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1.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(7): 276-280, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185336

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La parotiditis se caracteriza por la inflamación de la glándula parótida y fiebre, y es prevenible mediante vacunación con triple vírica (TV). El objetivo es evaluar el impacto y la efectividad vacunal (EV). Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron los casos notificados al Sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria entre 1998 y 2016. La EV se calculó en cohortes vacunadas con 2 dosis de Jeryl-Lynn, y el impacto comparando las incidencias por edad y por cohortes Rubini (1995-1998) y Jeryl-Lynn (1999-2002) en los periodos 1998-2004, 2005-2009 y 2010-2015. Las estimaciones por grupo de edad y período se compararon con las del período anterior y las estimaciones por cohortes se compararon entre sí dentro de cada período mediante razones de incidencia (RI) empleando modelos de Poisson. La EV se estimó empleando el método de cribado mediante modelos de regresión logística. Resultados: Se notificaron 13.816 casos. La incidencia en 2005-2009 fue superior a la de 1998-2004 (RI: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,40-1,53), y en 2010-2015 se mantuvo estable (RI: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,95-1,03). La incidencia anual media de las cohortes Rubini fue de 69,43 casos por 100.000 habitantes y la de las cohortes Jeryl-Lynn de 32,24. La RI fue de 0,25 (IC 95%: 0,22-0,29), 0,55 (IC 95%: 0,49-0,61) y 0,88 (IC 95%: 0,76-1,00) para cada periodo, respectivamente. Se incluyeron 2.574 casos en el estudio de EV. La EV disminuyó con el tiempo al alcanzar valores no significativos tras 7 años de seguimiento (EV: 55%; IC 95%: 82 a -12%). Conclusiones: El comportamiento de la parotiditis se caracteriza por presentar fluctuaciones, cambios en la presentación etaria y una disminución de la EV


Introduction: Mumps is characterised by parotid inflammation and fever and is preventable by vaccination with MMR vaccine. The objective of the study is to assess the impact and effectiveness of the vaccine. Material and methods: Cases notified to the Notifiable Disease System between 1998 and 2016 were used for the study. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated in cohorts vaccinated with two doses of Jeryl-Lynn, and the impact was calculated by comparing incidences by age and by Rubini (1995-1998) and Jeryl-Lynn (1999-2002) cohorts during the periods 1998-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2015. The incidences for age group and period were compared with the previous period and the incidences for cohorts were compared within a period with incidence ratios (IR) using Poisson models. The VE was estimated using the screening method using logistic regression models. Results: 13,816 cases were reported. The incidence in 2005-2009 was higher than in 1998-2004 (IR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.40-1.53), and it remained stable in 2010-2015 (IR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95-1.03). The average incidence rate of the Rubini cohort was 69.43 and the Jeryl-Lynn cohort was 32.24. The IR was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.22-0.29), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.49-0.61) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.00) for each period respectively. 2,574 cases were included in the VE study. EV decreased over time reaching not significant values after seven years of follow-up (VE: 55%, 95% CI: 82 to -12%). Conclusions: Parotiditis behavior is characterised by fluctuations, changes in presentation and a decrease in VE


Assuntos
Humanos , Parotidite/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais , Resultado do Tratamento , Caxumba/imunologia , Parotidite/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Modelos Logísticos , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vacina contra Caxumba , Intervalos de Confiança , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443341

RESUMO

Child blood lead concentrations have been associated with measures of immune dysregulation in nationally representative study samples. However, response to vaccination-often considered the gold standard in immunotoxicity testing-has not been examined in relation to typical background lead concentrations common among U.S. children. The present study estimated the association between blood lead concentrations and antigen-specific antibody levels to measles, mumps, and rubella in a nationally representative sample of 7005 U.S. children aged 6-17 years. Data from the 1999-2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. In the adjusted models, children with blood lead concentrations between 1 and 5 µg/dL had an 11% lower anti-measles (95% CI: -16, -5) and a 6% lower anti-mumps antibody level (95% CI: -11, -2) compared to children with blood lead concentrations <1 µg/dL. The odds of a seronegative anti-measles antibody level was approximately two-fold greater for children with blood lead concentrations between 1 and 5 µg/dL compared to children with blood lead concentrations <1 µg/dL (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.1). The adverse associations observed in the present study provide further evidence of potential immunosuppression at blood lead concentrations <5 µg/dL, the present Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/imunologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 388-393, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982273

