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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1008-1012, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720703

RESUMO

In the last months of 2019, an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease started in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to other parts of the world. It was named COVID-19, and to date, thousands of cases of infection and death are reported worldwide. This disease is associated with a wide range of symptoms, which makes accurate diagnosis of it difficult. During previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic in 2003, researchers found that the patients with fever, cough, or sore throat had a 5% influenza virus-positive rate. This finding made us think that the wide range of symptoms and also relatively high prevalence of death in our patients may be due to the coinfection with other viruses. Thus, we evaluated the coinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with other respiratory viruses in dead patients in North Khorasan. We evaluated the presence of influenza A/B virus, human metapneumovirus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza viruses in 105 SARS-CoV-2 positive dead patients, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR tests. We found coinfection with influenza virus in 22.3%, RSV, and bocavirus in 9.7%, parainfluenza viruses in 3.9%, human metapneumovirus in 2.9%, and finally adenovirus in 1.9% of SARS-CoV-2 positive dead cases. Our findings highlight a high prevalence of coinfection with influenza A virus and the monopoly of coinfection with Human metapneumovirus in children.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Cadáver , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(1): 115209, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080426

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal flocked swabs placed in viral transport media (VTM) are the preferred collection methodology for respiratory virus testing. Due to the rapid depletion of available reagents and swabs, we have validated an alternative swab placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for use in respiratory virus testing in a SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and a multiplexed respiratory virus panel. We collected nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs from 10 healthy volunteers. Flocked swabs were placed in VTM and alternative swabs in PBS. In this feasibility study, we show that NP collection is better for detection of human material than OP collection, as measured by significantly lower RNase P gene cycle threshold values, and that a Dacron polyester swab in PBS shows equivalent detection of SARS-CoV-2 and RSV to a flocked swab in VTM in contrived specimens. Diluted SARS-CoV-2-positive patient specimens are detectable for up to 72 h at 4 °C.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Polietilenotereftalatos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , /genética
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e36-e39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044434

RESUMO

The clinical presentation of human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in children varies strongly. We show that children with an HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection more frequently had respiratory syncytial virus codetected and higher abundance of Haemophilus influenzae/haemolyticus than asymptomatic HCoV carriers as well as children with a non-HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. Viral and bacterial cooccurrence may drive symptomatology of HCoV-associated infections including coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Haemophilus/classificação , Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
J Infect ; 81(6): 966-972, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory viruses in circulation and the overall burden of viral respiratory disease remains uncertain. Traditionally, severe viral respiratory disease disproportionally affects those with underlying chronic lung diseases. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of respiratory virus disease in hospitalised adults. METHODS: Data for this cohort study were from hospitalised adults who had multiplex PCR testing for respiratory viruses over several seasons in Hampshire, UK. Respiratory virus detection during the first epidemic peak of SARS-CoV-2 was compared to detection during the same time period across previous years. RESULTS: 856 patients had multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses between March and May over 5 years. Before 2020, a non-SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in 54% patients (202/371) compared to 4.1% (20/485) in 2020 (p < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 was associated with asthma or COPD exacerbations in a smaller proportion of infected patients compared to other viruses (1.0% vs 37%, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with substantial reductions in the circulation of seasonal respiratory viruses and large differences in the characteristics of viral-associated disease, including illness in a greater proportion of patients without underlying lung disease.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The advent of genome amplification assays has allowed description of new respiratory viruses and to reconsider the role played by certain respiratory viruses in bronchiolitis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was initiated to clarify the prevalence of respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic era. METHODS: We performed an electronic search through Pubmed and Global Index Medicus databases. We included observational studies reporting the detection rate of common respiratory viruses in children with bronchiolitis using molecular assays. Data was extracted and the quality of the included articles was assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroups, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effect model. RESULTS: The final meta-analysis included 51 studies. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was largely the most commonly detected virus 59.2%; 95% CI [54.7; 63.6]). The second predominant virus was Rhinovirus (RV) 19.3%; 95% CI [16.7; 22.0]) followed by Human bocavirus (HBoV) 8.2%; 95% CI [5.7; 11.2]). Other reported viruses included Human Adenovirus (HAdV) 6.1%; 95% CI [4.4; 8.0]), Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) 5.4%; 95% CI [4.4; 6.4]), Human Parainfluenzavirus (HPIV) 5.4%; 95% CI [3.8; 7.3]), Influenza 3.2%; 95% CI [2.2; 4.3], Human Coronavirus (HCoV) 2.9%; 95% CI [2.0; 4.0]), and Enterovirus (EV) 2.9%; 95% CI [1.6; 4.5]). HRSV was the predominant virus involved in multiple detection and most codetections were HRSV + RV 7.1%, 95% CI [4.6; 9.9]) and HRSV + HBoV 4.5%, 95% CI [2.4; 7.3]). CONCLUSIONS: The present study has shown that HRSV is the main cause of bronchiolitis in children, we also have Rhinovirus, and Bocavirus which also play a significant role. Data on the role played by SARS-CoV-2 in children with acute bronchiolitis is needed. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018116067.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Feminino , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(39)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006303

