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1.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 55-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696308

RESUMO

A swine influenza survey was conducted between 2003 and 2015 in Germany. During this period, 8122 snout swabs or other respiratory specimens from pigs of 5178 herds, mainly from Germany, were investigated for the presence of swine influenza A virus (S-IAV). In total, 1310 S-IAV isolates were collected. Of this collection, the complete genome of 267 H1N2 S-IAV isolates was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The data demonstrate the incursion of human-like swine H1N2 viruses (Gent/1999-like) in 2000 and prevalent circulation until 2010. From 2008 onward, a sustained and broad change of the genetic constellation of the swine H1N2 subtype commenced. The Gent/1999-like swine H1N2 viruses ceased and several new swine H1N2 reassortants emerged and became prevalent in Germany. Of these, the upsurge of the Diepholz/2008-like, Emmelsbuell/2009-like and Papenburg/2010-like viruses is notable. The data reveal the importance of reassortment events in S-IAV evolution. The strong circulation of S-IAV of different lineages in the swine population throughout the year underlines that pigs are important reservoir hosts.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/classificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N2/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1535-1545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661383

RESUMO

Influenza A virus infections occur in different species, causing mild to severe respiratory symptoms that lead to a heavy disease burden. Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses (EAS-H1N1) are predominant in pigs and occasionally infect humans. An influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy who was suffering from fever and headache and designated as A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1N1). Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1N1) is a novel reassortant EAS-H1N1 containing gene segments from EAS-H1N1 (HA and NA), classical swine H1N1(NS) and A(H1N1)pdm09(PB2, PB2, PA, NP and M) viruses. The isolation and analysis of A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1) provide further evidence that EAS-H1N1 poses a threat to human health and greater attention should be paid to surveillance of influenza virus infection in pigs and humans.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Criança , China , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Suínos
3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1280-1290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495283

RESUMO

The H3N2 influenza viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. Different lineages of H3N2 influenza viruses are also commonly found in animals. If a different lineage of H3N2 virus jumps to humans, a human influenza pandemic could occur with devastating consequences. Here, we studied the genetics, receptor-binding properties, and replication and transmission in mammals of 15 H3N2 avian influenza viruses detected in live poultry markets in China. We found that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses are complicated reassortants with distinct replication phenotypes in mice. Five viruses replicated efficiently in mice and bound to both human-type and avian-type receptors. These viruses transmitted efficiently to direct-contact guinea pigs, and three of them also transmitted among guinea pigs and ferrets via respiratory droplets. Moreover, ferret antiserum induced by human H3N2 viruses did not react with any of the H3N2 avian influenza viruses. Our study demonstrates that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses pose a clear threat to human health and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance and evaluation of the H3N2 influenza viruses circulating in nature.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Ligação Viral , Animais , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furões , Cobaias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Reordenados/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Replicação Viral
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1017-1026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287780

RESUMO

Host switch events of influenza A viruses (IAVs) continuously pose a zoonotic threat to humans. In 2013, swine-origin H1N1 IAVs emerged in dogs soon after they were detected in swine in the Guangxi province of China. This host switch was followed by multiple reassortment events between these H1N1 and previously circulating H3N2 canine IAVs (IAVs-C) in dogs. To evaluate the phenotype of these newly identified viruses, we characterized three swine-origin H1N1 IAVs-C and one reassortant H1N1 IAV-C. We found that H1N1 IAVs-C predominantly bound to human-type receptors, efficiently transmitted via direct contact in guinea pigs and replicated in human lung cells. Moreover, the swine-origin H1N1 IAVs-C were lethal in mice and were transmissible by respiratory droplets in guinea pigs. Importantly, sporadic human infections with these viruses have been detected, and preexisting immunity in humans might not be sufficient to prevent infections with these new viruses. Our results show the potential of H1N1 IAVs-C to infect and transmit in humans, suggesting that these viruses should be closely monitored in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Cães , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/mortalidade , Virulência
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2120-2133, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168925