RESUMO

Objective: To explore serum levels of measles and rubella IgG antibodies among mothers and infants. Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 319 puerperae and their infants in maternal hospitals of Songjiang district November 2016 to February 2017, venous blood were collected and serum measles and rubella IgG antibodies were measured using ELISA. To study the correlation between the level of measles and rubella antibodies in infants and mothers' by using the Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: The age at delivery was (29.71±4.25) years old; and the gestational age at delivery was (39.06±1.30) weeks. The positive rate and protection rate of measles antibody in puerperae were 82.5% (243/319) and 43.3% (135/319), the GMC [M (QR)] was 655.74 (251.21-1 299.02) mIU/ml. The positive rate of rubella antibody in puerperae was 61.1% (195/319), the GMC [M (QR)] was 31.34 (11.65-73.61) IU/ml. The positive rate and protection rate of measles antibody in infants were 84.1% (270/321) and 46.1% (148/321), the GMC [M (QR)] was 665.07 (279.63-1 544.07) mIU/ml. The positive rate of rubella antibody in infants was 69.5% (223/321), the GMC [M (QR)] was 40.30 (16.12-98.48) IU/ml. There was statistical difference in measles (Z=-14.64, P<0.001) and rubella (Z=-8.66, P<0.001) antibody levels between mothers and infants. There was positive correlation in measles (r=0.76, P<0.001) and rubella (r=0.86, P<0.001) antibody level between mothers and infants. Conclusion: The maternal antibody of measles and rubella had a concentration effect. The level of measles and rubella antibodies in the infants was higher than that in the mothers' and increased with the increase of the level of measles and rubella antibodies in the mothers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Mães , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Troca Materno-Fetal , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Gravidez , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 155, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mumps-containing vaccine is currently not a component of the national immunization schedule in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Mumps itself is not a notifiable disease in the country and the seroprevalence of anti-mumps immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the general population is unknown. In this study, anti-mumps IgG was measured in 2058 blood samples to evaluate population immunity in the country. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-mumps IgG showed a gradual increase with increasing age, starting at 10.6% (95% CI 7.4-13.7) in participants aged 1-2 years, and almost plateaued at about 75% in individuals older than 11-12 years, though it still tended toward a small increase up to 89.6% (95% CI 86.6-92.6) in participants aged 40 years or older. Compared with the results of previous studies, this increase with increasing age is less marked and the plateau of anti-mumps seroprevalence is lower. We attribute this result mainly to the lower population density in Lao PDR.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/imunologia , Vacina contra Caxumba , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 2075803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723748

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of persistence of mumps virus and some cells that interact with viral infection in the focus of the autoimmune epithelitis and peripheral blood of Sjögren's syndrome patients in comparison to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and nonautoimmune sicca syndrome (nSS). Materials and Methods: 126 patients (119 women and 7 men) were grouped into four groups: (1) patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), (2) patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome due to rheumatoid arthritis (sSS), (3) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (4) patients with nonautoimmune sicca syndrome (nSS). Immunohistochemical analysis of immune response to the suggested silent persistence of mumps virus in the minor labial salivary gland biopsies and flow cytometric analysis of blood cells was done. Results: Immunohistochemical signs of mumps virus persistence were found in the minor salivary glands of all study groups. Also, a significantly different immune response to virus infection (protein IFI16, interferons gamma and beta, dendritic cells, and receptor for natural killers) was revealed in the minor salivary glands of the study groups. Cytometric analysis of the blood cells revealed a dropping amount of circulating natural killers and dendritic cells in patients with SS. Significant correlations between immunohistochemical staining and serological findings were revealed. Conclusions: Abundant immunohistochemical signs of mumps virus protein in the salivary glands and depletion of circulating immune cells make a background for thought of presumable mumps or/and other virus participation in epithelial damage causing sicca syndrome in predisposed patients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biópsia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Salivares/citologia , Glândulas Salivares Menores/citologia , Glândulas Salivares Menores/virologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/virologia , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Virol ; 93(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626672

