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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 17-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741332

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be a serious threat to public health and is associated with many liver diseases including chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) and pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFNα) have been confirmed to be efficient in inhibiting HBV replication, it is difficult to eradicate HBV and achieve the clinical cure of CHB. Therefore, long-term therapy has been recommended to CHB treatment under the current antiviral therapy. In this context, the new antiviral therapy targeting one or multiple critical steps of viral life cycle may be an alternative approach in future. In the last decade, the functional receptor [sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP)] of HBV entry into hepatocytes has been discovered, and the immature nucleocapsids containing the non- or partially reverse-transcribed pregenomic RNA, the nucleocapsids containing double-strand linear DNA (dslDNA), and the empty particles devoid of any HBV nucleic acid have been found to be released into circulation, which have supplemented the life cycle of HBV. The understanding of HBV life cycle may offer a new instruction for searching the potential antiviral targets, and the new viral markers used to monitor the efficacy of antiviral therapy for CHB patients in the future.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 39-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741333

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen lacking a reliable curative therapy. Current therapeutics target the viral reverse transcriptase/DNA polymerase to inhibit viral replication but generally fail to resolve chronic HBV infections. Due to the limited coding potential of the HBV genome, alternative approaches for the treatment of chronic infections are desperately needed. An alternative approach to the development of antiviral therapeutics is to target cellular gene products that are critical to the viral life cycle. As transcription of the viral genome is an essential step in the viral life cycle, the selective inhibition of viral RNA synthesis is a possible approach for the development of additional therapeutic modalities that might be used in combination with currently available therapies. To address this possibility, a molecular understanding of the relationship between viral transcription and replication is required. The first step is to identify the transcription factors that are the most critical in controlling the levels of HBV RNA synthesis and to determine their in vivo role in viral biosynthesis. Mapping studies in cell culture utilizing reporter gene constructs permitted the identification of both ubiquitous and liver-enriched transcription factors capable of modulating transcription from the four HBV promoters. However, it was challenging to determine their relative importance for viral biosynthesis in the available human hepatoma replication systems. This technical limitation was addressed, in part, by the development of non-hepatoma HBV replication systems where viral biosynthesis was dependent on complementation with exogenously expressed transcription factors. These systems revealed the importance of specific nuclear receptors and hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF3)/forkhead box A (FoxA) transcription factors for HBV biosynthesis. Furthermore, using the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic viral infection, the importance of various nuclear receptors and FoxA isoforms could be established in vivo. The availability of this combination of systems now permits a rational approach toward the development of selective host transcription factor inhibitors. This might permit the development of a new class of therapeutics to aid in the treatment and resolution of chronic HBV infections, which currently affects approximately 1 in 30 individuals worldwide and kills up to a million people annually.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , DNA Viral/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1179: 71-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741334

RESUMO

More than 95% of adult infected with HBV show acute self-limited infection and eventually eliminate the virus. In contrast, about 90% of people exposed to HBV in early childhood develop chronic infection. The specificity of the virus and the host's antiviral immune responses together determine the outcome of HBV infection. It is generally believed that viral genome variation, viral titers, and inhibition of viral components against the host immune system are associated with persistent infection and liver damage. The dysfunction of innate immune cells (NK cells, monocyte/macrophages, NKT cells, etc.) and adaptive immune cells (antigen-presenting cells, T cells, B cells) is a key factor leading to virus clearance failure and liver inflammation. In this chapter, we summarize these viral factors and host factors in acute and chronic hepatitis B and update recent understanding of the immune-tolerant phase and pathological mechanisms associated with age and vertical transmission. This will help us to understand more fully the mechanisms of chronic HBV infection and liver injury and to develop combined treatment strategies of direct antiviral drugs for HBV life cycle and immunomodulators.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Carga Viral
4.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 610-614, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594078

