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1.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535364

RESUMO

The study was conducted to assess the performance of improved and traditional cookstoves using wood as a fuel and three combinations of other fuel mixes - (i) wood and cow dung, (ii) wood and mustard stalks, and (iii) cow dung and mustard stalks). Energy and emission parameters such as specific energy consumption (SEC), emission factors (EFs) of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) were used to compare four different types of cookstoves. These included top-feed forced draft (TF-FD), top-feed natural draft (TF-ND), front-feed natural draft (FF-ND) and front-feed traditional (FF-TR) cookstoves. Controlled cooking test (CCT) was used as the test protocol. The results showed the performance of improved cookstove technologies can vary based on the fuel used for cooking. It was observed that emission factors for PM and CO increased by 67-96% and 45-90% respectively when all three improved cookstoves were tested with three fuel combinations against wood as cooking fuel. Among the tested cookstoves, a marked difference was observed between performance of forced draft and natural draft cookstoves. Forced draft cookstoves emitted higher amount of all pollutant emissions compared to natural draft cookstoves when used with mustard stalks in combination with either wood or cowdung. The results are of critical importance given that forced draft cookstoves have been promoted in geographical regions where fuel mix use is prevalent. Therefore, forced draft cookstove might not be the right choice when the goal is climate mitigation and reduction in impact on human health. It is imperative to study comprehensively the influence of various field variables on performance of cookstoves, which have severe implications on the performance of cookstoves.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Culinária/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem , Tecnologia , Madeira/química
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138649, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334224

RESUMO

Biofuel stoves are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions, which have adverse effects on the environment and human health, especially in rural areas. However, there have been only limited studies of BC emissions from residential biofuel stoves based on real-time measurements. In this study, a photo-acoustic extinctiometer (PAX)-based real-time measurement system was employed to monitor the emission characteristics of corncobs, corn stalks, cotton stalks and poplar branches in simple or improved stoves (with a total of 16 units) in Hebei Province, China. The real-time and phased emissions of BC, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were assessed, and the effects of stove type and fuel on emissions were analyzed. Under the same conditions, polar branches were associated with the highest BC emission factors (EFs) of up to 2.64 ± 0.42 g kg-1, while the EFs for improved stoves were higher than those for simple stoves. During the ignition phase, BC emissions were found to be low, while the later addition of fuel dramatically increased emissions, followed by a gradual decrease until the next fuel addition. The phased results show that the flaming phase had the highest BC emission rate, the fuel addition phase was associated with the highest BC EF. The BC emission rates and EFs for the ignition, fuel addition, flaming and smoldering phases ranged from 0.0014-0.014, 0.11-6.32, 0.18-2.24 and 0.03-0.32 mg s-1, and from 0.04-0.18, 0.38-9.53, 0.45-3.55 and 0.12-1.01 g kg-1, respectively. This study assessed the BC emissions from residential biofuel stoves using a larger sample size than in prior work. The results increase our understanding of the BC emissions process, which is helpful in terms of improving the accuracy of BC EF estimations. The real-time measurement process described herein is also expected to provide new approaches to minimizing BC emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Utensílios Domésticos , Biocombustíveis , China , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Waste Manag ; 107: 285-293, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330828

RESUMO

LED lamps have already conquered the market of general lighting. This new product will generate a substantial flow of e-waste requiring studies for the correct management, especially concerning recycling alternatives. This study proposes a material characterization of all the tubular and bulb LED lamp components (carcass, LEDs, printed circuit board and LED module). After manual disassembling, polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the metals by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and acid leaching followed by ICP-OES analysis. By the novelty of separating and characterizing the LED lamp's components, a process which has not yet been studied, the results allow for a better interpretation of the different materials distribution within the lamps which is essential to improve the efficiency of a recycling route. To exemplify, the element gallium, which has a recycling appeal from the LEDs, is present in a larger quantity in the printed circuit boards. The study also provides an analysis of the materials recycling rates and economic values, and the comparison with the concentration of natural ores. Thus, it was possible to discuss about target components and materials and the recycling alternatives for each component. LED lamps contain interesting materials, with even higher concentrations than natural ores, such as gold, silver, copper, aluminum, tin and gallium. If recycled, tubular lamps and bulb lamps would have the economic recovery of USD 2405.99 and USD 2595.02 per ton, respectively. The gold was found to be the most valuable material, and the LEDs the most valuable component of the LED lamps.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Gálio , Utensílios Domésticos , Cobre , Iluminação , Reciclagem
4.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126489, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213374