RESUMO

A total of 15 dead or sick birds from 13 clinical outbreaks of avian influenza in ducks, geese, chickens and turkeys in 2017 in Bangladesh were examined. The presence of H5N1 influenza A virus in the affected birds was detected by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on full-length gene sequences of all eight gene segments revealed that these recent outbreaks were caused by a new reassortant of clade 2.3.2.1a H5N1 virus, which had been detected earlier in 2015 during surveillance in live bird markets (LBMs) and wet lands. This reassortant virus acquired PB2, PB1, PA, NP and NS genes from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses mostly of non-H9N2 subtypes but retained HA, NA and M genes of the old clade 2.3.2.1a viruses. Nevertheless, the HA gene of these new viruses was 2.7% divergent from that of the old clade 2.3.2.1a viruses circulated in Bangladesh. Interestingly, similar reassortment events could be traced back in four 2.3.2.1a virus isolates of 2013 from backyard ducks. It suggests that this reassortant virus emerged in 2013, which took two years to be detected at a broader scale (i.e. in LBMs), another two years until it became widely spread in poultry and fully replaced the old viruses. Several mutations were detected in the recent Bangladeshi isolates, which are likely to influence possible phenotypic alterations such as increased mammalian adaptation, reduced susceptibility to antiviral agents and reduced host antiviral response.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bangladesh , Galinhas , Patos , Gansos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Perus
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174704

RESUMO

During 2014-2017 Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread worldwide. In 2016, an epidemic of HPAIV H5N8 in Iran caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected and continue to experience problems. Several outbreaks were reported in 2017. One of them is related to Hooded crow (Corvus cornix) in a national park in Esfahan province in 2017. Whole genome sequencing and characterization have been done on the detected H5N8 sample. Based on HA sequencing results, it belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade, and the cleavage site is (PLREKRRKR/G). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the Iran 2017 H5N8 virus clustered within subgroup Russia 2016 2.3.4.4 b of group B in H5 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV. On the other hand, the NA gene of the virus is placed in group C of Eurasian lineage. Complete genome characterization of this virus revealed probable reassortment of the virus with East-Asian low-pathogenic influenza viruses. Furthermore, the virus possessed some phenotypic markers related to the increased potential for transmission and pathogenicity to mammals at internal segments. This study is the first full genome characterization H5N8 HPAIV in Iran. The data complete the puzzle of molecular epidemiology of H5N8 HPAIV in Iran and the region. Our study provides evidence for fast and continuing reassortment of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, that might lead to changes in virus structural and functional characteristics such as the route and method of transmission of the virus and virus infective, pathogenic and zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Corvos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação
7.
Virology ; 534: 114-131, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228725

RESUMO

Inter-genogroup reassortant group A rotavirus (RVA) strains possessing a G3 VP7 gene of putative equine origin (EQL-G3) have been detected in humans since 2013. Here we report detection of EQL-G3P[8] RVA strains from the Dominican Republic collected in 2014-16. Whole-gene analysis of RVA in stool specimens revealed 16 EQL-G3P[8] strains, 3 of which appear to have acquired an N1 NSP1 gene from locally-circulating G9P[8] strains and a novel G2P[8] reassortant possessing 7 EQL-G3-associated genes and 3 genes from a locally-circulating G2P[4] strain. Phylogenetic/genetic analyses of VP7 gene sequences revealed nine G3 lineages (I-IX) with newly-assigned lineage IX encompassing all reported human EQL-G3 strains along with the ancestral equine strain. VP1 and NSP2 gene phylogenies suggest that EQL-G3P[8] strains were introduced into the Dominican Republic from Thailand. The emergence of EQL-G3P[8] strains in the Dominican Republic and their reassortment with locally-circulating RVA could have implications for current vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , República Dominicana , Genoma Viral , Cavalos , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Tailândia , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Virol J ; 16(1): 64, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) agent is one of the major causes of hospitalization in paediatric age. The G3P[8] RVA genotype has been usually considered as one of the major human genotypes, largely circulating in Asia, but showing low detection rates in the European countries. In recent years, the G3P[8] RVAs emerged also in Europe as a predominant genotype and the viral strains detected revealed high similarities with equine-like G3P[8] RVA strains, resulting in a new variant circulating in humans and able to cause AGE in the paediatric population. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy was admitted to the Emergency Room because he had suffered from severe diarrhoea, vomiting, and high fever over the previous two days. Severe dehydration was evident based on low serum concentrations of potassium and sodium, low glycaemia, and pre-renal failure (creatinine 2.48 mg/dL, urea 133 mg/dL). Immunological tests were within normal range. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of RV was positive, and a sample of faeces was collected in order to perform the molecular characterization of the viral strain. The phylogenetic trees revealed relatedness between the VP7 and VP4 genes of the G3P[8] RVA Italian strain (namely PG2) and those belonging to recent G3P[8] RVAs detected worldwide. The G3 VP7 belonged to the G3-I lineage and shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity (99.8%) with the equine-like G3 previously identified in other countries. The P [8] VP4 revealed a similar clustering pattern to that observed for the VP7. In addition, the molecular characterization of the 11 gene segments of strain PG2 revealed a G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genomic constellation. CONCLUSIONS: This case shows the first detection in Italy of a reassortant G3P[8] RVA associated with a severe AGE, which is unusual in a school-age child without any known severe underlying problems. The findings reported in this paper highlight the importance of continuously monitoring the RVA strains circulating in paediatric age in order to detect novel viral variants able to spread in the general population.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/terapia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Itália , Masculino , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 1809-1820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131970