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether single-stranded guided RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 protein exist in the exosome secreted by cells transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 expression plasmid. Furthermore, to explore whether CRISPR/Cas9 system can edit target genes of peripheral cells through the intercellular transmission of exosomes. Methods: (1) The CRISPR/Cas9 expression plasmid was transfected into HuH7 cells. The supernatant was collected and the exosomes were concentrated and purified by differential centrifugation. The morphology and particle size of exosomes were determined by electronic microscopy and Malvern laser scatter granulometry. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the levels of gRNA and Cas9 protein. (2) HuH7 cells transfected with pBB4.5 1.2×HBV and HBV specific CRISPR/Cas9 expression plasmids were co-cultured. After 2 days, HBV DNA was extracted and sequenced by PCR. Results: There were not only full-length gRNA and Cas9 protein in the exosomes of Huh7 cells transfected with CRISPR / Cas9 expression plasmid. In addition, gene-editing functions were delivered between the cells to achieve the destruction of HBV genome of surrounding cells. Conclusion: The CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system has the potential to deliver exosomes between cells via carrying functional gRNA and Cas9 proteins. This phenomenon hints that we are in the process of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the potential effects of exosomes-carried gRNA and Cas9 proteins on the surrounding cells of the distal tubules.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Exossomos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Linhagem Celular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Transfecção
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 802, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. Persistence of the virus occurs as a result of stability of the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Development of drugs that are capable of disabling this cccDNA is vital. METHODS: To investigate an epigenetic approach to inactivating viral DNA, we engineered transcriptional repressors that comprise an HBV DNA-binding domain of transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) and a fused Krüppel Associated Box (KRAB). These repressor TALEs (rTALEs) targeted the viral surface open reading frame and were placed under transcription control of constitutively active or liver-specific promoters. RESULTS: Evaluation in cultured cells and following hydrodynamic injection of mice revealed that the rTALEs significantly inhibited production of markers of HBV replication without evidence of hepatotoxicity. Increased methylation of HBV DNA at CpG island II showed that the rTALEs caused intended epigenetic modification. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic modification of HBV DNA is a new and effective means of inactivating the virus in vivo. The approach has therapeutic potential and avoids potentially problematic unintended mutagenesis of gene editing.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite B/virologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , DNA Circular/genética , DNA Viral/biossíntese , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Camundongos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
6.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2683-2690, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428915

RESUMO

Current antiviral therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, such as treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) and interferon alpha, can significantly lower HBV DNA titers, eventually to undetectable levels. However, it is still difficult to completely eliminate the stable template of HBV, the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and this contributes to viral rebound when treatment is discontinued. HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which was recently found to be present in the enveloped mature HBV viral particle in blood, is tentatively regarded, with still accumulating clinical evidence, as a novel bona fide virological marker reflecting the amount and status of cccDNA when serum HBV DNA becomes undetectable. HBV pgRNA and DNA share almost identical sequences, and it is therefore difficult to differentiate pgRNA from viral DNA using normal PCR methods. To exclude interference from viral DNA, methods for measuring pgRNA usually require a selective DNA degradation step, which is complicated and time-consuming and also compromises the accuracy of detection. In this study, we developed a simplified quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with improved accuracy achieved by probing the polyA tail of pgRNA. Using clinical serum samples, we observed that not all patients share the same 3' sequence, suggesting slight differences between HBV strains in the way they end transcription. We then designed and evaluated a universal primer and probe set for distinguishing HBV pgRNA from HBV DNA. Our results demonstrated that a one-step qRT-PCR assay could selectively amplify HBV pgRNA from a mixture of HBV RNA and DNA, which is valuable for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , RNA/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 640, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The virological or clinical relapse is common in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients after stopping long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy. Soluble growth stimulation expressed gene 2 (sST2), one of the Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor members, is involved in a variety of inflammatory processes and immune responses. However, the expression and function of serum sST2 in CHB patients after stopping NA treatment remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 91 non-cirrhotic Asian patients with CHB who discontinued NA therapy according to international guidelines were prospectively followed up to 240 weeks. All patients were divided into clinical relapse group and non-clinical relapse (including sustained virological response and only virological relapse) group according HBV DNA and ALT levels. The serum levels of sST2 of all participants were determined by ELISA and compared between each two groups. RESULTS: Clinical relapse occurred in 26 patients and virological relapse occurred in 57 patients. We found that there was a positive correlation between sST2 expression and HBsAg, ALT, HBV DNA, and anti-HBc levels in CHB patients after discontinuation of NA treatment. Levels of serum sST2 in clinical relapse patients showed a rising trend and most patients showed peak sST2 levels at the point of clinical relapse. Moreover, the sST2 levels of clinical relapse group at week 12, week 24 and week 48 were relatively higher than non-clinical relapse group. However, the level of sST2 at the end of treatment was not an effective biological marker for the early prediction of clinical relapse after discontinuation of long-term NA therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that an increase in sST2 in clinical relapse patients might be associated with an inflammation-related immune response after discontinuation of NA treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-17013970 . Registration date: December 15, 2017.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2297-2307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267215

