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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 322: 108587, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203767

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen spreading worldwide. Pig was known as its first and main animal reservoir. In China, pork consumption is very large and the risk of potential HEV contamination should not be underestimated. The present study aims to develop a quantitative real-time reverse transcription combining recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-qRPA) for the rapid detection of HEV RNA presence in raw pork liver on the Jinzhou markets in China. Methods: the specific primers and probes for RT-qRPA assay were designed targeting the ORF2/3 conserved region in genotype 4 swine HEV isolate (accession no. DQ279091.2) according to the TwistDx manual instructions. The specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility evaluations of the RT-qRPA method were subsequently conducted in assessing agreement with the standard RT-qPCR method. Results: the qRPA method step exhibited the obvious time-saving advantage which worked under the isothermal condition at 39 °C within about 30 min to complete the run while the compared standard qPCR method in the same cycle took almost 60 min to do. Both methods could exclusively detect the HEV genome equivalents from the quantified HEV-VLPs spiked samples. And both methods shared the same limit of detection (LOD) that was estimated at 1.25 × 103 genome equivalents copies/g spiked sample by the probit analysis. The recovery rate of HEV-VLPs reached a range of 9.56-14.65% by the RT-qRPA method which was higher than that of 1.34-2.34% by the standard RT-qPCR method. The detected HEV RNA positive rate in the field was 1.8% (1 out of 55) by both methods under Cohen's kappa statistic accessing with perfect agreement (κ = 1.00, p < 0.0005). The viral load in positive sample detected by the RT-qRPA method was estimated at 2.2125 × 105 genome copies/g pork liver sample. Conclusions, the present reported RT-qRPA method mainly targeting genotype 4 HEV is a rapid and reliable method. Its time-saving quality offers a promising for the development of a portable tool used in the routine monitoring of HEV contamination in the field.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , Carne de Porco/virologia , Carga Viral/métodos , Animais , China , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral/normas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which pigs have been established as reservoirs. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among pigs in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and performed the molecular characterization of positive strains. METHODOLOGY: A total of 453 serum and stool samples were randomly collected from pigs in slaughterhouses in Obala, Douala and Yaounde. All samples were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA assays. IgM positive stool samples were tested for HEV RNA using an RT-PCR assay, followed by a nested PCR assay for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 216 samples (47.7%, 95% CI: 43.1%-52.3%) were positive for at least one of the serological markers of HEV infection. Amongst these, 21.0% were positives for anti-HEV IgM, 17.7% for anti-HEV IgG, and 9.1% for both. A total of eight stool samples (5.9%) were positive for HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the retrieved sequences clustered within HEV genotype 3. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and the circulation of genotype 3 in the swine population in Cameroon. Subsequent studies will be needed to elucidate the zoonotic transmission of HEV from pigs to humans in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Zoonoses
3.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991673

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major concern in public health worldwide. Infections with HEV genotypes 3, 4, or 7 can lead to chronic hepatitis while genotype 1 infections can trigger severe hepatitis in pregnant women. Infections with all genotypes can worsen chronic liver diseases. As virions are lipid-associated in blood and naked in feces, efficient methods of propagating HEV clinical strains in vitro and evaluating the infectivity of both HEV forms are needed. We evaluated the spread of clinical strains of HEV genotypes 1 (HEV1) and 3 (HEV3) by quantifying viral RNA in culture supernatants and cell lysates. Infectivity was determined by endpoint dilution and calculation of the tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50). An enhanced HEV production could be obtained varying the composition of the medium, including fetal bovine serum (FBS) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) content. This increased TCID50 from 10 to 100-fold and allowed us to quantify HEV1 infectivity. These optimized methods for propagating and measuring HEV infectivity could be applied to health safety processes and will be useful for testing new antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Meios de Cultura , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1731-1741, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896581

