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1.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325930

RESUMO

Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world's deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances. It is known to cause encephalitis, with cases of acute respiratory distress turning fatal. Various factors contribute to the onset and spread of the virus. All through the infected zone, various strategies to tackle and enhance the surveillance and awareness with greater emphasis on personal hygiene has been formulated. This review discusses the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, the routes of transmission, prevention and control measures employed along with possible reasons behind the outbreaks, and the precautionary measures to be ensured by private-public undertakings to contain and ensure a lower incidence in the future.


Assuntos
Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Encefalite Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções , Malásia/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(5): 1003-1006, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002049

RESUMO

We retrieved Nipah virus (NiV) sequences from 4 human and 3 fruit bat (Pteropus medius) samples from a 2018 outbreak in Kerala, India. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NiV from humans was 96.15% similar to a Bangladesh strain but 99.7%-100% similar to virus from Pteropus spp. bats, indicating bats were the source of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Infecções por Henipavirus/história , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mutação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
4.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30916, 2016 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484128

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that causes severe disease in humans and animals. There are two distinct strains of NiV, Malaysia (NiVM) and Bangladesh (NiVB). Differences in transmission patterns and mortality rates suggest that NiVB may be more pathogenic than NiVM. To investigate pathogenic differences between strains, 4 African green monkeys (AGM) were exposed to NiVM and 4 AGMs were exposed to NiVB. While NiVB was uniformly lethal, only 50% of NiVM-infected animals succumbed to infection. Histopathology of lungs and spleens from NiVB-infected AGMs was significantly more severe than NiVM-infected animals. Importantly, a second study utilizing 11 AGMs showed that the therapeutic window for human monoclonal antibody m102.4, previously shown to rescue AGMs from NiVM infection, was much shorter in NiVB-infected AGMs. Together, these data show that NiVB is more pathogenic in AGMs under identical experimental conditions and suggests that postexposure treatments may need to be NiV strain specific for optimal efficacy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Malásia , Masculino
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(6): e0004775, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27341030

RESUMO

Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD) and Malaysia (NiV-MY) at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Vírus Nipah/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Bangladesh , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furões , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Malásia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
7.
J Gen Virol ; 97(5): 1077-1086, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932515

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus that can cause lethal respiratory illness in humans. No vaccine/therapeutic is currently licensed for humans. Human-to-human transmission was previously reported during outbreaks and NiV could be isolated from respiratory secretions, but the proportion of cases in Malaysia exhibiting respiratory symptoms was significantly lower than that in Bangladesh. Previously, we showed that primary human basal respiratory epithelial cells are susceptible to both NiV-Malaysia (M) and -Bangladesh (B) strains causing robust pro-inflammatory responses. However, the cells of the human respiratory epithelium that NiV targets are unknown and their role in NiV transmission and NiV-related lung pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we characterized NiV infection of the human respiratory epithelium using a model of the human tracheal/bronchial (B-ALI) and small airway (S-ALI) epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interface. We show that NiV-M and NiV-B infect ciliated and secretory cells in B/S-ALI, and that infection of S-ALI, but not B-ALI, results in disruption of the epithelium integrity and host responses recruiting human immune cells. Interestingly, NiV-B replicated more efficiently in B-ALI than did NiV-M. These results suggest that the human tracheal/bronchial epithelium is favourable to NiV replication and shedding, while inducing a limited host response. Our data suggest that the small airways epithelium is prone to inflammation and lesions as well as constituting a point of virus entry into the pulmonary vasculature. The use of relevant models of the human respiratory tract, such as B/S-ALI, is critical for understanding NiV-related lung pathogenesis and identifying the underlying mechanisms allowing human-to-human transmission.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/virologia , Vírus Nipah/fisiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Cílios , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
8.
Virol J ; 13: 53, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from Thailand, but viral RNA could not be detected for strain characterization. Two strains of NiV (Malaysia and Bangladesh) have been found in P. lylei in central Thailand, although Bangladesh strain, the causative strain for the outbreak in Bangladesh since 2001, was dominant. To understand the diversity of NiV in Thailand, this study identified NiV strain, using molecular characterizations, from P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand. FINDINGS: Pooled bat urine specimens were collected from plastic sheet underneath bat roosts in April 2010, and then monthly from December 2010 to May 2011 at an island in southern Thailand. Five in 184 specimens were positive for NiV, using duplex nested RT-PCR assay on partial nucleocapsid fragment (357 bp). Whole sequences of nucleocapsid gene from four bats were characterized. All 5 partial fragments and 4 whole nucleocapsid genes formed a monophyletic with NiV-MY. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand and from Malaysia, a bordering country, harbored similar NiV. This finding indicates that NiV is not limited to central Thailand or P. lylei species, and it may be a source of inter-species transmission. This indicates a higher potential for a widespread NiV outbreak in Thailand. NiV surveillance in Pteropus bats, the major natural reservoirs, should be conducted continuously in countries or regions with high susceptibility to outbreaks.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Variação Genética , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vírus Nipah/genética , Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia , Urina/virologia
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(2): 349-51, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25625615

RESUMO

We measured the performance of exposure screening questions to identify Nipah virus encephalitis in hospitalized encephalitis patients during the 2012-13 Nipah virus season in Bangladesh. The sensitivity (93%), specificity (82%), positive predictive value (37%), and negative predictive value (99%) results suggested that screening questions could more quickly identify persons with Nipah virus encephalitis.