RESUMO

The influence of the high genetic variability of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the sensitivity of serological assays has received little attention so far. A major source of variability is related to viral genotypes and subgenotypes. Their possible influence on diagnosis and prophylaxis is poorly known and has mostly been evaluated for genotypes A, B, C and D. Robust data showing the detection efficiency of HBsAg from genotype F is lacking. This study examined the effect of virus-like particles containing HBsAg from genotypes A and F (particularly, F1b and F4) produced in Pichia pastoris in relation to the anti-HBs antibodies used in the immunoassays for in vitro diagnosis and compared it with that exerted by the G145R S-escape mutant. The results showed that HBsAg detection rates for subgenotypes F1b and F4 differed significantly from those obtained for genotype A and that subgenotype F1b had a major impact on the sensitivity of the immunoassays tested. Prediction of the tertiary structure of subgenotypes F1b and F4 revealed changes inside and outside the major hydrophilic region (aa 101-160) of the HBsAg compared to genotype A and the G145R variant. A phosphorylation site (target for protein kinase C) produced by the G145R substitution might prevent recognition by anti-HBs antibodies. In conclusion, the use of different genotypes or variants for diagnosis could improve the rate of detection of HBV infection. The incorporation of a genotype-F-derived HBsAg vaccine in areas where this genotype is endemic should be evaluated, since this might also affect vaccination efficacy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 574, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood donor plasma samples were detected by the Ultrio Plus NAT system for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 in Shenzhen blood center, China. Reactive samples underwent further discriminatory testing of a single virus by the same methodology. A large number of cases of non-discriminated reactive (NDR) donors were found, leaving potential risk of transmitting HBV if not deferrals. This study identified those non-discriminated samples. METHODS: The NDR plasma samples from blood donation screening were detected and classified by additional molecular and serological tests. Molecular characterizations of DNA+ NDR were determined by sequencing analysis. RESULTS: A number of 259 (0.21%) NDR plasma samples from screening of 123,280 eligible blood donors were detected, which presented a higher rate (91.1%) of anti-HBc reactivity and nearly half (46.7%) of HBV DNA+ that classified as occult HBV infection (OBI). Most OBI strains were wild-type HBV, but some substitutions V168A, S174 N, V177A, Q129R/L/H, G145A/R in S region of genotype B (OBIB) and T47K/V/A, P49H/L, Q101R/H/K, S174 N, L175S, V177A, T118 M/R/K, G145R/A/K/E, R160K/N in S region of genotype C (OBIC) strains were identified in high frequency. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of NDR blood samples were identified as OBI, in which a number of important mutations were detected. NDR donation might have potential risk for HBV transmission, but need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV-1/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 614, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine in chronic hepatitis B women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS: The week 12-34 of pregnant women were screened in this prospective non-intervention study, with HBV DNA > 106 IU/mL and alanine aminotransferase > 50 IU/L. The patients were received telbivudine treatment as a treatment group or without antiviral treatment as a control group. All infants were received recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 10 µg within 12 h of birth, at week 4 and week 24, immunoglobulin G within 12 h of birth and were detected HBV markers at the range from 7 to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were finally enrolled, 139 patients in telbivudine group and 102 patients in control group. HBsAg negative rate of infants was 99.3% (135/136) in telbivudine group and was 91.9% (91/99) in control group after 7 months (P = 0.005), respectively. The incidence of undetectable HBV DNA levels (47.5%) was significantly lower in telbivudine-treated mothers than that in the controls (0%), and 75.5% patients alanine aminotransferase returned to normal in telbivudine group, and 51% in control group at delivery (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Telbivudine can safely reduce mother-to-child transmission in chronic hepatitis B women after 12 weeks of gestation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Telbivudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(2): 80-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187746