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and the leading cause for acute viral hepatitis worldwide. The virus is classified as a member of the genus Orthohepevirus A within the Hepeviridae family. Due to the absence of a robust cell culture model for HEV infection, the analysis of the viral life cycle, the development of effective antivirals and a vaccine is severely limited. In this study, we established a protocol based on the HEV genotype 3 p6 (Kernow C-1) and the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and HepG2/C3A with different media conditions to produce intracellular HEV cell culture-derived particles (HEVcc) with viral titers between 105 and 106 FFU/mL. Viral titers could be further enhanced by an HEV variant harboring a mutation in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These HEVcc particles were characterized in density gradients and allowed the trans-complementation of subgenomic reporter HEV replicons. In addition, in vitro produced intracellular-derived particles were infectious in liver-humanized mice with high RNA copy numbers detectable in serum and feces. Efficient infection of primary human and swine hepatocytes using the developed protocol could be observed and was inhibited by ribavirin. Finally, RNA sequencing studies of HEV-infected primary human hepatocytes demonstrated a temporally structured transcriptional defense response. In conclusion, this robust cell culture model of HEV infection provides a powerful tool for studying viral-host interactions that should facilitate the discovery of antiviral drugs for this important zoonotic pathogen.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Hepatite E/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Replicon , Ribavirina/metabolismo , Suínos , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 317: 108479, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874303

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in many developing countries and becomes of interest in the developed countries. Several animals are sources of HEV infection to humans. Recently, HEV was detected in the milk of cows in China, this data comes up with the probability of HEV transmission to humans via ingestion of contaminated milk. In Egypt, contaminated water and residing in rural communities are risk factors for HEV infection, while limited data is available on the zoonotic HEV transmission. Since pigs, wild boars, camels are not common in Egypt, we investigated if cows and/or cow milk represent a risk factor for HEV transmission in the Assiut governorate. Milk samples (n = 480), collected from Assiut city and 12 non-mixed dairy farms distributed in the rural communities, were tested for HEV markers such as anti-HEV IgG, HEV RNA, and HEV Ag. All milk samples collected from Assiut city (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. Also, milk samples collected from 11 farms (n = 220) were negative for HEV markers. While, in one farm, we could detect anti-HEV IgG in 8 out of 40 samples (20%), HEV RNA and HEV Ag were detectable in 1 out of 40 samples (2.5%). However, we could not detect the HEV markers in the stool from anti-HEV IgG positive cows. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analysis of the isolated virus revealed it belonged to HEV-3 subtype 3a. Importantly, when cows from the positive farm were retested 1 month later, we observed an increase in the number of animals that were positive for anti-HEV IgG (10/40, 25%). In addition, the level of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher in the milk of these cows in the second collection than the samples of the first collection suggesting ongoing infection on this farm. In conclusion: we reported that HEV-3 and/or HEV like agent was detected in the milk of the cow distributed in rural communities of Assiut governates. Investigation of the cow milk should be done to assess if the cow milk is a risk factor for HEV transmission for Egyptian people, especially in rural communities.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E , Leite/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Egito , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Vnitr Lek ; 65(9): 564-569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635467

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. The Czech Republic is also a region with a natural occurrence of HEV genotype 3. Diseases caused by different genotypes have distinct clinical and epidemiological characteristics. In industrialized countries, numerous local animal reservoirs have been described and infection is considered to be zoonotic disease in these areas. The most significant route of transmission is through ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat of reservoir animals. In addition, numerous extrahepatic manifestations, even without dominant liver disease, and the possibility of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients have been described. The review summarizes the current knowledge of HEV related disease and current approaches to the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis E.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Animais , República Tcheca , Genótipo , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Humanos , Zoonoses
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 790, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative pathogen of hepatitis E, a global public health concern. HEV comprises 8 genotypes with a wide host range and geographic distribution. This study aims to determine the genetic factors influencing the molecular adaptive changes of HEV open reading frames (ORFs) and estimate the HEV origin and evolutionary history. RESULTS: Sequences of HEV strains isolated between 1982 and 2017 were retrieved and multiple analyses were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, effects of natural selection and/or mutation pressure and host influence on the evolution of HEV ORFs. Besides, Bayesian Coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Analysis was performed to estimate the spatial-temporal evolution of HEV. The results indicated an A/C nucleotide bias and ORF-dependent codon usage bias affected mainly by natural selection. The adaptation of HEV ORFs to their hosts was also ORF-dependent, with ORF1 and ORF2 sharing an almost similar adaptation profile to the different hosts. The discriminant analysis based on the adaptation index suggested that ORF1 and ORF3 could play a pivotal role in viral host tropism. CONCLUSION: In this study, we estimate that the common ancestor of the modern HEV strains emerged ~ 6000 years ago, in the period following the domestication of pigs. Then, natural selection played the major role in the evolution of the codon usage of HEV ORFs. The significant adaptation of ORF1 of genotype 1 to humans, makes ORF1 an evolutionary indicator of HEV host speciation, and could explain the epidemic character of genotype 1 strains in humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Códon , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Mutação , Nucleotídeos/análise , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
10.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 420-426, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512058