RESUMO

Household coal combustion is identified to be the second largest emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in China. In this study, ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) was used as a coal burning additive to reduce PAHs emission from coal combustion in a household coal stove. The results showed that Fe3O4 participated in the coal combustion process. The addition of Fe3O4 reduced the release of PAHs during the coal combustion process, and could improve the residence capacity of ash residue to these PAHs. Toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of PAHs in flue gas from combustion of coal mixed with Fe3O4 was less than that from the raw coal combustion. For a typical combustion temperature of 850 °C, the TEQ of PAHs for the mixture of coal and 2.0 wt% Fe3O4 decreased 21.98% compared to that for the raw coal. The abundant active surface oxygen species originated from the phase transformation of iron oxides probably accelerated the cracking of PAHs, and hence led to the reduction of PAH emissions and their TEQ. The study could help to develop new technology for reduction of PAHs emission from household coal combustion.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Férricos/química , Utensílios Domésticos , Óxidos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Temperatura
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137696, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182464

RESUMO

Residential coals are still inevitable using in developing areas in China. Clean coal briquettes, normally using alkaline substance such as lime or red mud (RM) as the additive, were helpful in pollution emission reduction even without changes of stoves. Studies of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission characteristics from RM clear coal combustion were limited. In this study, emission factors (EFs), sources profiles, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 were investigated for raw coal chunks and clean coal (with red mud) through combustion experiments. EFs of total PAHs were found to be 160.1 ± 100.9 mg·kg-1 and 19.4 ± 6.1 mg·kg-1 for bituminous and anthracite raw coal chunks (B-C and A-C), respectively. EFs values were highest for parent PAHs (p-PAHs), followed by oxygenated PAHs (o-PAHs), alkylated PAHs (a-PAHs), and nitro PAHs (n-PAHs). EFs of p-PAHs account for 80% and 52% of total PAHs emissions for B-C and A-C, respectively, while those for o-PAHs are 22.9% and 44.9%, demonstrating residential coal combustion as a significant primary source for p-PAHs and o-PAHs. Clean coals were developed through cold-press technology with red mud (RM) as additive, and clean coals with RM contents of 10% are referred to as B-10% (bituminous) and A-10% (anthracite). Compared to raw coals chunks, EFs were reduced from 128.1, 2.5, 29.3 mg·kg-1 and 161.8 µg·kg-1 to 83.5, 1.3, 16.4 mg·kg-1 and 102.2 µg·kg-1 by B-10%, and from 10.1, 0.6, 8.7 mg·kg-1 and 20.6 µg·kg-1 to 11.9, 0.2, 2.4 mg·kg-1 and 15.3 µg·kg-1 by A-10% for p-PAHs, o-PAHs, a-PAHs and n-PAHs, respectively. Diagnostic ratios of 5-Nitroacenaphthene / Acenaphthene (0.02-0.05 for coal, 0.0002 for biomass) can be used to separate residential coal and biomass burning in source analysis. When B-C was replaced by B-10%, both noncancer (0.58 to 0.33 for male, 1.65 to 0.95 for female in hazard quotient) and cancer risks (5.68 × 10-4 to 2.73 × 10-4 for male, 2.63 × 10-3 to 1.27 × 10-3 for female) can be reduced. o-PAHs should be paid more attention because of its high cancer risks caused by 6H-Benzo(C,D)Pyrene-6-One (1.74 × 10-5 for male, 8.07 × 10-5 for female), which are even more than the total risks caused by n-PAHs (3.59 × 10-7 for male, 1.66 × 10-6 for female). Results from this study highlighted the environment and health effects of PAHs originated from residential coal combustion, and proposed an effective way by using clean coal to alleviate the associated negative impacts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176707

