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1.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 48-51, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977345

RESUMO

Chikungunya is a mosquito-transmitted viral illness with clinical hallmarks of rash, fever, arthralgia, and myalgia. It is rarely fatal, although vulnerable populations, to include elderly, children, and those with multiple comorbid illnesses, are more susceptible to severe infection and death. There have been multiple areas of the world with periodic chikungunya epidemics. With increased immigration, foreign travel, epidemics, and global spread of the virus, it is prudent to consider chikungunya as a diagnosis both clinically and postmortem when a patient presents with rash, fevers, and arthralgia. We present a case of a patient with recent foreign travel, a rash, fever, and arthralgia with mosquito bites who succumbed to chikungunya viral infection with pneumonia. His diagnosis was established postmortem. A review of the literature is included in this report. This case stresses the delayed time to diagnose chikungunya with serologic testing and the importance of using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to aid in rapid and accurate diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Artralgia/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , El Salvador , Doenças Endêmicas , Exantema/patologia , Exantema/virologia , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Los Angeles , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Edema Pulmonar/virologia
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 246-251, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1047990

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento de profissionais de saúde de unidades básicas de saúde da família sobre o manejo clínico da suspeita de febre de Chikungunya. Método: realizou-se um estudo transversal com 31 profissionais de saúde de unidades básicas e saúde da família, localizadas no Município de Quixadá-Ceará, nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro de 2018. Resultados: quase todos relatam que ao avaliar sinais de gravidade, critérios de internação e grupos de risco, se o paciente não apresentar sinais de gravidade, não tiver critérios de internação e/ou condições de risco, o mesmo deve permanecer em acompanhamento ambulatorial; se o paciente for apenas do grupo de risco, o mesmo deve receber acompanhamento ambulatorial em observação; e se o paciente apresentar sinais de gravidade e/ou tiver critérios de internação, ele deve receber acompanhamento em internação. Conclusão: os profissionais de saúde possuem conhecimento satisfatório sobre o manejo clínico da doença baseado nas orientações do Ministério da Saúde


Objective: to identify the knowledge of health professionals of family health basic units on the clinical management of suspected chikungunya fever. Method: a cross-sectional study with 31 healthcare professionals of basic units and family health, located in the city of Quixadá - Ceará, in the months of January and February 2018. Results: almost all report to evaluate signs of severity, admission criteria and risk groups, if the patient does not show signs of seriousness does not meet criteria for hospitalization and risk conditions/or should stay in outpatient follow-up; If the patient is only a risk group, he/she must be referred to outpatient follow-up for observation; and if the patient shows signs of severity and/or admission criteria, he should receive follow-up in hospital. Conclusion: health professionals have satisfactory knowledge on the clinical management of the disease based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health


Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento de la salud profesionales de unidades básicas de salud de la familiaenel manejo clínico de só pecha Chikungunya fiebre. Método: estudio transversal con 31 profesionales de la salud de unidades básicas y de salud familiar, ubicado em la ciudad de Quixadá - Ceará, em los meses de enero y febrero de 2018. Resultados: informe casi todos para evaluar signos de gravedad, grupos de criterios de admisión y el riesgo, si el paciente no no mostrar signos de seriedad no tienen criterios para las condiciones de la hospitalización y el riesgo/unidad organizativa, debe mantenerse en seguimiento ambulatorio; Si el paciente es sóloel grupo de riesgo, el mismo debe recibir seguimento ambulatorio de observación; y si el paciente muestra signos de criterios de severidad y/o admisión, deben recibir seguimento em hospitalización. Conclusión: profesionales de la salud tienen conocimiento satisfactorio em el manejo clínico de la enfermedad basada en las directrices del Ministerio de Salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vírus Chikungunya , Estudos Transversais , Estratégia Saúde da Família
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721902

RESUMO

A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of Aedes mosquitoes was 283/1462 (19.4%) in March 2015 and 55/1440 (3.8%) in June 2015. In March 2015, 907 larvae/pupae were collected (583 or 64.3% of Ae. aegypti and 324 or 35.7% of Ae. albopictus) while in June 2015 there was a reduction in the number of immature forms found: 197 larvae/pupae (121 or 61.4% of Ae. aegypti and 76 or 38.6% of Ae. albopictus). This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in suspected human ZIKV cases from March to June 2015. The RT-qPCR performed in 18 pools identified that three (two of Ae. aegypti and one of Ae. albopictus) were positive for ZIKV, and none were positive for DENV or CHIKV. Our findings demonstrated that ZIKV was present in immature stages of insect vectors in the study region at least five months prior to the peak of ZIKV associated cases. Xenomonitoring of immature phases of the vectors may prove useful for predicting outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618377