Assuntos
Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Sorotipagem
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 167(1-2): 151-8, 2013 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23993256

RESUMO

The Henipavirus genus represents a group of paramyxoviruses that are some of the deadliest of known human and veterinary pathogens. Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that can cause respiratory and encephalitic illness in humans with mortality rates that exceed 70%. Over the past several years, we have seen an increase in the number of cases and an altered clinical presentation of Hendra virus in naturally infected horses. Recent increase in the number of cases has also been reported with human Nipah virus infections in Bangladesh. These factors, along with the recent discovery of henipa and henipa-like viruses in Africa, Asia and South and Central America adds, a truly global perspective to this group of emerging viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Henipavirus/classificação , Henipavirus/fisiologia , África , Animais , Ásia , Vírus Hendra/classificação , Vírus Hendra/fisiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 87(3): 576-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22802440

RESUMO

The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Nipah/patogenicidade , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 359: 41-58, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22552699

RESUMO

Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses comprise the genus Henipavirus and are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses, which cause fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Since their respective initial outbreaks in 1998 and 1994, they have continued to cause sporadic outbreaks resulting in fatal disease. Due to their designation as Biosafety Level 4 pathogens, the level of containment required to work with live henipaviruses is available only to select laboratories around the world. This chapter provides an overview of the molecular virology of NiV and HeV including comparisons to other, well-characterized paramyxoviruses. This chapter also describes the sequence diversity present among the henipaviruses.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus Hendra/genética , Vírus Nipah/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Encefalite Viral/complicações , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Variação Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Vírus Hendra/classificação , Vírus Hendra/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Henipavirus/complicações , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Genética Reversa , Replicação Viral
15.
Vopr Virusol ; 53(2): 10-3, 2008.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18450103

RESUMO

Nipah encephalitis is a particular dangerous disease that affects animals and man. Fatal cases of the disease have been identified in the persons looking after pigs in the villages of Malaysia. The causative agent is presumably referred to as morbilliviruses of the Paramixoviridae family. Two hundred persons died among the ill patients with the signs of encephalitis. The principal hosts of the virus were fox-bats (Megaschiroptera) inhabiting in the surrounding forests. The present paper descries the epidemiological features of the disease, its clinical manifestations, abnormal anatomic changes, diagnosis, and implemented controlling measures.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por Henipavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
16.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 315: 133-59, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17848064

RESUMO

Two related, novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been described recently. Hendra virus was first reported in horses and thence humans in Australia in 1994; Nipah virus was first reported in pigs and thence humans in Malaysia in 1998. Human cases of Nipah virus infection, apparently unassociated with infection in livestock, have been reported in Bangladesh since 2001. Species of fruit bats (genus Pteropus) have been identified as natural hosts of both agents. Anthropogenic changes (habitat loss, hunting) that have impacted the population dynamics of Pteropus species across much of their range are hypothesised to have facilitated emergence. Current strategies for the management of henipaviruses are directed at minimising contact with the natural hosts, monitoring identified intermediate hosts, improving biosecurity on farms, and better disease recognition and diagnosis. Investigation of the emergence and ecology of henipaviruses warrants a broad, cross-disciplinary ecosystem health approach that recognises the critical linkages between human activity, ecological change, and livestock and human health.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus Hendra , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus Hendra/classificação , Vírus Hendra/patogenicidade , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses
17.
Virology ; 364(1): 103-11, 2007 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17397895

RESUMO

J-virus (JPV), isolated from wild mice in Australia, and Beilong virus (BeiPV), originally isolated from human mesangial cells in China and subsequently detected in rat mesangial cells, represent a new group of paramyxoviruses which have exceptionally large genomes (>19 kb) and contain more than six transcriptional units. In this study, minireplicons were employed to assess the taxonomic status of JPV and BeiPV. Our results demonstrated that, whilst the genome replication machineries of JPV and BeiPV can be interchanged, they were not functional when exchanged with that of Nipah virus. These studies indicate that JPV and BeiPV are closely related to each other and support the classification of these two viruses into a separate genus. In addition, the minireplicons were also used to demonstrate that these large-genome viruses also comply with the 'rule of six' and that over-expression of the C protein has a detrimental effect on minigenome replication.


Assuntos
Paramyxovirinae/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Austrália , Sequência de Bases , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Sequência Conservada , Replicação do DNA , DNA Viral/biossíntese , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Humanos , Células Mesangiais/virologia , Camundongos , Mutagênese , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Paramyxovirinae/classificação , Paramyxovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Paramyxovirinae/fisiologia , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Replicon , Células Vero
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 12(2): 235-40, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16494748

RESUMO

During January and February 2001, an outbreak of febrile illness associated with altered sensorium was observed in Siliguri, West Bengal, India. Laboratory investigations at the time of the outbreak did not identify an infectious agent. Because Siliguri is in close proximity to Bangladesh, where outbreaks of Nipah virus (NiV) infection were recently described, clinical material obtained during the Siliguri outbreak was retrospectively analyzed for evidence of NiV infection. NiV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were detected in 9 of 18 patients. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays detected RNA from NiV in urine samples from 5 patients. Sequence analysis confirmed that the PCR products were derived from NiV RNA and suggested that the NiV from Siliguri was more closely related to NiV isolates from Bangladesh than to NiV isolates from Malaysia. NiV infection has not been previously detected in India.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus Nipah/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Urina/virologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética
19.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 4(1): 23-35, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16357858

RESUMO

Hendra virus and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have recently emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock in Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and Bangladesh. Their unique genetic constitution, high virulence and wide host range set them apart from other paramyxoviruses. These features led to their classification into the new genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae and to their designation as Biosafety Level 4 pathogens. This review provides an overview of henipaviruses and the types of infection they cause, and describes how studies on the structure and function of henipavirus proteins expressed from cloned genes have provided insights into the unique biological properties of these emerging human pathogens.


Assuntos
Vírus Hendra/patogenicidade , Vírus Nipah/patogenicidade , Animais , Genoma Viral , Vírus Hendra/classificação , Vírus Hendra/genética , Infecções por Henipavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vírus Nipah/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia , Virulência
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