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in Nigeria. Available literature reveal genotype E as being predominant in West Africa. This study aimed at identifying the current pattern and prevalent genotypes of HBV in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Four millilitre of blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-container from each of 165 HBV surface antigen-positive participants recruited purposively from the gastroenterology clinic from May to August, 2017. Plasma was separated and frozen at -20°C till analysis. Multiplex-nested polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers was used to identify the various HBV genotypes. Results: Median (and interquartile range) age of the participants was 31.0 (25.5-39.0) years, with males constituting 107 (64.8%). Majority (83.6%) of the samples analysed were HBV-DNA-positive with 82.6% of the HBV-DNA-positive samples being mixed genotype infections. Irrespective of mode of occurrence, five HBV genotypes were identified with HBV/E (97.1%) being the most predominant, followed by HBV/B (82.6%), HBV/A (24.6%), then HBV/C (17.4%), while HBV/D (0.7%) was the least prevalent. Conclusion: In most (99.1%) of the mixed-infection were a combination of genotype E, the predominant genotype, with other genotypes predominantly genotype B. HBV genotypes E, B, A, C and D are the prevalent genotypes in Zaria, Nigeria, as they occur in single genotype and in mixed-genotypes pattern.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Genes Virais/genética , Genótipo , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 879-894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179847

RESUMO

Hepatocyte proliferation could result in the loss of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and the emergence of cccDNA-cleared nascent hepatocytes, which appear refractory to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection with unknown mechanism(s). Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the functional receptor for HBV entry. In this study, down-regulation of cell membrane localized NTCP expression in proliferating hepatocytes was found to prevent HBV infection in HepG2-NTCP-tet cells and in liver-humanized mice. In patients, lower NTCP protein expression was correlated well with higher levels of hepatocyte proliferation and less HBsAg expression in HBV-related focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) tissues. Clinically, significantly lower NTCP protein expression was correlated with more active hepatocyte proliferation in CHB patients with severe active necroinflammation and better antiviral treatment outcome. Mechanistically, the activation of cell cycle regulatory genes p53, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) and cyclin D1 during cell proliferation, as well as proliferative and inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) could transcriptionally down-regulate NTCP expression. From these aspects, we conclude that within the milieu of hepatocyte proliferation, down-regulation of cell membrane localized NTCP expression level renders nascent hepatocytes resistant to HBV reinfection. This may accelerate virus clearance during immune-mediated cell death and compensatory proliferation of survival hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/fisiopatologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
13.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(4): 250-255, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082334

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the correlation between interleukin-6 (IL-6) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the occurrence and prognosis of hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Methods: Patients with chronic hepatic diseases diagnosed as HBV infection in the Hepatology Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from July 2012 to March 2018 were divided into HBV-ACLF and non-ACLF group. SNP genotyping of eight loci in IL-6 gene (rs1524107, rs1800795, rs1800797, rs2069827, rs2069830, rs2069837, rs2069840 and rs2069845) was determined by the improved multi-temperature ligase detection reaction (imLDRTM) technique. Simultaneously, case data were reviewed with the 3-months followed up survival condition of the ACLF group. Normally distributed data were expressed as arithmetic means and SDs, and t-test was adopted. Data with skewed distribution were expressed as medians with interquartile range, and were measured by non-parametric test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relative risk of genetic polymorphism and HBV-ACLF as well as the relationship between IL-6 SNPs with the occurrence and prognosis of HBV-ACLF. Results: Four hundred patients were included in the study, with 122 (30.5%) in the HBV-ACLF and 278 (69.5%) in the non-ACLF group. There were significant differences in total bilirubin, albumin, and white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, prothrombin time and international standardized ratio, creatinine and the model for end-stage liver disease score between the two groups (P < 0.001). The genotype of IL-6 genes (rs1800795, rs1800797, rs2069827, and rs2069830) of all subjects showed no mutation or the mutation rate under 1%. There was no significant difference in the genotype of IL-6 (rs1524107, rs2069837, rs2069840 and rs2069845) between the two groups (P > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the SNPs in the above four loci of IL-6 gene was not associated with HBV-ACLF risk, nor had significant correlation with the 3-months prognosis. Conclusion: The SNP genotyping of eight loci in IL-6 gene (rs1524107, rs1800795, rs1800797, rs2069827, rs2069830, rs2069837, rs2069840 and rs2069845) is unrelated to the occurrence and short-term prognosis of HBV-ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico
14.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(4): 261-266, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082336