RESUMO

Hepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for HEV infections, the present study investigated the occurrence of HEV in 99 pork and 63 wild boar sausages and salami sold in Southern Italy. The HEV genome was detected in four wild boar sausages. Sequencing from 2 wild boar sausages confirmed that the HEV strains detected belonged to HEV-3 genotype, not assigned to any defined subtype. Data obtained confirmed the possible occurrence of HEV in pork products and in game. Although the detection rate is low, these products are frequently consumed raw after curing, whose effect on virus viability is still unknown.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Genótipo , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Itália , Carne/virologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
11.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 74(3): 130-136, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554028

RESUMO

The HEV is a known cause of water-borne outbreaks of acute non-A non-B hepatitis in developing countries, which affects young people and may result in high mortality in pregnant women. In recent decades, however, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been known as a cause of sporadic zoonotic infections in older males from swine HEV worldwide. Most acute HEV infections are self-limited. On the other hand, in immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients, chronic HEV infections may exist and progress to liver cirrhosis or decompensation. Therefore, physicians need to recognize HEV as a major pathogen for acute and chronic hepatitis of unknown causes and investigate this disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Neurite do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Genótipo , Hepatite E/complicações , Hepatite E/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/patologia
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2943-2951, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549302

RESUMO

This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and genetic variation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Tibetan pigs and to determine its ability to infect mice. A total of 38 out of 229 (16.59%; 95% CI = 12.00%-22.10%) fecal samples from Tibetan pigs from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in 2018 were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected by RT-nPCR. Significantly different detection rates were observed between samples from diarrheic and clinically healthy animals (OR = 9.56; 95% CI, 2.84-32.14; p < 0.001), suggesting a potential association between HEV infection and diarrhea in Tibetan pigs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the HEV isolates were clustered into subtypes 4a (31 samples), 4b (1), 4d (2), and 4j (4). HEV-4a was the predominant subtype, indicating that it might be circulating in Tibetan pigs. Nine complete HEV genome sequences obtained from Tibetan pigs were found by phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to those of genotype 4 HEV isolates from humans. Two recombinant events were identified in both HEV-4a strains; a novel recombination breakpoint was first identified at the 3' end of the ORF2 region in the SWU/L9/2018 strain, and a common recombination region was found at the junction of the ORF1 and ORF2 regions in the SWU/31-12/2018 strain. Furthermore, HEV-4a could be detected in all BALB/c mice that were experimentally infected by gavage and contact exposure. The information presented here about the prevalence and genotype diversity of HEV from Tibetan pigs provides important insights into the epidemic features of HEV on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tibet
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415347