RESUMO

Despite the considerable potential of low-flow showerheads to reduce household energy demand, their widespread implementation is still far from being realised. In this study, we compare the joint effect of a contextually embedded intervention in a public swimming pool to promote low-flow showerheads coupled with a mass campaign by a Swiss city's utility to the stand-alone effect of the mass campaign. We also explore the factors that influence the outcome of the contextually embedded intervention. The quasi-experimental design of the study was possible due to the co-occurring installation of low-flow showerheads in a local public swimming pool and a campaign of a local utility, which offered low-flow showerheads for domestic use at a substantially reduced price. Our findings showed that the combined intervention was substantially more effective than the mass campaign alone. However, this result has to be interpreted with caution owing to the imperfect comparability of the two campaigns. Based on a survey of 402 swimming pool visitors, the study findings demonstrate the crucial role of a positive direct experience in the promotion of low-flow showerheads. This had a significant positive impact on attitudes towards low-flow showerheads, which in turn was found to be the most important determinant of purchase intention. The results suggest that more active communication of energy efficiency measures in public facilities might contribute to reductions in household energy use. Such campaigns can be used to share experiences of energy efficiency technologies and, therefore, promote the use of similar systems at home.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Utensílios Domésticos , Reologia , Atitude , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Natação , Suíça
9.
Indoor Air ; 30(3): 521-533, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943353

RESUMO

Monitoring improved cookstove adoption and usage in developing countries can help anticipate potential health and environmental benefits that may result from household energy interventions. This study explores stove-usage monitor (SUM)-derived usage data from field studies in China (52 stoves, 1422 monitoring days), Honduras (270 stoves, 630 monitoring days), India (19 stoves, 565 monitoring days), and Uganda (38 stoves, 1007 monitoring days). Traditional stove usage was found to be generally similar among four seemingly disparate countries in terms of cooking habits, with average usage of between 171 and 257 minutes per day for the most-used stoves. In Honduras, where survey-based usage data were also collected, there was only modest agreement between sensor data and self-reported user data. For Indian homes, we combined stove-usage data with a single-zone Monte Carlo box model to estimate kitchen-level PM2.5 and CO concentrations under various scenarios of cleaner cookstove adoption. We defined clean cookstove performance based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) voluntary guidelines. Model results showed that even with 75% displacement of traditional stoves with the cleanest available stove (ISO tier-5), World Health Organization 24 hours PM2.5 standards were exceeded in 96.4% of model runs, underscoring the importance of full displacement.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Culinária , China , Características da Família , Honduras , Utensílios Domésticos , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Índia , Material Particulado , População Rural , Uganda
10.
Waste Manag ; 104: 20-32, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958662

RESUMO

Direct use of waste oil as fuel to meet the residential energy demands, is very attractive due to its potentials to decrease fossil fuel consumption, reduce pollution and increase sustainability. This paper uses a domestic stove with an internal heat re-circulation and self-atomization technology to burn yellow waste cooking oil (WCO-1), brown waste cooking oil (WCO-2) and waste lubricant oil (WLO). Emission factors (EFs), energy efficiency and modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of this combined fuel/stove system were determined under space-heating and cooking modes. The results showed that EFs of CO, PM2.5, total 16 PAHs and corresponding toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values ranged from 2.18 × 103 to 4.90 × 103 mg/MJnet, 16.36-69.40 mg/MJnet, 2.39-12.93 µg/MJnet and 0.16-0.92 µg of TEQ/MJnet. WCO-1 was verified to be the cleanest fuel with the highest energy efficiency (85.3 ± 3.3% and 90.4 ± 2.2%) and lowest emission levels, such as NO (53.75 ± 2.62 and 37.09 ± 5.41 mg/MJnet), NO2 (82.40 ± 3.96 and 56.87 ± 8.29 mg/MJnet) and PM2.5 (20.94 ± 6.55 and 16.35 ± 5.06 mg/MJnet) compared to WCO-2 and WLO. The estimated total cost of using waste oil for each household in winter was much cheaper than some current available clean energy means, including only USD$ 400 of stove price and USD$ 250/ton of fuel per year. It is a promising candidate choice for replacing low-quality solid fuels in rural China and 2.62 million rural households would achieve environmental and economic benefits if promoting direct combustion of waste oil for daily heating and cooking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Utensílios Domésticos , China , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Material Particulado
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 4640-4660, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889274