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the changes of liver function, virology and serology and the safety of drug withdrawal in pregnant women who are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Methods: A prospective clinical cohort was established to enroll pregnant women who are chronic HBV carriers and they were divided into the nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NAs) intervention group and the non-NAs intervention group according to patients' wishes. Liver function, HBV DNA and HBV serological markers were detected at gestation, postpartum 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, 36 weeks and 48 weeks. Results: 351 patients were enrolled, 320 in the NAs intervention group and 31 in the non-NAs intervention group. The proportion of postpartum hepatitis flares in both groups was higher than that in pregnancy (39.4% vs 12.5%, P < 0.001; 38.7% vs 3.2%, P = 0.001). Six weeks postpartum was the peak period of hepatitis flares, and 96.0% (121/126) of the hepatitis flares occurred within 24 weeks postpartum. At 6 weeks postpartum, there were 6 cases of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 10 times upper limit of normal (ULN) in the NAs intervention group. The rate of the hepatitis flare after drug withdrawal was 16.7% (34/203). Conclusion: Regardless of the presence or absence of NAs intervention, pregnant women who are chronic HBV carriers have a certain proportion of hepatitis flares during pregnancy and postpartum, and the hepatitis flare even have a tendency to be severe. Therefore, drug withdrawal after delivery is not always safe, which requires close observation and classification. At 6 weeks postpartum, the incidence of hepatitis flares was high, and those who meet the treatment indications can get better therapeutic effects if given appropriate treatment. The vast majority (96%) of postpartum hepatitis flares occur within 24 weeks, so it is recommended to follow up to at least 24 weeks postpartum after discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/fisiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(2): 144-155, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130119

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an important public health problem affecting over 240 million people all around the world. The aim of the treatment in chronic hepatitis B is to prevent progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Interferons (standard and peginterferon) (Peg-IFN) and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are widely used in the treatment of CHB. The use of long-term therapy can however result in drug resistant mutations, which can lead to treatment failure. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, in addition to primary drug resistance mutations in the pol gene, compensatory mutations were reported. The genom of HBV polymerase (pol) gene overlaps with the envelope (S) gene. Nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) resistance mutations in the pol gene of HBV, either from selection of primary or secondary resistance mutations, typically result in changes in HBsAg. Recent studies have conferred a new acronym for these HBV pol/S gene overlap mutants; ADAPVEMs, for antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine-escape mutants. The aim of this study was to investigate clinically and epidemiologically significant HBV pol/S gene mutations in NA treated CHB patients. In the study, a total of 100 patients who received nucleoside/nucleotide analogue therapy for one year or more were included. The levels of HBV DNA from serum samples were detected by the commercial real-time PCR assay and the mutations of pol/S genes by direct sequencing. Sixteen samples with low HBV DNA levels (> 200 IU/ml) could not be interpreted by sequencing due to insufficient amplification. Of the remaining 84 patients that could be sequenced HBV pol gene of HBV, 53 (63.09%) were males and 31 (36.91%) were women and the mean age was 47 ± 14.99 years (range: 20-67). Primary/secondary drug mutations (rtM204I/V, rtI169S, rtL180M, rtT184L, rtA194V, rtM204I/rtL91I, rtQ149K, rtQ215H/S, rtN238D) were detected in 38 (45.2%) of the patients. Because of the HBV pol/S gene overlapping, in 27 patients immun-selected amino acid substitutions (sI110L, sT127P, sS114A, sT123A), in nine patients HBIg selected escape mutants (sP120R, sT123N, sE164D, sY134F, sQ129H, sT118A, sP127K), in seven patients vaccine escape mutants (sT126I, sP120S, sG145A, s S193L) and in one patient misdiagnosis of HBsAg (sT131I) were detected. In addition, antiviral drug-associated potential vaccine-escape mutants were detected in 13 (15.4%) patients. In patients with chronic HBV, NAs including commonly used lamivudine were observed to have the potential for ADAPVEM to emerge during treatment. It was concluded that after determination of antiviral drug resistance and ADAPVEMs replanning of treatment should be done in the NA treatment of patients with CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Farmacorresistência Viral , Produtos do Gene pol , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Mutação , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Feminino , Produtos do Gene pol/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(2): 156-169, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130120

