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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 320, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality worldwide. Respiratory microbes that were simultaneously detected in the respiratory tracts of hospitalized adult ARI patients were investigated. Associations between influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (H1N1pdm) detection and intensive care unit (ICU) admission or fatal outcome were determined. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted between September 2015 and June 2017 at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Inclusion criteria were hospitalized patients aged ≥15 years; one or more of symptoms including shortness of breath, sore throat, runny nose, headache, and muscle pain/arthralgia in addition to cough and fever > 37.5 °C; and ≤ 10 days from the onset of symptoms. Twenty-two viruses, 11 bacteria, and one fungus in airway specimens were examined using a commercial multiplex real-time PCR assay. Associations between H1N1pdm detection and ICU admission or fatal outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The total of 269 patients (57.6% male; median age, 51 years) included 69 ICU patients. One or more microbes were detected in the airways of 214 patients (79.6%). Single and multiple microbes were detected in 41.3 and 38.3% of patients, respectively. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the most frequently detected (35 cases; 13.0%), followed by H1N1pdm (29 cases; 10.8%). Hematological disease was associated with ICU admission (p < 0.001) and fatal outcomes (p < 0.001) using the corrected significance level (p = 0.0033). Sex, age, duration from onset to sampling, or number of detected microbes were not significantly associated with ICU admission or fatal outcomes. H1N1pdm detection was associated with ICU admission (odds ratio [OR] 3.911; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.671-9.154) and fatal outcome (OR 5.496; 95% CI 1.814-16.653) after adjusting for the confounding factors of comorbidities, bacteria/Pneumocystis jirovecii co-detection, and age. CONCLUSIONS: H1N1pdm was associated with severe morbidity and death in adult patients hospitalized with respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of subtype of influenza virus may be epidemiologically important.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vietnã/epidemiologia
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Coinfecção , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , /epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670852

