with the authoritative style, whereas authoritarian and neglectful styles are. Conclusions/Importance: The nexus of relationships which we uncover has implications for policy aimed at reducing substance use in the longer term, suggesting that initiatives to promote warm and responsive parenting may be most effective in reducing the risks of later substance use problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
18.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(1): 26-34, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407027

RESUMO

Outcome expectancies have been found to be predictive of substance use. While development of expectancies may be dynamic during adolescence, it is unknown whether the rate of change (slope) in substance use expectancies is a risk factor for use onset across multiple substance use domains. The present study tested the hypothesis that the slope of positive and negative alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use expectancies during mid-adolescence (9th-10th grade) would predict use onset of each respective substance during late adolescence (11th-12th grade). Data from 3,396 ethnically diverse high school students were collected across eight waves of assessment and analyzed within a latent growth modeling framework. Results revealed that the slopes of positive substance use expectancies among never-users of each respective substance predicted increased odds of onset (Alcohol: ORB = 7.73, p < .001; Tobacco: ORB = 5.58, p < .001; Marijuana: ORB = 2.49, p = .001). Only the slope of negative marijuana expectancies predicted increased odds of onset (Marijuana: ORB = .44, p = .04). Baseline level of positive and negative substance use outcome expectancies were also generally found to be associated with onset. For three common drugs used by adolescents, change in substance use expectancies during the first two years of high school may be a marker of risk propensity for substance use onset. Change in expectancies may be an important target in substance use prevention, with research indicating that expectancy challenge and life skills interventions being potentially efficacious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(2): 271-281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterizing patterns of adolescent cannabis use (CU), as well as risk factors and outcomes uniquely associated with these pathways is essential for informing treatment and prevention efforts. Yet, few studies have examined these issues among youth at-risk of engaging in problematic cannabis use. Further, research accounting for use of other substances or sex differences in patterns of CU remains exceedingly sparse. METHODS: Trajectory-based modeling was used to identify underlying CU pathways among a predominantly Hispanic (90%) sample of at-risk youth (n = 401; 46% female) across adolescence (ages∼14-18), controlling for baseline substance use and participant demographics. Adolescent psychopathology (i.e., conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and depression) was examined as a predictor and outcome of CU. RESULTS: Three trajectories of adolescent CU were identified, with most youth (74%) engaging in relatively "low" levels of use, followed by ∼12% exhibiting an early-initiating "chronic" course, and 14% "escalating" in use. Although boys and girls both experienced increased levels of CU across adolescence, boys were more likely to exhibit escalating and chronic patterns of use. Findings revealed unique associations between adolescent CU pathways and facets of psychopathology; most notably, the relatively robust and bidirectional association between CU trajectories and conduct problem symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Specific facets of psychopathology may confer unique associations with CU across development, including the initiation and exacerbation of CU during adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 121-127, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the longitudinal patterns of amphetamine use over twenty years from adolescence to the mid-thirties; and identify adolescent antecedents of future problematic patterns of use. DESIGN: Ten-wave longitudinal study following participants from age 15 to age 35 in Victoria, Australia. Participants (N = 1755; 47% males) first enrolled in the Victoria Adolescent Health Cohort Study in 1992. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome: Self-reported frequency of amphetamine use. PREDICTORS: Gender, depression and anxiety, peer alcohol and tobacco use; self-reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, self-reported adolescent antisocial behavior. FINDINGS: Three different longitudinal patterns were identified: Non-user (83.7%); Occasional user (14.5%); Regular user (1.8%). Among the two user patterns, amphetamine use was commonly initiated in late teenage years or early 20s, peaked at mid-20s, and declined substantially by mid-30s. Participants who used cannabis and had smoking peers during adolescence were at significantly more likely to become an occasional or regular user (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Regular cannabis use and peer tobacco use during adolescence were the two strongest predictors of a longitudinal pattern of regular amphetamine use in the mid-30s. This suggests that prevention programs could be implemented around or before mid-adolescence and interventions to reduce amphetamine harms focus on high-risk individuals in their 20s when amphetamine use was at its peak.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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