RESUMO

Mumps outbreaks among vaccinated young adults stress the need for a better understanding of mumps virus (MuV)-induced immunity. Antibody responses to MuV are well characterized, but studies on T cell responses are limited. We recently isolated a MuV-specific CD4+ T cell clone by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a mumps case with the viral nucleoprotein (MuV-N). In this study, we further explored the identity and relevance of the epitope recognized by the CD4+ T cell clone and ex vivo by T cells in a cohort of mumps cases. Using a two-dimensional matrix peptide pool of 15-mer peptides covering the complete MuV-N, we identified the epitope recognized by the T cell clone as MuV-N110-124 GTYRLIPNARANLTA, present in a well-conserved region of the viral protein. Upon peptide-specific stimulation, the T cell clone expressed the activation marker CD137 and produced gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-10 in a HLA-DR4-restricted manner. Moreover, the CD4+ T cells exerted a cytotoxic phenotype and specifically killed cells presenting MuV-N110-124 Furthermore, the identified peptide is widely applicable to the general population since it is predicted to bind various common HLA-DR molecules, and epitope-specific CD4+ T cells displaying cytotoxic/Th1-type properties were found in all tested mumps cases expressing different HLA-DR alleles. This first broadly recognized human MuV-specific CD4+ T cell epitope could provide a useful tool to detect and evaluate virus-specific T cell responses upon MuV infection or following vaccination.IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of mumps among vaccinated young adults have been reported worldwide. Humoral responses against mumps virus (MuV) are well characterized, although no correlate of protection has been elucidated, stressing the need to better understand cellular MuV-specific immunity. In this study, we identified the first MuV T cell epitope, which is derived from the viral nucleoprotein (MuV-N) and was recognized by a cytotoxic/Th1 CD4+ T cell clone that was isolated from a mumps case. Moreover, the epitope was predicted to bind a broad variety of common HLA-DRB1 alleles, which was confirmed by the epitope-specific cytotoxic/Th1 CD4+ T cell responses observed in multiple mumps cases with various HLA-DRB1 genotypes. The identified epitope is completely conserved among various mumps strains. These findings qualify this promiscuous MuV T cell epitope as a useful tool for further in-depth exploration of MuV-specific T cell immunity after natural mumps virus infection or induced by vaccination.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Nucleoproteínas/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia
7.
J Med Virol ; 91(3): 347-350, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252936

RESUMO

Mumps, a vaccine-preventable disease, cause inflammation of salivary glands and may cause severe complications, such as encephalitis, meningitis, deafness, and orchitis/oophoritis. In India, mumps vaccine is not included in the universal immunization program and during 2009 to 2014, 72 outbreaks with greater than 1500 cases were reported. In August 2016, a suspected mumps outbreak was reported in Jaisalmer block, Rajasthan. We investigated to confirm the etiology, describe the epidemiology, and recommend prevention and control measures. We defined a case as swelling in the parotid region in a Jaisalmer block resident between 23 June 2016 and 10 September 2016. We searched for cases in health facilities and house-to-house in affected villages and hamlets. We tested blood samples of cases for mumps immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found 162 cases (60% males) with a median age of 9.4 years (range: 7 month-38 years) and 65 (40%) were females. Symptoms included fever (70%) and bilateral swelling in neck (65%). None of them were vaccinated against mumps. Most (84%) cases were school-going children (3-16 years old). The overall attack rate was 2%. Village A, with two hamlets, had the highest attack rate (hamlet 1 = 13% and hamlet 2 = 12%). School A of village A, hamlet 1, which accommodated 200 children in two classrooms, had an attack rate of 55%. Of 18 blood samples from cases, 11 tested positive for mumps IgM ELISA. This was a confirmed mumps outbreak in Jaisalmer block that disproportionately affected school-going children. We recommended continued surveillance, 5-day absence from school, and vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/sangue , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Dis ; 219(1): 50-58, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085178