RESUMO

BackgroundRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory illness in young children (< 5 years old) and older adults (≥ 65 years old) leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to recommend the implementation of a dedicated surveillance in countries.AimWe tested the capacity of the severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospital network to contribute to RSV surveillance in Belgium.MethodsDuring the 2018/19 influenza season, we started the SARI surveillance for influenza in Belgium in week 40, earlier than in the past, to follow RSV activity, which usually precedes influenza virus circulation. While the WHO SARI case definition for influenza normally used by the SARI hospital network was employed, flexibility over the fever criterion was allowed, so patients without fever but meeting the other case definition criteria could be included in the surveillance.ResultsBetween weeks 40 2018 and 2 2019, we received 508 samples from SARI patients. We found an overall RSV detection rate of 62.4% (317/508), with rates varying depending on the age group: 77.6% in children aged < 5 years (253/326) and 34.4% in adults aged ≥ 65 years (44/128). Over 90% of the RSV-positive samples also positive for another tested respiratory virus (80/85) were from children aged < 5 years. Differences were also noted between age groups for symptoms, comorbidities and complications.ConclusionWith only marginal modifications in the case definition and the period of surveillance, the Belgian SARI network would be able to substantially contribute to RSV surveillance and burden evaluation in children and older adults, the two groups of particular interest for WHO.


Assuntos
Febre/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112873

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic, multisystemic, progressive illness that causes chronic suppurative lung disease. A major cause of morbimortality in this condition are pulmonary exacerbations. Although classically attributed to bacterial infections, respiratory virus have been increasingly recognized in its ethiopathogeny. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from children < 18 years old with CF in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with pulmonary exacerbation criteria. Samples were submitted to RT-PCR for Adenovirus, Influenza A and B, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Metapneumovirus and Rhinovirus. Virus positive and virus negative groups were compared in regards to clinical presentation, severity of exacerbation and bacterial colonization. RESULTS: Out of 70 samples collected from 48 patients, 35.7% were positive for respiratory viruses. Rhinovirus were the most common (28% of all positive samples), followed by RSV. The virus positive group was associated with change in sinus discharge (p = 0.03). Considering only patients younger than five years old, positive virus detection was also associated with fever (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in clinical severity or in bacterial colonization between virus positive and negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective studies are still needed to assess the long term impact of viral infections in patients with CF, and their interaction with the bacterial microbiome in these patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections in children and adolescents with malignancy are commonly encountered and have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Studies and epidemiological data regarding viral infections in children with cancer in developing countries are lacking. This retrospective cohort study aims to assess the burden of viral infections in children and adolescents with cancer, by assessing prevalence, risk factors, as well as morbidity and mortality of common viruses over a period of 8 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medical records of cancer patients treated at the Children Cancer Center of Lebanon were reviewed and 155 participants under the age of 21 were identified with at least one documented viral infection during the period from July 2009 to November 2017. This subset included 136 participants with active malignancy and 19 participants with a history of cancer who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] and were in remission; the latter group was analyzed separately. Information regarding participant characteristics, hospital course, and complications were obtained. Associations between viral infections and certain factors were assessed. In the cohort, 64% were male, 81% were Lebanese. In participants with active malignancy, 90% received chemotherapy in the 6 months preceding the viral infection episode, 11% received radiotherapy. 51% of participants were neutropenic at the time of viral detection, and 77% were lymphopenic. 17% experienced a bacterial co-infection, and 3 experienced a viral co-infection. Among 162 viral infection episodes, clinically diagnosed skin infections, mainly herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus, were the most common [44% of cases]. These were followed by laboratory-proven systemic herpes infections: cytomegalovirus [14%] and Epstein-Barr virus [6%]. Respiratory viruses: influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, accounted for 9% and 4%, respectively, whereas rotavirus represented 11% and BK virus represented 3% of cases. Acute lymphocytic leukemia was the most prevalent neoplasia [57%]. Fever was the most common presenting symptom [55%] and febrile neutropenia was the reason for admission in 24% of cases. The mean length of stay was significantly longer in participants with cytomegalovirus infections and significantly lower in rotavirus infection. Admission to the ICU occurred in 9%, complications in 8%, and mortality in 5%. Participants with viral infections post-HSCT were noted to have a significantly longer length of hospital stay compared to non-HSCT participants, with no other significant differences in clinical course and outcome. The study was limited by its retrospective nature and by the late introduction and underuse of multiplex PCR panels, which may have led to underdiagnosis of viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Viral infections were prevalent in our sample of cancer patients and may have contributed to morbidity and mortality. Newly available viral diagnostics are likely to vastly increase the number and scope of detectable viral infections in this population. Prospective studies using multiplex PCR technology with systematic testing of patients will be more helpful in defining the burden of viral infections. Furthermore, efforts at antimicrobial stewardship would benefit from the identification of viral causes of infection and limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics in the pediatric cancer population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Líbano/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/virologia , Pediatria , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia
10.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1203-1212, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755531