RESUMO

Studies show that user behaviours have not necessarily changed, despite the prevalence of water-efficient products in the market. One reason is because the technical emphasis for delivering the water use efficiency of products has focused on reducing the flow rate. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the physical parameters that define the technical efficiency of showerheads against the experiential performance (and therefore the satisfaction with the showerheads). These parameters were measured in a controlled laboratory environment and the findings were triangulated against user feedback from in-home trials. Synergies between the laboratory data and user feedback were found. Notably, it was found that water spray intensity, distribution, and temperature loss all impact the quality of showering experience. These factors also influence shower duration-and thus the volume of water used in the shower. Significantly, these technical metrics affected the overall experiential performance of such products from the users' perspective. Therefore, the design of water-efficient showerheads, in addition to delivering water discharge savings, should avoid poor spray distribution, intensity, and heat retention. The implications of the findings are that water efficiency labelling and product standards should extend beyond the emphasis on limiting the flow rates-typically to 9 l per min for showerheads. This study shows good merit for including the spray intensity (pressure), distribution, and degree of heat loss, in addition to the discharge rate, as part of the performance and efficiency considerations of showerheads.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Temperatura , Água , Utensílios Domésticos , Higiene
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(5): 1324-1338, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872930

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop a method that is able to determine the microbial reduction in different dishwasher cleaning cycles and differentiate between different program parameters used. METHODS AND RESULTS: Stainless steel biomonitors were contaminated with Micrococcus luteus or Entereococcus faecium and cleaned in a specially programmed household dishwasher with different cleaning temperatures and durations. No detergent, bleach-free detergent or detergent containing activated oxygen bleach was used. The logarithmic reduction (LR) was determined. The microbial reduction depended on the cleaning temperature, the duration of the cleaning cycles and the detergent type used. LR increased with higher temperatures, longer cleaning cycles and use of detergent. CONCLUSIONS: The factors cleaning cycle temperature, cleaning cycle duration, final rinsing temperature and the use of detergent all contributed to the reduction of test-strains in dishwasher cycles. A combination of longer dishwashing cycles and increased temperatures resulted in LRmax of the microbial load. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Cycles in domestic appliances are very diverse; therefore a standardized method to determine their ability to reduce the microbial load is of great use. The method described here is able to demonstrate the reductions achieved by dishwashing cycles with different parameters and might help to find the necessary balance between energy saving and an acceptable level of hygiene.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Utensílios Domésticos/normas , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária/normas , Detergentes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/normas , Higiene/normas , Aço Inoxidável , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Waste Manag ; 101: 188-199, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622864

RESUMO

The scope of this paper is to identify the benefits of lamp recycling from the domestic sector. Data related to the recycled lamps was obtained from two recycling companies and were compared to those related to the waste lamps from the domestic sector. This was achieved by a new methodology which uses two alternative approaches. The first one is dependent on previous research data in relation to the number of active lamps while the second one elaborates on electricity consumption and sales data, in order to define the corresponding number of active lamps., The wasted amount of glass, metal and plastic is calculated along with the energy savings, the annual emissions of CO2-eq, the economic benefit from their sale and the potential reduction of hazardous waste, such as mercury to solid waste landfills under various scenarios. The amount of recovered materials collected by the Hellenic recycling companies contributes to a reduction of CO2-eq by 1298 tonnes, which falls significantly short of the CO2-eq that could have been saved 3108-5463tonnes if all the lamps were recycled. Furthermore, the recycling companies have an annual economic benefit of €32,251 which could be increased by €122,725 if all lamps were recycled together with the proper recycling of 3.4 kg of mercury, which was disposed in the environment. Finally, a future scenario was examined, in which all lamps in the domestic sector were assumed to be LEDs, an issue that can affect the viability of the recycling factories and it was proved that these might be affected.