RESUMO

The diagnosis of respiratory viruses of zoonotic origin (RVsZO) such as influenza and coronaviruses in humans is crucial, because their spread and pandemic threat are the highest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical technique with promising impact for the point-of-care diagnosis of viruses. It has been applied to a variety of influenza A virus subtypes, such as the H1N1 and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this work, a review of the strategies used for the detection of RVsZO by SERS is presented. In addition, relevant information about the SERS technique, anthropozoonosis, and RVsZO is provided for a better understanding of the theme. The direct identification is based on trapping the viruses within the interstices of plasmonic nanoparticles and recording the SERS signal from gene fragments or membrane proteins. Quantitative mono- and multiplexed assays have been achieved following an indirect format through a SERS-based sandwich immunoassay. Based on this review, the development of multiplex assays that incorporate the detection of RVsZO together with their specific biomarkers and/or secondary disease biomarkers resulting from the infection progress would be desirable. These configurations could be used as a double confirmation or to evaluate the health condition of the patient.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , /instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 64, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals' susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the host genetic factors mostly involved in inflammation, as well as hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with mild flu in an Iranian population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from 93 patients referred to primary care centers of Markazi, Semnan, and Zanjan provinces (central Iran) due to flu-like symptoms between March 2015 and December 2018. Of these, PCR test identified 49 influenza A/H1N1 and 44 flu-negative individuals. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RPAIN, FCGR2A, MBL-2, CD55, C1QBP, IL-10, TNF-α and an unknown gene were genotyped using iPLEX GOLD SNP genotyping analysis. Hypercholesterolemia and diabetes status was determined based on the physician diagnosis. Association of the host genetic variants, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with mild A/H1N1 flu was assessed with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis as implemented in Stata software (v.14). Statistical tests were considered as significant at 0.05 levels. RESULTS: Frequency of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, as well as participants mean age was significantly higher in the flu-negative rather than the flu-positive group. Of 12 SNPs, nine did not show any significant association with mild flu in our study (rs1801274, rs1800451, rs2564978, rs361525, rs1800450, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800896, rs1800629). Possessing G vs. A allele in two SNPs (rs3786054 and rs8070740) was associated with a threefold increase in the chance of mild flu when compared to flu-negative patients (95% CI: 1.1, 22.0). Possessing C allele (vs. A) in the rs9856661 locus also increased the chance of mild flu up to 2 folds (95% CI: 1.0, 10.0). CONCLUSION: The results showed that possessing the G allele in either rs3786054 or rs8070740 loci in C1QBP and RPAIN genes, respectively, increased the risk of H1N1 infection up to 3.3 folds, regardless of the patient's age, BMI, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Complementary functional genomic studies would shed more light on the underlying mechanism of human immunity associated with these genetic markers. The identified genetic factors may have the same role in susceptibility to similar respiratory infections with RNA viruses, like SARS, MERS and COVID-19. Future genetic association studies targeting these RNA viruses, especially COVID-19 is recommended. Studies on other ethnic groups would also shed light on possible ethnic variations in genetic susceptibility to respiratory RNA viruses. Trial registry IR.PII.REC.1399.063.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/virologia , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1135-1145, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the different clinical and CT features distinguishing COVID-19 from H1N1 influenza pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared two independent cohorts of COVID-19 pneumonia (n=405) and H1N1 influenza pneumonia (n=78), retrospectively. All patients were confirmed by RT-PCR. Four hundred and five cases of COVID-19 pneumonia were confirmed in nine hospitals of Zhejiang province, China from January 21 to February 20, 2020. Seventy-eight cases of H1N1 influenza pneumonia were confirmed in our hospital from January 1, 2017 to February 29, 2020. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, and CT imaging characteristics were compared. RESULTS: COVID-19 pneumonia patients showed less proportions of underlying diseases, fever and respiratory symptoms than those of H1N1 pneumonia patients (p<0.01). White blood cell count, neutrophilic granulocyte percentage, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-Dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase in H1N1 pneumonia patients were higher than those of COVID-19 pneumonia patients (p<0.05). H1N1 pneumonia was often symmetrically located in the dorsal part of inferior lung lobes, while COVID-19 pneumonia was unusually showed as a peripheral but non-specific lobe distribution. Ground glass opacity was more common in COVID-19 pneumonia and consolidation lesions were more common in H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.01). COVID-19 pneumonia lesions showed a relatively clear margin compared with H1N1 pneumonia. Crazy-paving pattern, thickening vessels, reversed halo sign and early fibrotic lesions were more common in COVID-19 pneumonia than H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.05). Pleural effusion in COVID-19 pneumonia was significantly less common than H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with H1N1 pneumonia in Zhejiang, China, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia were more concealed with less underlying diseases and slighter respiratory symptoms. The more common CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia included ground-glass opacity with a relatively clear margin, crazy-paving pattern, thickening vessels, reversed halo sign, and early fibrotic lesions, while the less common CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia included consolidation and pleural effusion.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico por imagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471840

RESUMO

The mutual dependence of human and animal health is central to the One Health initiative as an integrated strategy for infectious disease control and management. A crucial element of the One Health includes preparation and response to influenza A virus (IAV) threats at the human-animal interface. The IAVs are characterized by extensive genetic variability, they circulate among different hosts and can establish host-specific lineages. The four main hosts are: avian, swine, human and equine, with occasional transmission to other mammalian species. The host diversity is mirrored in the range of the RT-qPCR assays for IAV detection. Different assays are recommended by the responsible health authorities for generic IAV detection in birds, swine or humans. In order to unify IAV monitoring in different hosts and apply the One Health approach, we developed a single RT-qPCR assay for universal detection of all IAVs of all subtypes, species origin and global distribution. The assay design was centred on a highly conserved region of the IAV matrix protein (MP)-segment identified by a comprehensive analysis of 99,353 sequences. The reaction parameters were effectively optimised with efficiency of 93-97% and LOD95% of approximately ten IAV templates per reaction. The assay showed high repeatability, reproducibility and robustness. The extensive in silico evaluation demonstrated high inclusivity, i.e. perfect sequence match in the primers and probe binding regions, established as 94.6% for swine, 98.2% for avian and 100% for human H3N2, pandemic H1N1, as well as other IAV strains, resulting in an overall predicted detection rate of 99% on the analysed dataset. The theoretical predictions were confirmed and extensively validated by collaboration between six veterinary or human diagnostic laboratories on a total of 1970 specimens, of which 1455 were clinical and included a diverse panel of IAV strains.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Aves/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Saúde Única , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439885