RESUMO

Introduction. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequently identified viral agent in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). No data are available to date regarding RSV genotypes circulating in Tunisia.Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of the glycoprotein G gene in Tunisian RSV strains.Methodology. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from infants hospitalized for LRTI in five Tunisian hospitals. All specimens were screened for RSV by a direct immunofluorescence assay (DIFA). To molecularly characterize Tunisian RSV strains, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Randomly selected positive samples were subjected to reverse transcription PCR amplifying the second hyper-variable region (HVR2) of the G gene.Results. Among a total of 1417 samples collected between 2015 and 2018, 394 (27.8 %) were positive for RSV by DIFA. Analysis of 61 randomly selected RSV strains revealed that group A RSV (78.7 %) predominated during the period of study as compared to group B RSV (21.3 %). The phylogenetic analysis showed that two genotypes of RSV-A were co-circulating: the ON1 genotype with a 72-nt duplication in HVR2 of the G gene was predominant (98.0 % of RSV-A strains), while one RSV-A strain clustered with the NA1 genotype (2.0 %). Concerning Tunisian group B RSV strains, all sequences contained a 60-nt insertion in HVR2 and a clustered BA10 genotype.Conclusion. These data suggest that RSV-A genotype ON1 and RSV-B genotype BA10, both with duplications in the G gene, were widely circulating in the Central coastal region of Tunisia between 2015 and 2018.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/classificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Tunísia/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10931, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616819

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects young children and causes influenza-like illness. RSV circulation and prevalence differ among countries and climates. To better understand whether climate factors influence the seasonality of RSV in Thailand, we examined RSV data from children ≤ 5 years-old who presented with respiratory symptoms from January 2012-December 2018. From a total of 8,209 nasopharyngeal samples, 13.2% (1,082/8,209) was RSV-positive, of which 37.5% (406/1,082) were RSV-A and 36.4% (394/1,082) were RSV-B. The annual unimodal RSV activity from July-November overlaps with the rainy season. Association between meteorological data including monthly average temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed for central Thailand and the incidence of RSV over 7-years was analyzed using Spearman's rank and partial correlation. Multivariate time-series analysis with an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model showed that RSV activity correlated positively with rainfall (r = 0.41) and relative humidity (r = 0.25), but negatively with mean temperature (r = - 0.27). The best-fitting ARIMA (1,0,0)(2,1,0)12 model suggests that peak RSV activity lags the hottest month of the year by 4 months. Our results enable possible prediction of RSV activity based on the climate and could help to anticipate the yearly upsurge of RSV in this region.


Assuntos
Conceitos Meteorológicos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Clima Tropical
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 450, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a global cause of severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants. While preventive and therapeutic interventions are being developed, including antivirals, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of RSV. INFORM is a prospective, multicenter, global clinical study performed by ReSViNET to investigate the worldwide molecular diversity of RSV isolates collected from children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: The INFORM study is performed in 17 countries spanning all inhabited continents and will provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of circulating RSV strains worldwide. Sequencing of > 4000 RSV-positive respiratory samples is planned to detect temporal and geographical molecular patterns on a molecular level over five consecutive years. Additionally, RSV will be cultured from a subset of samples to study the functional implications of specific mutations in the viral genome including viral fitness and susceptibility to different monoclonal antibodies. DISCUSSION: The sequencing and functional results will be used to investigate susceptibility and resistance to novel RSV preventive or therapeutic interventions. Finally, a repository of globally collected RSV strains and a database of RSV sequences will be created.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
15.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 66(2): 74-77, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415951