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that emerged in the Americas in 2013. Infection with CHIKV is symptomatic in most of the cases and patients can develop chronic arthralgia that lasts from months to years in over 40% of the cases. The East-Central-South Africa (ECSA) genotype was introduced in Brazil in 2014, in Bahia State. Here we report the circulation of the CHIKV ECSA genotype in Piaui State, Northeast Brazil, during the years 2016-2017. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a single introduction of this lineage probably in 2015 and its maintenance at least until 2017. This analysis has also demonstrated the proximity of this genotype with isolates from neighboring States, and its partial nucleotide sequence of the viral E1 gene revealed a synapomorphy synonyms. This finding highlights the spread of the ECSA genotype in Brazil and supports its circulation in the Brazilian Northeast.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , África do Sul
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1490-1500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631794

RESUMO

In 2014, the chikungunya virus reached Colombia for the first time, resulting in a nationwide epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of suspected chikungunya cases. Chikungunya infection was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 548 patients where included in the study. Of these patients, 295 were positive for antibodies against chikungunya (53.8%), and 27.6% (151/295) were symptomatic for chikungunya infection, with a symptomatic:asymptomatic ratio of 1.04:1. Factors associated with infection included low income and low socio-economic strata (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-3.2, p = 0.003 and OR: 2.1; CI: 1.3-3.4, p = 0.002, respectively). Confirmed symptomatic cases were associated with symmetric arthritis (OR: 11.7; CI: 6.0-23.0, p < 0.001) of ankles (OR: 8.5; CI: 3.5-20.9, p < 0.001), hands (OR: 8.5; CI: 3.5-20.9, p < 0.001), feet (OR: 6.5; CI: 2.8-15.3, p < 0.001), and wrists (OR: 17.3; CI: 2.3-130.5, p < 0.001). Our study showed that poverty is associated with chikungunya infection. Public health strategies to prevent and control chikungunya should focus on poorer communities that are more vulnerable to infection. The rate of asymptomatic infections among confirmed cases was 48.8%. However, those with symptoms displayed a characteristic rheumatic clinical picture, which could help differentiate chikungunya infection from other endemic viral diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-393800

RESUMO

Título completo: Controle de Mosquitos, vetores de Arbovírus como Zika, Dengue, Febre Amarela e Chikungunya e outros com substâncias naturais extraídas de plantas brasileiras. Vídeoaula sobre "Controle de Mosquitos, vetores de Arbovírus como Zica, Dengue, Febre Amarela e Chikungunya e outros com substâncias naturais extraídas de plantas brasileiras", por Margareth Queiroz, pesquisadora titular em saúde pública do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz da Fiocruz e chefe do Laboratório de Entomologia médica e Forense, durante o evento: Colóquios da Semana Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia 2019, tem como tema "Bioeconomia: Diversidade e Riqueza para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável". Data: 16 Outubro de 2019


Assuntos
Controle de Vetores , Dengue , Zika virus , Vírus Chikungunya , Febre Amarela , Extratos Vegetais , Brasil
7.
Nature ; 574(7777): 259-263, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554973

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites and causes musculoskeletal and joint pain1,2. Despite intensive investigations, the human cellular factors that are critical for CHIKV infection remain unknown, hampering the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of anti-CHIKV therapies. Here we identified the four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1)3 as a host factor that is required for CHIKV permissiveness and pathogenesis in humans and mice. Ablation of FHL1 expression results in the inhibition of infection by several CHIKV strains and o'nyong-nyong virus, but not by other alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Conversely, expression of FHL1 promotes CHIKV infection in cells that do not normally express it. FHL1 interacts directly with the hypervariable domain of the nsP3 protein of CHIKV and is essential for the replication of viral RNA. FHL1 is highly expressed in CHIKV-target cells and is particularly abundant in muscles3,4. Dermal fibroblasts and muscle cells derived from patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy that lack functional FHL15 are resistant to CHIKV infection. Furthermore,  CHIKV infection  is undetectable in Fhl1-knockout mice. Overall, this study shows that FHL1 is a key factor expressed by the host that enables CHIKV infection and identifies the interaction between nsP3 and FHL1 as a promising target for the development of anti-CHIKV therapies.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Fatores Celulares Derivados do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fibroblastos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Fatores Celulares Derivados do Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/deficiência , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/deficiência , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mioblastos/virologia , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/patogenicidade , Ligação Proteica , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(7): 84-85, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559781