RESUMO

First described in 1955 in New Jersey, epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) causes a severe clinical disease in wild and domestic ruminants worldwide. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease outbreaks occur in deer populations each year from summer to late autumn. The etiological agent is EHD virus (EHDV) which is a double-stranded segmented icosahedral RNA virus. EHD virus utilizes point mutations and reassortment strategies to maintain viral fitness during infection. In 2018, EHDV serotype 2 was predominantly detected in deer in Illinois. Whole genome sequencing was conducted for two 2018 EHDV2 isolates (IL41747 and IL42218) and the sequence analyses indicated that IL42218 was a reassortant between different serotypes whereas IL41747 was a genetically stable strain. Our data suggest that multiple strains contribute to outbreaks each year.


Assuntos
Cervos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 30-41, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030842

RESUMO

The lineage 3 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) was first reported in mainland China in 2010 and it has spread rapidly in recent years. Here, two novel lineage 3 strains of PRRSV-2 were isolated from diseased pigs in Southwestern China during 2017-2018, and were designated as GZgy17 and SCya18. The complete genomes of the two isolates were then determined, and sequence alignment revealed that GZgy17 had the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa) deletion in NSP2 as JXA1, while SCya18 contained the discontinuous 131-aa deletion in NSP2 identical to that of NADC30, when compared to the strain VR-2332. Notably, GZgy17 contained an additional 19-aa deletion in NSP2, and SCya18 had a unique 3-nt deletion in its 3'UTR. Homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that GZgy17 and SCya18 shared low nucleotide homology (91.2-92.0%) with QYYZ and were classified into a new cluster of lineage 3 strains based on ORF5 genotyping. Recombination analyses revealed that GZgy17 and SCya18 both originated from a SH/CH/2016-like (lineage 3) strain and had recombined with a JXA1-like (lineage 8) and a NADC30-like (lineage 1) strain, respectively. Furthermore, we compared the virulence of the two strains in 4-week-old piglets. The results showed that GZgy17 caused mortality rates of 20% and exhibited higher pathogenicity in piglets compared to SCya18. Our findings suggest that recombination might be responsible for the variations in pathogenicity of lineage 3 strains of PRRSV-2 and highlight the importance of surveillance of this lineage in China.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Recombinação Genética , Animais , China , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/mortalidade , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Virulência
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 650-661, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014196

RESUMO

Since November 2008, we have conducted active avian influenza surveillance in Bangladesh. Clades 2.2.2, 2.3.4.2, and 2.3.2.1a of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses have all been identified in Bangladeshi live poultry markets (LPMs), although, since the end of 2014, H5N1 viruses have been exclusively from clade 2.3.2.1a. In June 2015, a new reassortant H5N1 virus (H5N1-R1) from clade 2.3.2.1a was identified, containing haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of H5N1 viruses circulating in Bangladesh since 2011, plus five other genes of Eurasian-lineage low pathogenic avian influenza A (LPAI) viruses. Here we report the status of circulating avian influenza A viruses in Bangladeshi LPMs from March 2016 to January 2018. Until April 2017, H5N1 viruses exclusively belonged to H5N1-R1 clade 2.3.2.1a. However, in May 2017, we identified another reassortant H5N1 (H5N1-R2), also of clade 2.3.2.1a, wherein the PA gene segment of H5N1-R1 was replaced by that of another Eurasian-lineage LPAI virus related to A/duck/Bangladesh/30828/2016 (H3N8), detected in Bangladeshi LPM in September 2016. Currently, both reassortant H5N1-R1 and H5N1-R2 co-circulate in Bangladeshi LPMs. Furthermore, some LPAI viruses isolated from LPMs during 2016-2017 were closely related to those from ducks in free-range farms and wild birds in Tanguar haor, a wetland region of Bangladesh where ducks have frequent contact with migratory birds. These data support a hypothesis where Tanguar haor-like ecosystems provide a mechanism for movement of LPAI viruses to LPMs where reassortment with poultry viruses occurs adding to the diversity of viruses at this human-animal interface.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(6): 1691-1695, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968213