RESUMO

HBV is a DNA virus and the causative agent of hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis B is a contagious disease and is still a major health problem all over the world. When the infection become chronic, it may cause serious diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon/pegylated interferon by intravenous route and nucleoside/nucleotide (NA) analogues such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir given by oral route are used in the treatment. Antivirals given by oral route are mostly preferred in the treatment. However, because of the replication strategy and biological properties of HBV, mutations that cause antiviral resistance against these drugs can occur at different rates, although they can vary from drug to drug over time. It is possible that drug resistant virus may transmit from patient to healthy individuals. Therefore, there is a possibility of infection with drug-resistant HBV before treatment. Antiviral resistance mutations are divided into four categories; i) Nucleos(t)ide analog resistance (NAr)-related mutations, ii) primary drug resistance mutations, iii) secondary/compensatory mutations, iv) putative antiviral resistance mutations and pre-treatment variations. Recent studies have focused particularly on putative mutations and pre-treatment variations. The aim of this study was to better understanding of the antiviral resistance profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated and untreated with NA, and help to prevent unnecessary drug use, minimize the side effects and economic damages. A total of 124 patients who have received nucleoside analog (NA) drug treatments (n= 72) and patients without NA treatment (n= 52) were included in the study. Viral DNA was isolated from the plasma samples of the patients. A DNA fragment, which is 551 bp, was amplified and sequenced including the binding side of all nucleoside analogs containing the B, C and D domains located in the reverse transcriptase region in the HBV genome. Different types of mutations were detected in 13 (18.05%) of 72 treated patients and in 18 (34.61%) of 52 untreated patients (p< 0.05). Primary drug resistance mutations such as rtI169T, rtA181T/V, rtT184A/C/F/G/I/L/M/S, rtA194T, rtS202C/G/I, rtM204I/V/S, rtN236T, rt M250I/L/V and rtV173L were not detected in any of the patient samples. However, potential drug resistance mutations such as rtR164R, rtG165D/A, rtG172Q, rtS176N, rtF178V, rtA181G, rtS185N/G/C, rtV207M, rtQ215H/S, rtL231V, rtI233K, rtN238S, rtV253T, rtC256G/S and rtI266R/V were detected in untreated patient samples in B, C, D and D domains of reverse transcriptase region. Our results have suggested that the detection of pretreatment variations could be helpful for choosing the correct antiviral drug for the better treatment management.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Mutação , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia
17.
Transplant Proc ; 51(4): 1157-1161, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101191

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) is the best treatment option for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, recurrence is the most important issue after LT. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relation of dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in recurrence formation in HBV-mediated HCC cases. A total of 42 HBV-mediated HCC patients were evaluated in this study. Among 21 miRNAs, the expression level of miR-106a and miR-21 were higher and miR-143 and miR145 were lower in patients with HCC compared with noncancerous liver tissues (P = .0388, P = .0214, P = .0321, and P = .002, respectively). Compared with nonrecurrent patients, the expression level of miR-21 was 3.54-fold higher and miR-145 was 2.42-fold lower in patients with recurrence during the 5-year follow-up (P = .004 and P = .032; respectively). In addition, according to multivariate Cox regression analysis, the overexpression of miR-21 was found to be a prognostic indicator in HBV-mediated HCC patients (P = .002). In conclusion, we show a significant association between high expression of miR-21 and recurrence in HBV-mediated HCC. Therefore, up-regulation of miR-21 could serve as a promising prognostic marker for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
18.
Talanta ; 201: 126-133, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122402