RESUMO

Chikungunya is an arboviral infection caused by Chikungunya virus, an RNA virus from Togaviridae family.1 The disease manifests as fever, rash and characteristically, with arthralgia.1 Chikungunya is strongly believed to have neurotropism but has not been well studied like other neurotropic arboviruses.2 Encephalitis appears to represent the most common clinical manifestation6 and occurs either simultaneously or within few days of onset of systemic symptoms, during the period of viremia. A delay of more than two weeks has been reported with other complications like myelitis, Guillian Barre syndrome and optic neuritis. This case describes the clinical, serological, neuroimaging and CSF findings of Chikungunya induced acute transverse myelitis in a 13 years old male patient who responded to steroid treatment. It is a relatively unknown and very rare complication of Chikungunya virus infection during outbreak of Chikungunya infection in September 2016.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Mielite Transversa , Adolescente , Artralgia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Intervirology ; 62(3-4): 145-155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When infected with the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), 3% to 28% of CHIKV-infected individuals remain asymptomatic, necessitating the development of improved high-throughput screening methods to overcome the limitations of molecular diagnostics or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). OBJECTIVE: In this study, two novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting envelope 1 (E1) of CHIKV were developed and applied in a fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) using coumarin-derived dendrimer as the fluorophore. METHODS: The performance of the FLISA was compared with that of ELISA. RESULTS: Using the two novel mAbs (2B5 and 2C8), FLISA could detect 1 × 105 PFU/mL of CHIKV, exhibiting a 2-fold lower limit of detection (LOD) compared to ELISA. The LOD of FICT corresponded to a comparative threshold value of 23.95 and 4 × 106 of RNA copy number/µL. In the presence of human sera and blood, virus detection by FLISA was 3-fold better than ELISA, with an LOD of 2 × 105 PFU/mL. Sera and blood interfered with the ELISA, resulting in 6 × 105 PFU/mL as the LOD. CONCLUSIONS: FLISA using two novel mAbs and coumarin-derived dendrimer is a superior diagnostic assay for detecting CHIKV in human sera and blood, compared to conventional ELISA.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Fluorometria/métodos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/métodos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007047, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogens causing acute fever, with the exception of malaria, remain largely unidentified in sub-Saharan Africa, given the local unavailability of diagnostic tests and the broad differential diagnosis. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study including outpatient acute undifferentiated fever in both children and adults, between November 2015 and June 2016 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests for selected arboviral infections were performed on blood, including PCR, NS1-RDT, ELISA and IFA for acute, and ELISA and IFA for past infections. RESULTS: Investigation among 342 patients, aged 2 to 68 years (mean age of 21 years), with acute undifferentiated fever (having no clear focus of infection) revealed 19 (8.1%) acute dengue-caused by DENV-1 and/or DENV-2 -and 2 (0.9%) acute chikungunya infections. Furthermore, 30.2% and 26.4% of participants had been infected in the past with dengue and chikungunya, respectively. We found no evidence of acute Zika nor yellow fever virus infections. 45.3% of patients tested positive on malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test, 87.7% received antimalarial treatment and 64.3% received antibacterial treatment. DISCUSSION: Chikungunya outbreaks have been reported in the study area in the past, so the high seroprevalence is not surprising. However, scarce evidence exists on dengue transmission in Kinshasa and based on our data, circulation is more important than previously reported. Furthermore, our study shows that the prescription of antibiotics, both antibacterial and antimalarial drugs, is rampant. Studies like this one, elucidating the causes of acute fever, may lead to a more considerate and rigorous use of antibiotics. This will not only stem the ever-increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, but will-ultimately and hopefully-improve the clinical care of outpatients in low-resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02656862.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Dengue/diagnóstico , Febre/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007703, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483794