RESUMO

Background: Mumps vaccine immunizations have reduced the incidence of this disease. With the variation of mumps circulating strain, novel vaccine strains are always important. Methods: A 2-center parallel, randomized, double-blind noninferiority trial was performed to compare an F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine (SP strain) to the A-genotype vaccine (S-79, Jeryl-Lynn strain) in 1080 healthy children aged 8-24 months in Hubei, China. Results: Participants were randomly assigned to receive a high or low dose of the SP or S79 vaccine and then assessed clinically at 30 minutes and 1-28 days postinoculation. No differences in local or systemic reactivity were observed. A similar incidence of severe adverse events associated with the vaccine was observed in the high-dose group and the positive control group. Based on throat swab collections, no viral shedding was present at the 4th and 10th days in any group. Neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody assays with the F- or A-genotype strains showed similar trends in geometric mean titers in the high-dose SP and S79 groups. Increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were observed in all groups. Conclusions: The F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine is safe, offers immunogenicity against a homologous virus, and is noninferior to the A-genotype vaccine in 8- to 24-month-old children.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Caxumba/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genótipo , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/imunologia , Vacina contra Caxumba/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(7): 907.e1-907.e6, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mumps used to affect children between 2 and 15 years old. The mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine is available, with vaccine coverage rate of about 85% after two vaccine doses. Recently new mumps outbreaks have emerged in highly vaccinated populations; the causes for these new outbreaks are yet unknown. We tested if a difference in seroneutralizing capacity against the vaccine and wild-type viruses existed and if waning immunity could be detected. METHODS: In this study, 570 serum samples (age group 2-3 years (n = 96), 8-9 years (n = 95), 13-14 years (n = 94), 18-20 years (n = 96), 24-26 years (n = 92) and 50 + years (n = 97)) in Belgium were tested in the rapid fluorescent foci inhibition test for their neutralizing capacity against the vaccine and wild-type viruses. RESULTS: Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine strain were present in 84% (81/97) of the 2-3-year, 74% (70/95) of the 8-9-year, 81% (76/94) of the 13-14-year, 76% (73/96) of the 18-20-year, 67% (62/92) of the 24-26-year and 77% (75/97) of the 50+-year age group serum samples. For all age groups, only about half of these serum samples were also positive for the wild-type virus. The geometric mean titres for the vaccine and wild-type virus for all younger age groups, except for 24-26 years, were significantly different, demonstrating poor in vitro cross-neutralization. CONCLUSIONS: A possible contribution of antigenic differences between the genotype A and G mumps virus as well as other immune factors, in addition to lower-than-optimal vaccination coverage and waning immunity, could explain the poor in vitro cross-neutralization and should be further studied.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Neutralização , Cobertura Vacinal , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biol Chem ; 400(5): 629-638, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504522

RESUMO

Analyses of the peptide sharing between five common human viruses (Borna disease virus, influenza A virus, measles virus, mumps virus and rubella virus) and the human proteome highlight a massive viral vs. human peptide overlap that is mathematically unexpected. Evolutionarily, the data underscore a strict relationship between viruses and the origin of eukaryotic cells. Indeed, according to the viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis and in light of the endosymbiotic theory, the first eukaryotic cell (our lineage) originated as a consortium consisting of an archaeal ancestor of the eukaryotic cytoplasm, a bacterial ancestor of the mitochondria and a viral ancestor of the nucleus. From a pathologic point of view, the peptide sequence similarity between viruses and humans may provide a molecular platform for autoimmune crossreactions during immune responses following viral infections/immunizations.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Vírus da Doença de Borna/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus do Sarampo/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos
13.
Cell Rep ; 25(2): 312-320.e7, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304672

RESUMO

Bats harbor a plethora of viruses with an unknown zoonotic potential. In-depth functional characterization of such viruses is often hampered by a lack of virus isolates. The genome of a virus closely related to human mumps viruses (hMuV) was detected in African fruit bats, batMuV. Efforts to characterize batMuV were based on directed expression of the batMuV glycoproteins or use of recombinant chimeric hMuVs harboring batMuV glycoprotein. Although these studies provided initial insights into the functionality of batMuV glycoproteins, the host range, replication competence, immunomodulatory functions, virulence, and zoonotic potential of batMuV remained elusive. Here, we report the successful rescue of recombinant batMuV. BatMuV infects human cells, is largely resistant to the host interferon response, blocks interferon induction and TNF-α activation, and is neurotoxic in rats. Anti-hMuV antibodies efficiently neutralize batMuV. The striking similarities between hMuV and batMuV point at the putative zoonotic potential of batMuV.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/virologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Caxumba/patogenicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew
14.
mSphere ; 3(5)2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209129