RESUMO

Upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow assays (UCNP-LFAs) have attracted significant attention in point-of-care testing (POCT) applications, due to the long-term photostability and enhanced signal-to-background noise ratio. The existing UCNP-LFAs generally require peripheral equipment for exciting fluorescent signals and reading out fluorescence results, which are generally bulky and expensive. Herein, we developed a miniaturized and portable UCNP-LFA platform, which is composed of a LFA detection system, an UCNP-LFA reader and a smartphone-assisted UCNP-LFA analyzer. The LFA detection system is based on three types of UCNPs for multiplexed detection. The reader has a dimension of 24.0 cm × 9.4 cm × 5.4 cm (L × W × H) and weight of 0.9 kg. The analyzer based on the custom-designed software of a smartphone (termed as UCNP-LFA analyzer) can get the quantitative analysis results in a real-time manner. We demonstrated the universality of this platform by highly sensitive and quantitative detections of several kinds of targets, including small molecule (ochratoxin A, OTA), heavy metal ion (Hg2+), bacteria (salmonella, SE), nucleic acid (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and protein (growth stimulation expressed gene 2, ST-2). Our developed UCNP-LFA platform holds great promise for applications in disease diagnostics, environmental pollution monitoring and food safety at the point of care.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Testes Imediatos , Anticorpos/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , DNA/análise , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Érbio/química , Fluoretos/química , Fluoretos/efeitos da radiação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Limite de Detecção , Mercúrio/análise , Nanopartículas/efeitos da radiação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Smartphone , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Itérbio/química , Ítrio/química , Ítrio/efeitos da radiação
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 363, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is one of the most common precipitating events associated with acute decompensation (AD) or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhotic patients. However, whether their serum HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels are associated with ACLF incidence and short-term mortality rate is still ambiguous. METHODS: The ACLF incidences, 28-day and 90-day liver transplantation (LT)-free mortality rates, previous nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUCs) treatments and serum HBV DNA levels at admission (ad-levels) of 111 hospitalized patients with AD of CHB-related cirrhosis were analyzed. RESULTS: 43 (38.7%) patients developed ACLF. The 28-day and 90-day LT-free mortality rates of the ACLF cases were 15.4 and 40.9%, respectively. Though NUCs inhibited HBV replication effectively, there were no differences in the ACLF incidence between antiviral treatment-naïve patients and NUCs treatment-experienced patients with or without interruptions (37.5, 41.7 and 45.5%, respectively, P>0.05). The serum HBV DNA ad-level was similar between the patients with and without ACLF development (logarithms: 4.50 ± 1.96 vs 4.32 ± 1.99; ≥2000 IU/ml: 67.4% vs 67.6%; both P>0.05), so was between the ACLF patients died or survived in 28 or 90 days (logarithms: 4.31 ± 1.91 vs 5.54 ± 2.53, 4.81 ± 1.76 vs 4.84 ± 2.40, respectively, both P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Serum HBV DNA ad-level and previous NUCs treatment are not associated with incidence of ACLF and short-term mortality rate in the hospitalized patients with AD of CHB-related cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/mortalidade , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/patologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180941, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141015

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of regulation of miR-122-MAP3K2 signal pathway on the hepatitis B cells. We detected the content of MAP3K2 from patients with HBV blood serum samples and analyzed the correlation between content of MAP3K2 and copies of HBV-DNA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect the function of cells from control group (wild type) and observer group (overexpresses miR-122). Secretion levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2 in the supernatant and level of MAP3K2 in cells were detected by ELISA and western blot, respectively. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the copies of HBV-DNA and MAP3K2 in serum. In the assays involving detection of the number of HBV-DNA copies, the supernatant levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2, and the level of MAP3K2 in the cells, the rate of increase of these indicators significantly slowed as culture time. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-122 could inhibit the migration of hepatoblastoma cells; however, following transfection with miR-122, DNA synthesis and the secretion of HBsAg were inhibited. Overexpression of miR-122 can also downregulate MAP3K2. Consequently, we concluded that regulating the miR-122-MAP3K2 signaling pathway exerts an inhibitory effect in hepatitis B cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Western Blotting , DNA Viral/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatite B/patologia , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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