Assuntos
Utensílios Domésticos , Mercúrio , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos Perigosos , Iluminação , Reciclagem
14.
Indoor Air ; 30(2): 294-305, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880849

RESUMO

Biomass combustion for cooking and heating releases particulate matter (PM2.5 ) that contributes to household air pollution. Fuel and stove types affect the chemical composition of household PM, as does infiltration of outdoor PM. Characterization of these impacts can inform future exposure assessments and epidemiologic studies, but is currently limited. In this study, we measured chemical components of PM2.5 (water-soluble organic matter [WSOM], ions, black carbon, elements, organic tracers) in rural Chinese households using traditional biomass stoves, semi-gasifier stoves with pelletized biomass, and/or non-biomass stoves. We distinguished households using one stove type (traditional, semi-gasifier, or LPG/electric) from those using multiple stoves/fuels. WSOM concentrations were higher in households using only semi-gasifier or traditional stoves (31%-33%) than in those with exclusive LPG/electric stove (13%) or mixed stove use (12%-22%). Inorganic ions comprised 14% of PM in exclusive LPG/electric households, compared to 1%-5% of PM in households using biomass. Total PAH content was much higher in households that used traditional stoves (0.8-2.8 mg/g PM) compared to those that did not (0.1-0.3 mg/g PM). Source apportionment revealed that biomass burning comprised 27%-84% of PM2.5 in households using biomass. In all samples, identified outdoor sources (vehicles, dust, coal combustion, secondary aerosol) contributed 10%-20% of household PM2.5 .


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Calefação , Utensílios Domésticos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural , Fuligem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 3.6 billion people rely on solid fuels for cooking over open fires or in simple cookstoves. Universal access to clean cooking fuels and technology by 2030 is a United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal. METHODS: The Mediae Company created a home makeover television and radio show, Shamba Chef, designed to promote modern, cleaner, safer cooking methods and improved nutrition in Kenya, which reached 5 million homes in late 2017. This was accompanied by a mobile phone platform called iChef. Researchers evaluated the effects of Shamba Chef on cookstove purchase, use, and attitudes, beliefs, and intentions. RESULTS: The study revealed dose-response effects of Shamba Chef exposure on several key outcomes. Exposure to the program was associated with an awareness of improved biomass stoves (OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.8 to 6.9), and aspirations to own an improved biomass stove (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9). Receiving information about modern stoves from two or more sources generated greater awareness of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1). The qualitative study revealed that Shamba Chef explained how the stoves worked, communicated their benefits, and encouraged participants to trust and purchase those cookstoves. CONCLUSION: Shamba Chef was successful in influencing determinants of cookstove purchase and use, and there is evidence from the qualitative study that it influenced the purchase and use of improved biomass stoves.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária/métodos , Utensílios Domésticos , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Fogo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Quênia , Ciências da Nutrição , Tecnologia , Televisão
16.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(4): 415-426, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675350

RESUMO

Background This review intends to explore the household hazardous waste (HHW) generation rates, HHW management, and people's awareness regarding HHW in Asian countries based on the economic levels using the available published articles. Methods This is a systematic review of the scientific literature based on several databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, Sage Journals, and Elsevier's Science Direct from 2008 to 2018. Results HHW generation rates in various Asian cities do not seem to be influenced by the countries' financial status, except for e-waste. The variety in HHW generation rates among Asian countries might be due to various reasons, which include differences in (1) sampling frame/locations; (2) sampling size; (3) study duration; (4) seasons; (5) study year; and (6) HHW definition/composition. Governmental intervention programs on HHW management have been implemented in some of the Asian countries, mostly in high and upper-middle income groups although misconducts are still found. There is a tendency for economically developed countries to ship their e-waste to less-developed countries, where the system relies heavily on the informal sectors where unsafe treatments are often discovered. Low level of awareness regarding HHW risks is mostly identified in the lower-middle income group. However, even though high and upper-middle income groups have a better awareness of HHW, many people do not entirely follow the recommended practices. Conclusion The lack of enforced regulation and proper treatment infrastructure may lead to HHW being mixed with general household waste, which is found in many Asian countries, despite their income levels. In addition, a good awareness of HHW does not guarantee proper handling of it.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Utensílios Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Ásia , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113338, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610506