RESUMO

Waning mumps IgG antibody and incomplete IgG avidity maturation may increase susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinees. To measure mumps IgG avidity, serum specimens serially diluted to the endpoint were incubated on a commercial mumps-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and treated with the protein denaturant diethylamine (60 mM, pH 10). End titer avidity indices (etAIs [percent ratio of detected diethylamine-resistant IgG at endpoint]) were calculated. Unpaired serum specimens (n = 108) from 15-month-old children living in a low-incidence setting were collected 1 month and 2 years after the first measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine dose (MMR1) and tested for mumps avidity. Per the receiver operating characteristic curve, the avidity assay is accurate (area under the curve, 0.994; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.956 to 1.000), 96.5% sensitive (95% CI, 87.9 to 99.6%), and 92.2% specific (95% CI, 81.1 to 97.8%) at an etAI of 30%. When 9 sets of paired serum specimens collected 1 to 60 months post-MMR1 were tested for mumps and measles IgG avidity using comparable methods, the mumps etAI increased from 11% to 40 to 60% in 6 months. From 6 to 60 months, avidity was sustained at a mean etAI of 50% (95% CI, 46 to 54%), significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than the mean measles etAI of 80% (95% CI, 74 to 86%). Mean etAIs in children 2 years post-MMR1 (n = 51), unvaccinated adults with distant mumps disease (n = 29), and confirmed mumps cases (n = 23) were 54, 62, and 57%, respectively. A mumps-specific endpoint avidity assay was developed and validated, and mumps avidity was determined to be generally sustained at etAIs of 40 to 60%, reaching etAIs of >80% in some individuals.IMPORTANCE Numerous outbreaks of mumps have occurred in the United States among two-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)-vaccinated populations since 2006. The avidity of mumps-specific IgG antibodies may affect susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinated individuals. To accurately measure mumps avidity, we developed and validated a mumps-specific IgG avidity assay that determines avidity at the endpoint titer of serially diluted serum specimens, providing results that are independent of IgG concentration. At low antibody titers, endpoint methods are considered more accurate than methods that determine avidity at a single dilution. We determined that 6 months after the first MMR dose, mumps IgG avidity is high and generally sustained at avidity indices of 40 to 60%, reaching values of >80% in some individuals. Additionally, 4% (4/103) of individuals had avidity indices of ≤30% (low avidity) 2 years after vaccination. Inadequate mumps avidity maturation may be one factor influencing susceptibility to mumps virus infection among previously vaccinated or naturally infected individuals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13337, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190529

RESUMO

The surface proteins of the mumps virus, the fusion protein (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), are key factors in mumps pathogenesis and are important targets for the immune response during mumps virus infection. We compared the predicted amino acid sequences of the F and HN genes from Dutch mumps virus samples from the pre-vaccine era (1957-1982) with mumps virus genotype G strains (from 2004 onwards). Genotype G is the most frequently detected mumps genotype in recent outbreaks in vaccinated communities, especially in Western Europe, the USA and Japan. Amino acid differences between the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains (genotype A) and genotype G strains were predominantly located in known B-cell epitopes and in N-linked glycosylation sites on the HN protein. There were eight variable amino acid positions specific to genotype A or genotype G sequences in five known B-cell epitopes of the HN protein. These differences may account for the reported antigenic differences between Jeryl Lynn and genotype G strains. We also found amino acid differences in and near sites on the HN protein that have been reported to play a role in mumps virus pathogenesis. These differences may contribute to the occurrence of genotype G outbreaks in vaccinated communities.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Proteína HN/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Glicosilação , Proteína HN/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/genética , Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Caxumba/genética , Vacina contra Caxumba/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/patogenicidade
16.
Vaccine ; 36(38): 5725-5731, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122648