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging, pathogenic alphavirus that is transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. mosquitoes-causing fever and debilitating joint pain, with frequent long-term health implications and high morbidity. The CHIKV lifecycle is poorly understood and specific antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are lacking. In this study, we investigated the role of host-cell chloride (Cl-) channels on CHIKV replication.We demonstrate that specific pharmacological Cl- channel inhibitors significantly inhibit CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that Cl-channels are pro-viral factors in human cells. Further analysis of the effect of the inhibitors on CHIKV attachment, entry, viral protein expression and replicon replication demonstrated that Cl- channels are specifically required for efficient CHIKV genome replication. This was conserved in mosquito cells, where CHIKV replication and genome copy number was significantly reduced following Cl- channel inhibition. siRNA silencing identified chloride intracellular channels 1 and 4 (CLIC1 and CLIC4, respectively) as required for efficient CHIKV replication and protein affinity chromatography showed low levels of CLIC1 in complex with CHIKV nsP3, an essential component of the viral replication machinery. In summary, for the first time we demonstrate that efficient replication of the CHIKV genome depends on cellular Cl- channels, in both human and mosquito cells and identifies CLIC1 and CLIC4 as agonists of CHIKV replication in human cells. We observe a modest interaction, either direct or indirect, between CLIC1 and nsP3 and hypothesize that CLIC1 may play a role in the formation/maintenance of CHIKV replication complexes. These findings advance our molecular understanding of CHIKV replication and identify potential druggable targets for the treatment and prevention of CHIKV mediated disease.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Replicação Viral , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/genética , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
13.
Phytochemistry ; 167: 112101, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473556

RESUMO

In an effort to identify inhibitors of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication, a systematic study of 594 extracts of plant species originating from the French Guiana plateau region was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Sagotia racemosa was selected for its potent antiviral activity. Using a classical bioassay-guided procedure, three undescribed degraded diterpenoids, i.e. trigohowilols C and D and trigoflavidol D, as well as trigoxyphin K, stictic acid, hyperhomosekikaic acid and five known flavonoids were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Although trigohowilols C and D were isolated from the most active fraction they didn't show any antiviral activity. By using the Feature-Based Molecular Networking (FBMN) and Network Annotation Propagation (NAP) workflows, it has been shown that the strong anti-CHIKV activity found for this fraction might be due to the presence of analogues of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), one of the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication identified to date.


Assuntos
Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Ésteres de Forbol/química , Antivirais/química , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Informática , Fenantrenos/química , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(4): 429-431, 30/09/2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023317

RESUMO

Objective: to report a rare case of a 3-month-old child with acute chikungunya infection presenting as vesiculobullous rash. Case description: herein we report a case of a 3-month-old infant which developed a diffuse erythematous rash involving the trunk and limbs within two days after sudden acute fever, and also presented striking irritability with inconsolable crying, hyporexia, cough, and coryza. Hematological and biochemical investigations were undertaken and were found to be normal. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya revealing positive IgM. He was treated with supportive therapy, mainly with antipyretics, venous hydration and rest evolving with entirely resolution of the symptoms after four days. Comments: Chikungunya fever is a disease caused by the Chikungunya virus which can be found in endemic areas such as Brazil. Atypical manifestations can affect various systems including the skin and may be more frequent in children. The role of dermatological manifestations related to Chikungunya infection is not completely understood. The reported case is an unusual case of Chikungunya infection which highlights the importance of to know and to be aware of this manifestation in children mainly in new endemic areas such as Brazil.


Objetivo: relatar o caso raro de uma criança de 3 meses de idade com infecção aguda por chikungunya apresentando-se como erupção vesiculobolhosa. Descrição do caso: aqui relatamos o caso de uma criança de 3 meses que evoluiu com erupção eritematosa difusa envolvendo tronco e membros dois dias após febre aguda repentina, além de apresentar irritabilidade marcante com choro inconsolável, hiporexia, tosse e coriza. Investigações hematológicas e bioquímicas foram realizadas e foram normais. Amostras de soro foram testadas para Chikungunya revelando IgM positiva. Ele foi tratado com terapia de suporte, principalmente com antipiréticos, hidratação venosa e descanso evoluindo com resolução completa dos sintomas após quatro dias. Comentários: a febre Chikungunya é uma doença causada pelo vírus Chikungunya, que pode ser encontrada em áreas endêmicas como o Brasil. Manifestações atípicas podem afetar vários sistemas, incluindo a pele, e podem ser mais frequentes em crianças. O papel das manifestações dermatológicas relacionadas à infecção por Chikungunya não é completamente compreendido. O caso relatado é um caso incomum de infecção por Chikungunya, que destaca a importância de conhecer e ter consciência dessa manifestação em crianças, principalmente em novas áreas endêmicas como o Brasil.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya , Febre de Chikungunya , Dermatopatias , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas , Exantema
15.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401192