RESUMO

In February and March, 2020, environmental surface swab samples were collected from the handle of the main entry door of a major university building in Florida, as part of a pilot surveillance project screening for influenza. Samples were taken at the end of regular classroom hours, between the dates of February 1-5 and February 19-March 4, 2020. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was isolated from the door handle on four of the 19 days sampled. Both SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were detected in a sample collected on February 21, 2020. Based on sequence analysis, the Florida SARS-CoV-2 strain (designated UF-11) was identical to strains being identified in Washington state during the same time period, while the earliest similar sequences were sampled in China/Hubei between Dec 30th 2019 and Jan 5th 2020. The first human case of COVID-19 was not officially reported in Florida until March 1st. In an analysis of sequences from COVID-19 patients in this region of Florida, there was only limited evidence of subsequent dissemination of the UF-11 strain. Identical or highly similar strains, possibly related through a common transmission chain, were detected with increasing frequency in Washington state between end of February and beginning of March. Our data provide further documentation of the rapid early spread of SARS-CoV-2 and underscore the likelihood that closely related strains were cryptically circulating in multiple U.S. communities before the first "official" cases were recognized.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Florida , Humanos , Filogenia , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375376

RESUMO

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 has caused global pandemics like the "Spanish flu" in 1918 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic several times. H1N1 remains in circulation and survives in multiple animal sources, including wild birds. Surveillance during the winter of 2018-2019 in Korea revealed two H1N1 isolates in samples collected from wild bird feces: KNU18-64 (A/Greater white-fronted goose/South Korea/KNU18-64/2018(H1N1) and WKU19-4 (A/wild bird/South Korea/WKU19-4/2019(H1N1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that M gene of KNU18-64(H1N1) isolate resembles that of the Alaskan avian influenza virus, whereas WKU19-4(H1N1) appears to be closer to the Mongolian virus. Molecular characterization revealed that they harbor the amino acid sequence PSIQRSGLF and are low-pathogenicity influenza viruses. In particular, the two isolates harbored three different mutation sites, indicating that they have different virulence characteristics. The mutations in the PB1-F2 and PA protein of WKU19-4(H1N1) indicate increasing polymerase activity. These results corroborate the kinetic growth data for WKU19-4 in MDCK cells: a dramatic increase in the viral titer after 12 h post-inoculation compared with that in the control group H1N1 (CA/04/09(pdm09)). The KNU18-64(H1N1) isolate carries mutations indicating an increase in mammal adaptation; this characterization was confirmed by the animal study in mice. The KNU18-64(H1N1) group showed the presence of viruses in the lungs at days 3 and 6 post-infection, with titers of 2.71 ± 0.16 and 3.71 ± 0.25 log10(TCID50/mL), respectively, whereas the virus was only detected in the WKU19-4(H1N1) group at day 6 post-infection, with a lower titer of 2.75 ± 0.51 log10(TCID50/mL). The present study supports the theory that there is a relationship between Korea and America with regard to reassortment to produce novel viral strains. Therefore, there is a need for increased surveillance of influenza virus circulation in free-flying and wild land-based birds in Korea, particularly with regard to Alaskan and Asian strains.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vírus Reordenados , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , História do Século XXI , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/história , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(46)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213683

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the 2019/20 WHO European Region influenza surveillance. Compared with previous 4-year averages, antigenic and genetic characterisations decreased by 17% (3,140 vs 2,601) and 24% (4,474 vs 3,403). Of subtyped influenza A viruses, 56% (26,477/47,357) were A(H1)pdm09, 44% (20,880/47,357) A(H3). Of characterised B viruses, 98% (4,585/4,679) were B/Victoria. Considerable numbers of viruses antigenically differed from northern hemisphere vaccine components. In 2020/21, maintaining influenza virological surveillance, while supporting SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is crucial.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vigilância da População , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112656, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010706