RESUMO

To clarify the protective effect of one-dose mumps-containing vaccines (MuCV) in mainland China, the antigenic variations of HN gene and cross-neutralization capacities between MuCV and wild type genotype F MuVs were studied. In total, 70 HN gene sequences of genotype F MuV representative strains obtained from 2001 to 2015, two types of MuCV strains, 139 pairs of pre- and post-vaccination serum samples from infants receiving one dose of MuCV vaccination were analyzed. Genotype-specific amino acid variations were observed in the potential antigenic epitopes between MuCV and wild-type genotype F MuVs circulating in mainland China. The mumps neutralization antibody titers induced by one-dose MuCV were found to be generally low. Moreover, significant differences in neutralization titers were observed between vaccine and wild-type strains. It could be concluded that one-dose MuCV had a cross-protective effect against the wild-type genotype F MuVs, but its effectiveness was limited, which might be caused by insufficient doses of MuCV vaccination and the genotype-specific antigenic differences between vaccine and wild-type MuVs as well. In addition, a poor linear correlation between mumps-specific IgG concentrations and neutralization titers was observed in this study, indicating the concentration of MuV-specific IgG could not fully reflect the neutralizing antibody titer in serum. Therefore, it is highly recommended to provide a second dose of MuCV to preschool children to increase MuV neutralizing antibody titers and use MuV cross-neutralization test as preferred tool for assessment of mumps-containing vaccine effectiveness on wild-type MuVs. This is the first report to assess the effectiveness of one-dose Chinese MuCV against wild-type genotype F MuVs, which would be benefit for the development of mumps vaccination strategy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacina contra Caxumba/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Variação Antigênica/genética , Variação Antigênica/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , China , Epitopos/imunologia , Genótipo , Proteína HN/genética , Proteína HN/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Caxumba/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Vacinação
17.
Vaccine ; 36(38): 5781-5788, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potency of live viral vaccines decreases over time. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of GSK measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR-RIT) formulations at two different potencies with that of the commercially-available MMR II formulation. METHODS: In this phase III observer-blind clinical study (NCT01681992), 4516 healthy children aged 12-15 months were randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive one dose of MMR-RIT at the minimum potency used for this study (MMR-RIT-Min) or MMR-RIT at the second lowest potency used for this study (MMR-RIT-Med), or control MMR II vaccine. A second dose (MMR-RIT or MMR II) was administered 42 days after the first. The study had 10 co-primary objectives to evaluate MMR-RIT versus MMR II immunogenicity via a hierarchical procedure. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured by ELISA and anti-mumps antibodies by ELISA and unenhanced plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RESULTS: Each formulation induced immune responses to all vaccine antigens after each MMR dose. While the primary objectives for MMR-RIT-Min were not met, MMR-RIT-Med induced immune responses as measured by ELISA against the three vaccine antigens that met pre-specified non-inferiority criteria. The immune response following MMR-RIT-Med against mumps measured by PRNT failed the non-inferiority criterion for seroresponse rate: the 97.5% confidence interval lower limit (-10.94%) was beyond the pre-defined limit of -10%. Immune responses were comparable among groups post-dose 2. No safety concerns were identified, and MMR-RIT and MMR II vaccines had similar reactogenicity and safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS: One dose of MMR-RIT formulation with lower potency (MMR-RIT-Med) induced a non-inferior immune response compared to commercial MMR II vaccine, measured by ELISA in one-year-old children. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated in terms of immune response against mumps virus measured by unenhanced PRNT, although the difference was of uncertain clinical relevance. After the second dose, immune responses were comparable among the MMR-RIT and MMR II groups.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Vírus do Sarampo/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Potência de Vacina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Combinadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(1): 71-76, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of mumps antibodies in children and adolescents of Mexico, two years after the introduction of the mumps-containing vaccine MMR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of IgG antibodies with a commercial kit of indirect ELISA. RESULTS: 2 111 children (1-9 years) and 2484 adolescents (10-19 years) were studied. The overall antibody seroprevalence was 70.6% (95% CI 69.3-71.9), being higher in adolescents (83.0%, 95%CI 81.5-84.5) than in children (56.0%, 95%CI: 53.9-58.11) (OR 3.83, 95%CI 3.34-4.39, p=0.0000000). Children 1 to 2 and 6 to 9 years who were part of the target group of mumps vaccination since 1998, they had higher seroprevalence than the group of 3 to 5 years unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Seropositivity in children aged 1 to 2 and 6 to 9 years was probably attributable to vaccination during 1998-2000 and in other age groups to natural exposure related to time elapsed in each birth cohort until the study recruitment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , México , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(5)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491021

RESUMO

Mumps remains endemic in North America despite routine use of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. In 2016, an outbreak of mumps in British Columbia, Canada, provided an opportunity to determine the diagnostic utility of laboratory testing methods. Specimens from patients with clinical mumps were tested for infection using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibody detection and an in-house reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting viral fusion and small hydrophobic (SH) genes. Viral genotyping was performed by SH gene sequencing. Laboratory data was linked with epidemiologic case data. Of the 139 confirmed cases, 94 (68%) had reported or documented history of MMR vaccination. Specimens were typically collected 1 day (for buccal and IgM tests) or 2 days (for urine tests) after symptom onset. Most confirmed cases (69%) were confirmed by buccal swab RT-PCR. Among cases tested by multiple methods, the percent positivity for buccal swab RT-PCR was 90% (96/107) compared to 43% (30/69) for both IgM ELISA and urine RT-PCR. Mumps IgM detection was higher in confirmed cases with no history of vaccination than in those with history (64% versus 34%, P = 0.02). The outbreak strain was identified as genotype G related to MuVi/Sheffield.GBR/1.05 but with conserved variations in five nucleotides within the SH gene that allowed linkage of geographically distinct cases. In conclusion, RT-PCR of buccal specimens had the highest diagnostic yield during a mumps outbreak in a partially vaccinated population. To optimize mumps diagnostic potential, clinicians should collect specimens depending on when the patient presents for care and their immunization history.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Caxumba/diagnóstico , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genes Virais/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/genética , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/imunologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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