RESUMO

Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the Alphavirus genus and transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of Aedes spp. Nearly 40 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas have documented chikungunya cases. Most recent severe outbreaks have occurred in Indian Ocean islands of Réunion and Mauritius and India. There is no specific drug treatment for the disease, neither is there a standardized vaccine available for prevention of the disease. The present review gives a global perspective on patents filed pertaining to chikungunya. The United States has been the top patent filing jurisdiction followed by China, Europe, and India. The patents have been classified into categories of therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines. Maximum patent documents fall under the therapeutics category, in which patent applications are predominantly related to chemically derived drugs. They include nucleic acid analogues, various other host and virus enzyme/protein inhibitors. Patents on biological or plant derived drugs are being filed relatively recently. In the category of diagnostics, immunoassay based tests seemed to be of choice until the year 2005, whereas, patent filings for molecular diagnostics have now surpassed those with immunoassay techniques. In the vaccines category, vaccines based on viral vectors appear to be emerging as the preferred vaccine platform with the majority of patents filed in the years 2014-2017. Corporate sector has the most patent filings to its credit, followed closely by academic institutions. Pasteur Institut along with Chinese Agency for Science, Technology and Research is the top patent filing entity in chikungunya related technology space. Presently, nine vaccine products, three antiviral drugs and one mRNA based gene therapy are under development. Three vaccine products have been given fast track designation by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite review and facilitate the development of a vaccine to prevent a serious or life-threatening condition and fill an unmet medical need. Similarly, one vaccine has been given PRIME (Priority Medicines) status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais , Aedes/virologia , África/epidemiologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , China , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 56(2): 111-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397386

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Oral administration of tender leaf extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla is traditionally known to prevent the chikungunya virus infection. Even with wide usage, the antiviral components in this plant are neither identified nor characterized. This study was carried out with the objectives of profiling the phytocompounds in this plant through LC-MS/MS and to identify the active antiviral constituents and their drug-likeliness through molecular docking. Methods: Phytocompounds were extracted hydro-alcoholically from powdered plant parts and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Based on mass-to-charge ratio from LC-MS/MS, compounds were identified and used as ligands for molecular docking against chikungunya target proteins. The active principles were subjected to ADME/T analysis to verify their drug-likeliness. Results: The docking results and ADME/T evaluation showed that the compounds, isovaleric acid and avicequinone- C have good interaction with the protein targets and hence could be the antiviral principles of the selected plant. These compounds presented acceptable drug properties and hence could be carried forward to in vivo studies for drug development. Interpretation & conclusion: The antiviral properties of G. pentaphylla are known since time-immemorial. This study revealed the probable interactions after the oral administration of tender leaves of Glycosmis in preventing the chikungunya virus infection and paves the path for designing future plant-based drugs.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemiterpenos/farmacologia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Rutaceae/química , Administração Oral , Descoberta de Drogas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190407, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460596

RESUMO

We review the potential of Amazon forest as a source for circulation and maintenance of native arboviruses as well its capacity to host exotic arboviruses introduced in Brazil during their process of adapting to the Amazon environment. After a brief introduction about arboviruses isolated in Amazon region and description of the main arboviruses pathogenic to humans, we highlight the history of the last two exotic viruses introduced in Brazil - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) - and their consequences to the public health. Finally, we discuss and hypothesize what will happen with them after the outbreak. We look to the past to predict the future.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Animais , Brasil , Vírus Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Humanos , Orthobunyavirus , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Zika virus
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007610, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449523