RESUMO

Biomass is a dominant solid fuel type worldwide. Traditional biomass combustion leads to severe indoor and ambient environmental problems. Biomass pellet utilization in forced-draft gasifier stoves is regarded as an improved approach to these problems. Previous studies on forced-draft biomass stoves mainly considered average emission amounts and lacked details of the combustion properties and dynamic correlations between emissions and combustion. This study used a dynamic measurement system to test a typical forced-draft gasifier stove consuming wood pellets and maize straw pellets. Real-time fuel burning rate, that partly reflects the combustion performance, and CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates, over a whole combustion course, were monitored. In all tests, the burning rate rose to a high and stable level, and then sharply subsided. CO, NOx and PM2.5 emission rates varied across the combustion course. CO (NOx) emissions have a negative (positive) logarithmic linear relationship with burning rate, while no consistent relationship was observed for PM2.5 emission rate. The identified relationships between burning rate and pollutant emission rates suggest the possibility of estimating emission performance of forced-draft biomass pellet stoves based on combustion indicators, or vice versa.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Calefação/instrumentação , Utensílios Domésticos , Madeira/química
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547192

RESUMO

This paper studies a topic in the triangle of environment, development and health-the effectiveness of the improved cooking solution. While a range of improved cook-stoves (ICS) is available in the market, since decades with a number of new entrants from recent years, adoption is still low in many developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, also because stove performance is sometimes found to be deficient. However, in Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, few improved cook-stove interventions are on-going. Incidentally, there is little evidence on the effect of improved cook-stoves on different components of health and environmental outcomes in rural Nigeria. This study, using cross-sectional data from Cross River State, the State with the largest forest area in the country, analyzed the impacts of locally designed improved cook-stoves on the environmental and health outcomes of rural women. A sample of four hundred (400) married women was drawn from eight rural communities with the highest concentration of improved cook-stove users. The woman in-charge of cooking in each household was the respondent. Also, in each household, the household head (if different from the primary cook) was interviewed. Using inverse propensity score weighting for data analysis, we found significant fuel and time savings from the adoption of the cook-stove. However, this study found no evidence of the reduction of indoor air pollution associated diseases given stove design and users' behavior. This underscores the need to revisit the design of the stove and consider users' cooking behavior in the design.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Culinária/instrumentação , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Utensílios Domésticos , Produtos Domésticos , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Rios
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 32919-32927, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512122

RESUMO

There has been a conflicting issue in rural China that whether or not encouraging the development of medium-large-scale biogas plants (MLBPs) to reduce household biogas digesters (HBDs) will be better for China in the long run. In this study, we investigate the difference between HBD users and MLBP users and the factors that affect the biogas use of these two user types on the basis of a survey of 1125 households in four provinces in China. The results indicate that compared to HBD users, MLBP users have a higher ratio (29%) of biogas use, obtain a higher subsidy-to-cost ratio (25%), and present a more positive evaluation of biogas service (3%). For HBD users, installation years and service evaluation are significant predictors of biogas use. For MLBP users, in addition to installation years and service, the subsidy-to-cost ratio affects biogas use negatively, and the biogas price is a key constraint for biogas use. These results provide valuable insights into the future development of biogas energy in rural China and guidance for the development of biogas in similar countries worldwide.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Utensílios Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biocombustíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Características da Família , Feminino , Utensílios Domésticos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperatura
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