RESUMO

Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most common virus infecting potato worldwide. We analysed potato tuber PVY infections from the major Israeli growing region in 2014-2017. Isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR according to Chikh-Ali et al. (Plant Disease 97, 1370, 2013), whose primers were not fully compatible with the Israeli isolates. New primers were designed for a multiplex PCR assay to differentiate the Israeli isolates. Three recombinant strains were observed: PVYNTNa (72% of the isolates), PVYNWi (24%) and PVYSyr-III (found only in 2015). The archetypal PVYO strain was found only once. The classical PVY strains have recently been displaced by recombinant forms, with PVYNTNa dominating. The Israeli isolates appear very similar to those of Europe (the seed tuber source), except for PVYSyr-III.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Potyvirus/isolamento & purificação , Solanum tuberosum/virologia , Primers do DNA/genética , Genoma Viral , Israel , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 479-485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924394

RESUMO

In late 2016, an H7N6 low pathogenic avian influenza virus outbreak occurred in domestic turkeys in Central Chile. We characterized the genetic and antigenic properties of the outbreak virus and its experimental transmission in chickens. Our studies demonstrate that the outbreak virus is a reassortment of genes identified from Chilean wild bird viruses between 2013 and 2017 and displays molecular adaptations to poultry and antiviral resistance to adamantanes. Further, these wild bird viruses are also able to transmit in experimentally infected chickens highlighting the need for continued surveillance and improvement of biosecurity in poultry farms.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Adamantano/farmacologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Perus
14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(4): 256-260, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814461

RESUMO

The emergence of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses with a bovine-like G8 genotype (DS-1-like G8P[8] strains) has been reported in several Asian countries. During the rotavirus surveillance program in Japan in 2017, a DS-1-like G8P[8] strain (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/SO1162/2017/G8P[8]) was identified in 43 rotavirus-positive stool samples. Strain SO1162 was shown to have a unique genotype constellation, including genes from both genogroup 1 and 2: G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP1 gene of strain SO1162 appeared to have originated from DS-1-like G1P[8] strains from Thailand and Vietnam, while the remaining 10 genes were closely related to those of previously reported DS-1-like G8P[8] strains. Thus, SO1162 was suggested to be a reassortant strain that acquired the VP1 gene from Southeast Asian DS-1-like G1P[8] strains on the genetic background of co-circulating DS-1-like G8P[8] strains. Our findings provide important insights into the evolutionary dynamics of emerging DS-1-like G8P[8] strains.


Assuntos
Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Genes Virais/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 381-395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896304

RESUMO

Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses (Arthropod Borne Virus) and possess multipartite genomes made up of three negative RNAs corresponding to the small (S), medium (M) and large (L) segments. Reassortment and recombination are evolutionary driving forces of such segmented viruses and lead to the emergence of new strains and species. Retrospective studies based on phylogenetical analysis are able to evaluate these mechanisms at the end of the selection process but fail to address the dynamics of emergence. This issue was addressed using two Orthobunyaviruses infecting ruminants and belonging to the Simbu serogroup: the Sathuperi virus (SATV) and the Shamonda virus (SHAV). Both viruses were associated with abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations occurring after transplacental transmission and were suspected to spread together in different ruminant and insect populations. This study showed that different viruses related to SHAV and SATV are spreading simultaneously in ruminants and equids of the Sub-Saharan region. Their reassortment and recombination potential was evaluated in mammalian and in insect contexts. A method was set up to determine the genomic background of any clonal progeny viruses isolated after in vitro coinfections assays. All the reassortment combinations were generated in both contexts while no recombinant virus was isolated. Progeny virus populations revealed a high level of reassortment in mammalian cells and a much lower level in insect cells. In vitro selection pressure that mimicked the host switching (insect-mammal) revealed that the best adapted reassortant virus was connected with an advantageous replicative fitness and with the presence of a specific segment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Insetos , Orthobunyavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Acta Virol ; 63(1): 121-125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879322