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus known to cause chronic myalgia and arthralgia with high morbidity. CHIKV is now considered endemic in many countries across Asia and Africa. In this study, the susceptibility of various human, mammalian and mosquito cell lines to CHIKV infection was evaluated. CHIKV infection was found to be cell-type dependent and virus strain-specific. Furthermore, SJCRH30 (human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line) was showed to be highly permissive to CHIKV infection, with maximum production of infectious virions observed at 12 h.p.i. Pre-infection treatment of SJCRH30 with various inhibitors of endocytosis, including monodansylcadaverine (receptor-mediated endocytic inhibitor), dynasore (clathrin-mediated endocytic inhibitor), as well as filipin (caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor), resulted in minimal inhibition of CHIKV infection. In contrast, dose-dependent inhibition of CHIKV infection was observed with the treatment of macropinocytosis inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of sortin nexin 9 (SNX9) a protein involved in macropinosome formation, also resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in viral titre. By performing a virus entry assay, CHIKV particles were also observed to colocalize with FITC-dextran, a macropinosome marker. This study shows for the first time, that the infectious entry of CHIKV into human muscle cells is mediated by macropinocytosis. Together, the data from this study may pave the way for the development of specific inhibitors that target the entry process of CHIKV into cells.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Músculos/virologia , Pinocitose/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Amilorida/análogos & derivados , Amilorida/farmacologia , Animais , Cadaverina/análogos & derivados , Cadaverina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clatrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Filipina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Cinética , Pinocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinocitose/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Rabdomiossarcoma , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Carga Viral , Ensaio de Placa Viral
19.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e40, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432989

RESUMO

Several arboviruses have emerged and/or re-emerged in North, Central and South-American countries. Viruses from some regions of Africa and Asia, such as the Zika and Chikungunya virus have been introduced in new continents causing major public health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of RNA from Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses in symptomatic patients from Rondonia, where the epidemiological profile is still little known, by one-step real-time RT-PCR. The main clinical signs and symtoms were fever (51.2%), headache (78%), chills (6.1%), pruritus (12.2%), exanthema (20.1%), arthralgia (35.3%), myalgia (26.8%) and retro-orbital pain (19.5%). Serum from 164 symptomatic patients were collected and tested for RNA of Zika, Dengue types 1 to 4 and Chikungunya viruses, in addition to antibodies against Dengue NS1 antigen. Direct microscopy for Malaria was also performed. Only ZIKV RNA was detected in 4.3% of the patients, and in the remaining 95.7% of the patients RNA for Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses were not detected. This finding is intriguing as the region has been endemic for Dengue for a long time and more recently for Chikungunya virus as well. The results indicated that medical and molecular parameters obtained were suitable to describe the first report of symptomatic Zika infections in this region. Furthermore, the low rate of detection, compared to clinical signs and symptoms as the solely diagnosis criteria, suggests that molecular assays for detection of viruses or other pathogens that cause similar symptoms should be used and the corresponding diseases could be included in the compulsory notification list.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Dengue/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vírus de RNA/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007993, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465513

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that acutely causes fever as well as severe joint and muscle pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain persists in a substantial fraction of patients for months to years after the initial infection, yet we still have a poor understanding of what promotes chronic disease. While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. To identify the cells that might contribute to pathogenesis during this chronic phase, we developed a recombinant CHIKV that expresses Cre recombinase (CHIKV-3'-Cre). CHIKV-3'-Cre replicated in myoblasts and fibroblasts, and it induced arthritis during the acute phase in mice. Importantly, it also induced chronic disease, including persistent viral RNA and chronic myositis and synovitis similar to wild-type virus. CHIKV-3'-Cre infection of tdTomato reporter mice resulted in a population of tdTomato+ cells that persisted for at least 112 days. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric profiling revealed that these tdTomato+ cells predominantly were myofibers and dermal and muscle fibroblasts. Treatment with an antibody against Mxra8, a recently defined host receptor for CHIKV, reduced the number of tdTomato+ cells in the chronic phase and diminished the levels of chronic viral RNA, implicating these tdTomato+ cells as the reservoir of chronic viral RNA. Finally, isolation and flow cytometry-based sorting of the tdTomato+ fibroblasts from the skin and ankle and analysis for viral RNA revealed that the tdTomato+ cells harbor most of the persistent CHIKV RNA at chronic time points. Therefore, this CHIKV-3'-Cre and tdTomato reporter mouse system identifies the cells that survive CHIKV infection in vivo and are enriched for persistent CHIKV RNA. This model represents a useful tool for studying CHIKV pathogenesis in the acute and chronic stages of disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Derme/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Derme/metabolismo , Derme/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/virologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
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