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hepatitis E is an infectious disease due to inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) and represents one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis and jaundice in the world. Although data of hepatitis E infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are accumulating, little is known on the course of HEV infection. We reported, for the 1st time, a case of patient with RA with hepatitis E that developed during leflunomide therapy in combination with low-dose steroids. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 39-year-old woman, affected by RA and treated with leflunomide, reported diffuse itching and persistent fatigue laboratory data revealed elevated liver enzyme levels. DIAGNOSIS: Positivity for anti-HEV IgM and IgG was observed. HEV-RNA of the genotype 3 was detected, indicating acute E hepatitis. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Leflunomide was stopped and restarted 5 months after the initial diagnosis at the same dosage, with a close clinical and laboratory follow-up. The virus was eradicated from the serum without chronic transformation. The patient is alive and well 7 months after the initial diagnosis. LESSONS: To our knowledge, this report is the 1st case of acute E hepatitis in a patient with RA developed during leflunomide therapy in combination with low-dose steroids. Moreover, geoepidemiology of infection is important, due to the fact that Abruzzo, a central region of Italy, has the highest HEV seroprevalence in general population, related to the zoonotic transmission of the infection from domestic and wild animals. Our case highlighted that immunosuppressive therapy, and in particular leflunomide, could be safely reintroduced after the resolution of the infection and the clearance of the virus. Further studies are needed to evaluate potential advantages in serologic testing for HEV infection as a part of the routine workup done to patients with rheumatic diseases and selected for immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leflunomida/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421765

RESUMO

Foodborne transmission of HEV is a growing public health concern in industrialised countries, where the disease is mainly autochthonous, caused by zoonotic HEV of either genotype 3 or 4. Foodstuffs containing pig's liver were suspected on several occasions to be the cause of autochthonous cases of HEV infection, while the transmission was associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. In assessing the risk related to the presence of HEV in food, detection methods were previously developed but HEV detection rates seem to vary with the type of samples and methods. As foodstuff containing pig liver can be contaminated with HEV internally, an efficient virus extraction procedure is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate six methods for their efficiency in releasing HEV viral particles from figatelli, pig liver sausages and liver samples previously tested positive for the presence of HEV. The ratio weight to volume of elution buffer (1:5) and the FastPrep®-24 homogeniser showed to significantly improve the quantity of HEV genomes released per gram of figatelli and pig liver sausages. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate several methods for elution of HEV particles from naturally contaminated pig liver products, and may be extended for quantifying other viral genomes from food of animal origin.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Carne/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 39-42, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report the immune response during a case of acute HEV response in a patient with an acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 infection in the Netherlands. METHODS: Cytokine evaluation was performed via multiplex cytokine array for 65 immune markers in plasma during the different phases of hepatitis. RESULTS: The patient initially presented with features typical of acute viral hepatitis, with detectable HEV RNA in blood. This evolved into a cholestatic disease following peripheral clearance of the virus, leading to the demise of the patient. Real time PCR revealed the presence of HEV in liver tissue, suggestive of active intrahepatic infection despite clearance in blood. During the phase of detectable HEV RNA in serum, there was a surge in T-cell-related immune mediators, as well as interferon alpha and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), characteristic of a viral infection. After clearance of the virus in the blood and development of cholestatic hepatitis, several inflammatory markers subsided, followed by an increase in immune factors related to anti-inflammatory activity, as well as monocyte/macrophage-related markers, likely due to the intrahepatic presence of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes the dissociation of intra- and extra-hepatic immune responses during acute HEV infection. As shedding of the virus became solely intrahepatic, an immune profile reflective of the activity of hepatic resident cells was observed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Citocinas/imunologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 582-583, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence studies in South Africa (SA) showed seroprevalence rates of 2 - 10%, and suggested waterborne transmission. More recent studies in Cape Town, SA, reported HEV seroprevalence rates of 28% and 26% in outpatients without liver disease and blood donors, respectively. An association was found with eating pork or bacon/ham. Only 3 human cases of hepatitis E in SA have been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVES: To find evidence of HEV infection in hospitalised patients with acute hepatitis and no other identified cause. METHODS: Leftover serum samples were retrieved for patients negative for hepatitis viruses A, B and C, where no other cause of hepatitis was identified. Samples were tested for HEV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 39/132 specimens (29.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 22.4 - 37.8), and anti-HEV IgM in 2/125 specimens (1.6%; 95% CI 0.4 - 5.7). No specimen tested positive by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: IgG seroprevalence found in this study was similar to that previously reported in Cape Town. IgM positivity in 2 patients was not confirmed by PCR. Locally, hepatitis E may not be a common cause of clinically apparent hepatitis that requires hospitalisation.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 584-586, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonoses, with domestic pigs being the most important reservoir. A high anti- HEV IgG seroprevalence of 26 - 28% has been found in humans in Cape Town, South Africa (SA). Studies in industrialised countries have indicated a high prevalence of HEV in pigs and their associated food products. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HEV could be found in pig-derived food products in Cape Town. METHODS: Pork-containing food products were purchased from supermarkets and butcheries around the Cape Town metropolitan area. HEV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, and an amplified viral genome fragment was sequenced from positive samples. Phylogenetic analysis was done on the sequenced fragment. RESULTS: HEV was detected by PCR in 2/144 food samples - both were liver spread samples. One genome fragment sequence was obtained, which was closely related to HEV sequences obtained from humans in Cape Town. CONCLUSIONS: HEV can be found in pork-containing meat products available for sale in Cape Town, suggesting that these products could be a potential source of HEV transmission in our geographical area. Meat of pig origin should be thoroughly cooked before being consumed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , /virologia , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA , África do Sul , Suínos
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(6): 2462-2473, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336031