RESUMO

The H8 subtype viruses are rarely isolated from wild ducks. Shanghai is one of the important wintering or stopover sites on the East Asia-Australia Migration Flyway. An influenza virus, subtype H8N4, was firstly isolated from a common teal (Anas crecca) in Shanghai during 2017-2018 in this study. To clarify the genetic characteristics of the H8N4 virus, the whole genome sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed that they shared highest nucleotide identity (99.19%-99.64%) with the Japan duck-origin H8N4 virus collected in 2016 (A/duck/Aichi/231003/2016) and belonged to the Eurasian-like avian lineage. Six other genes of the H8N4 isolated virus were all highly similar to the corresponding genes of a wide range of AIV subtypes including H9N2, H5N7, H3N8, H1N2, H4N6 and H1N1. The results indicated that the H8N4 virus was a multiple reassortant virus. The study emphasized that the continuous surveillance of influenza virus in wild birds should be strengthened. Keywords: avian influenza virus; H8N4; phylogenetic analysis; Shanghai.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Aves , China , Patos , Vírus da Hepatite A/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação
18.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(3): 288-291, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761746

RESUMO

In 2017, outbreaks of low and highly pathogenic avian H7N9 viruses were reported in four States in the United States. In total, over 270 000 birds died or were culled, causing significant economic loss. The potential for avian-to-swine transmission of the U.S. avian H7N9 was unknown. In an experimental challenge in swine using a representative low pathogenic H7N9 (A/chicken/Tennessee/17-007431-3/2017; LPAI TN/17) isolated from these events, no infectious virus in the upper and minimal virus in the lower respiratory tract was detected, nor was lung pathology or evidence of transmission in pigs observed, indicating that the virus cannot efficiently infect swine.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(4): 1229-1232, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810805

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are important zoonotic pathogens that cause intestinal disease in humans and other mammals. In this study, the novel strain RVA/Pig/China/SC11/2017/G9P[23](SC11) was isolated from fecal samples from a pig farm in Sichuan province, southwestern China. The complete genome was found to be 18,347 bp in length with 11 segments. The genotype constellation of strain SC11 was G9-P[23]-I12-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, according to whole-genome sequencing analysis. The VP1, VP2, VP4, VP6, NSP1-NSP3, and NSP5 genes of RVA strain SC11 were found to be closely related to those of porcine and/or porcine-like human RVAs. Meanwhile, the VP7 and NSP4 genes of strain SC11 were closely related to genes of human RVAs. However, it was difficult to pinpoint the porcine or human origin of the VP3 gene of strain SC11 based on the available data. These results showed that SC11 originated from a natural reassortment event between human and pig RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were identified at nucleotides (nt) 109-806 of NSP2. This is the first report of such a reassortant and recombinant RVA strain in the southwestern region of China.


Assuntos
Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Recombinação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
20.
Arch Virol ; 164(3): 853-860, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600351

RESUMO

Coxsakievirus (CV) B4, CVB5, and CVA9 belong to the species Enterovirus B. These viruses can cause viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, pancreatitis, flaccid paralysis, dilated myocarditis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to analyze the evolution of CVB4, CVB5, and CVA9, we analyzed all of the available genome sequences of Enterovirus B (EVB) isolates and found that there were 12 putative recombination events that produced CVB4, 13 putative recombination events that produced CVB5, and 10 putative recombination events that produced CVA9. These recombination events involved 17 EVB serotypes as major or minor parents. The most active Echovirus (EchoV) appears to have been involved in 20 of the 35 recombination events, acting as one of the parental viruses of circulating CVB4, CVB5, and CVA9 strains. Our study indicates that EchoV plays a major role in recombination in the CVB group, and Echov_E30 is the most active in CVB4, whereas Echov_E3 and Echov_E25 are the most active in CVA9.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Recombinação Genética , Enterovirus Humano B/classificação , Enterovirus Humano B/fisiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Virais/genética
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