RESUMO

Infants with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus respiratory infection (HRV) produce inflammatory interleukins (ILs) in the respiratory epithelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of interleukin-8 in RSV negative and RSV positive patients. This study search was conducted without a time limit until 2020 through the databases of PubMed, Wiley, Springer, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar search engines, by two researchers independently. The random-effects model was used to compare of interleukin-8 in RSV negative vs. RSV positive patients, using Revman software version 5 meta-analysis software. Totally, 921 patients were evaluated (207 RSV-negative and 714 RSV-positive). The mean concentration of IL8 in RSV positive patients was 15.02 pg/ml (95% CI: 13.68- 16.35%).  According to the meta-analysis results, the standardized mean difference (SMD) of IL8 concentration between RSV-positive and negative patients was 6.31 pg/ml) (95% confidence interval: 2.50- 10.13%). subtotal analysis of the IL8 laboratory assessment method revealed that there was no significant SMD deference in the studies that have used chemiluminescence (P=0.21). while IL8 concentrations were significantly higher in RSV positives in ELISA and Magnetic bead-based assays (P<0.05).  It appears that RSV positive patients may have greater levels of IL8 than RSV negative ones; whereas the synthesis of IL8 tends to be more secreted into the nasopharyngeal space; whereas the evaluation approach can also affect the results.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/patologia , Bronquiolite/complicações , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Interleucina-8/análise , Interleucina-8/normas , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/normas , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação
16.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1271-1274, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458044

RESUMO

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Influenzavirus A/genética , Influenzavirus A/isolamento & purificação , Influenzavirus B/genética , Influenzavirus B/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/patologia , Megacariócitos/patologia , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Neutrófilos/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida , Pandemias , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Suíça , Linfócitos T/patologia
17.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(1): 169-176, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450617

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with bronchiolitis in infancy and the later development of asthma. Research on RSV in vitro requires preparation of a purified RSV stock. The objective for this work was to develop best methods for RSV purification, while monitoring the samples for potential contaminating proinflammatory mediators. Using polyethylene glycol concentration, and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation, we collected samples at each step of purification and measured the values of RSV titer, total protein (µg/mL), and proinflammatory cytokines (ELISA). We analyzed the efficacy of each step in the purification procedure. In so doing, we also determined that despite optimal purification methods, a well-known chemokine in the field of allergic disease, CCL5 (RANTES), persisted within the virus preparations, whereas other cytokines did not. We suggest that researchers should be aware that CCL5 appears to co-purify with RSV. Despite reasonable purification methods, a significant level of CCL5 (RANTES) persists in the virus preparation. This is relevant to the study of RSV-induced allergic disease.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/metabolismo , Sacarose/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL5/química , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Ultracentrifugação , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 133-141, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the etiology of respiratory infections among children in Qatar and surrounding countries are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and seasonality of RSV, influenza, and other respiratory pathogens among children in Qatar. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data of 33,404 children (<15 years) presented with influenza-like illness from 2012 to 2017. RESULTS: At least one respiratory pathogen was detected in 26,138 (78%) of patients. Together, human rhinoviruses (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza viruses comprised nearly two-thirds of all cases, affecting 24%, 19.7%, and 18.5%, respectively. A prevalence of 5-10% was recorded for adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), human bocavirus (HboV), and human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), enteroviruses, M. pneumonia, and parechovirus had prevalences below 5%. While RSV, influenza, and HMPV exhibited strong seasonal activity in the winter, HRV was active during low RSV and influenza circulation. The burden of RSV exceeds that of influenza among young age groups, whereas influenza correlated positively with age. Further, HRV, adenovirus, influenza, and RSV infection rates varied significantly between male and females. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive multi-year study provides insights into the etiology of ILI among children in Qatar, which represents the Gulf region. Our results reinforce the significance of active surveillance of respiratory pathogens to improve infection prevention and control strategies, particularly among children.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 74-83, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to describe the etiological profile and clinical characteristics of pneumonia among children hospitalized in Thimphu, Bhutan. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled children aged 2-59 months admitted to the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined clinical pneumonia. Demographic and clinico-radiological data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, and chest radiography. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal washing were collected for microbiological analysis including culture and molecular methods. RESULTS: From July 2017 to June 2018, 189 children were enrolled, of which 53.4% were infants. Pneumonia-related admissions were less frequent over the winter. Chest radiographies were obtained in 149 children; endpoints included pneumonia in 39 cases (26.2%), other infiltrates in 31 (20.8%), and were normal in 79 children (53.0%). Non-contaminated bacterial growth was detected in 8/152 (5.3%) blood cultures, with only two cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Viral detection in upper respiratory secretions was common, with at least one virus detected in 103/115 (89.6%). The three most-commonly isolated viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (52/115; 45.2%), rhinovirus (42/115; 36.5%), and human parainfluenza virus (19/115; 16.5%). A third of patients with viral infections showed mixed infections. Case fatality rate was 3.2% (6/189). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infections predominated among this cohort of WHO-defined clinical pneumonia cases, whereas bacterial aetiologies were uncommon, highlighting the epidemiologic transition that Bhutan seems to have reached.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Butão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação
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