RESUMO

Suidae is an important reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and a source of transmission to humans (direct contact or via consumption of meat products). Our goal was to characterize the epidemiology of HEV infecting domestic pigs in Corsica Island, a French region hyperendemic for HEV. In Corsica, traditional extensive (or semi-extensive) outdoor pig farming system is common. Sixteen farms were selected according to location and breeding system. Individual pig faeces samples were collected and qRT-PCR for detecting HEV RNA was performed. Nucleic acids from HEV-positive samples were amplified using specific ORF2 genotyping system. The genotype and subtype of the Corsican HEV sequences were determined by phylogenetic analysis. Among the 919 porcine faeces samples tested 9.2% (n = 85) were positive. The presence of viral RNA was correlated with (a) age (>6 months) Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) 0.25 [0.068-0.90] p = .032; 3-4 months AOR = 4.94 [2.30-10.62] p = .000043) with the logistic regression model with a random effect at the farm level. Among the 85 positive samples, 83 belonged to genotype 3c and two to genotype 3f. The highest prevalence was observed in the 3-4 months age group and older age (>6 months) was negatively related to HEV infection and this suggests that traditional breeding with a late slaughter age may limit the risk of transmission to humans. A kinetic study of pigs from birth to slaughtering would allow to ensure that the type of traditional breeding reported here is very favourable to the absence of the virus in slaughtered pigs and in pork products.


Assuntos
Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Fezes/virologia , França/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2515-2518, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270608

RESUMO

Data on natural HEV infection of infection in monkeys are limited. We report a case of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 infection in captive non-human primates (cynomolgus monkeys) imported from Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that HEV infection was not the result of spillover from single source of infection, but rather the persistent circulation of HEV-4 among cynomolgus monkeys or multiple infections by related strains from a human or swine reservoir.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Genótipo , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Filogenia , Vietnã
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(7): 729-738, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259469

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently considered as a global health concern due to the recognition of its zoonotic transmission to humans, mainly from swine, and its association with the development of severe cases of hepatitis in human risk populations. The lack of updated data on HEV state of infection in swineherds of Argentina, and the necessity of robust technologies for its detection in complex biological samples, positions HEV as an emerging issue in public health. Here, we have optimized a RT-qPCR with internal control for a more precise and accurate HEV RNA detection in swine stool samples. We implemented this optimized molecular tool to analyse the current epidemiological scenario of HEV infection in swine from the core region of commercial activity of Argentina. A total of 135 stool samples were collected from 16 different farms and tested for HEV presence, resulting in 11 positive cases (8.1%). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of them correspond to HEV genotype 3 and that different subtypes circulate in the region. Moreover, two of the detected strains presented a high nucleotide similarity with a previously identified isolate from human sewage discharges, suggesting the zoonotic transmission of HEV to humans. Collectively, this work provides a better understanding of HEV epidemiology in Argentina while contributes to the improvement of HEV detection technologies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
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