RESUMO

Point-of-care risk assessment (PCRA) for airborne viruses requires a system that can enrich low-concentration airborne viruses dispersed in field environments into a small volume of liquid. In this study, airborne virus particles were collected to a degree above the limit of detection (LOD) for a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This study employed an electrostatic air sampler to capture aerosolized test viruses (human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1), and influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2)) in a continuously flowing liquid (aerosol-to-hydrosol (ATH) enrichment) and a concanavalin A (ConA)-coated magnetic particles (CMPs)-installed fluidic channel for simultaneous hydrosol-to-hydrosol (HTH) enrichment. The air sampler's ATH enrichment capacity (EC) was evaluated using the aerosol counting method. In contrast, the HTH EC for the ATH-collected sample was evaluated using transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM)-based image analysis and real-time qRT-PCR assay. For example, the ATH EC for HCoV-229E was up to 67,000, resulting in a viral concentration of 0.08 PFU/mL (in a liquid sample) for a viral epidemic scenario of 1.2 PFU/m3 (in air). The real-time qRT-PCR assay result for this liquid sample was "non-detectable" however, subsequent HTH enrichment for 10 min caused the "non-detectable" sample to become "detectable" (cycle threshold (CT) value of 33.8 ± 0.06).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Técnicas Biossensoriais/economia , Coronavirus Humano 229E/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/instrumentação , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965332

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance, in Brazil, initiated shortly after its description, in China. Our aim was to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and additional pathogens in samples from the initial phase of the outbreak in Brazil, from late February to late March. From 707 samples analysed, 29 (4.1%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. Fever and cough were their most prevalent symptoms. Co-detection of rhinovirus was observed in 2 (6.9%) cases. Additional pathogens were identified in 66.1% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative cases, mainly rhinovirus and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Thus, we emphasise the importance of differential diagnosis in COVID-19 suspected cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915821

RESUMO

Influenza, which is an acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus, represents a worldwide public health and economic problem owing to the significant morbidity and mortality caused by its seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Sensitive and convenient methodologies for the detection of influenza viruses are important for clinical care and infection control as well as epidemiological investigations. Here, we developed a multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) with quencher/fluorescence oligonucleotides connected by a 5' backward loop (LF or LB) primer for the detection of two subtypes of influenza viruses: Influenza A (A/H1 and A/H3) and influenza B. The detection limits of the multiplex RT-LAMP assay were 103 copies and 102 copies of RNA for influenza A and influenza B, respectively. The sensitivities of the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay were 94.62% and 97.50% for influenza A and influenza B clinical samples, respectively. The specificities of the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay were 100% for influenza A, influenza B, and healthy clinical samples. In addition, the multiplex influenza A/B/IC RT-LAMP assay had no cross-reactivity with other respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Epidemias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenzavirus C/genética , Influenzavirus C/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Pandemias
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were ≤1year age. Influenza prevalence was high, 2 times more in other age categories compared to ≤1year age. Category of occupation other than children and school attendees had a high prevalence of influenza virus (p< <0.001). The monthly trends of influenza viruses' positivity showed no seasonal pattern. Influenza types A and B co-circulated throughout the annual calendar during seven years of the surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza viruses circulate year-round and occur among children as well as the adult population in Kenya. Occupational and school-based settings showed a higher prevalence of influenza viruses. There were no regular seasonal patterns for influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Prevalência
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470010

RESUMO

Many blood donation services around the globe maintain large archives of serum and/or plasma specimens of blood donations which could potentially be used for serologic surveillance and risk assessment of influenza. Harnessing this potential requires robust evidence that the outcomes of influenza serology in plasma, which is rarely used, is consistent with that in serum, which is the conventional choice of specimens for influenza serology. We harvested EDTA-plasma specimens from the blood donation archives of Hong Kong Red Cross Transfusion Services, where EDTA is the type of anticoagulant used for plasma collection, compared their antibody titers and responses to that in serum. Influenza A/H1N1/California/7/2009 and A/H3N2/Victoria/208/2009 were the test strains. Our results showed that antibody titers in 609 matched serum/EDTA-plasma specimens (i.e. obtained from the same donor at the same time) had good agreement inferred by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, the value of which was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86) for hemagglutination inhibition assay and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.96) for microneutralization assay; seroconversion rates (based on hemagglutination inhibition titers) during the 2010 and 2011 influenza seasons in Hong Kong inferred from paired EDTA-plasma were similar to that inferred from paired sera. Our study provided the proof-of-concept that blood donation archives could be leveraged as a valuable source of longitudinal blood specimens for the surveillance, control and risk assessment of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Health Secur ; 18(2): 96-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324075

RESUMO

On February 22, 2017, Hospital X-Kampala and US CDC-Kenya reported to the Uganda Ministry of Health a respiratory illness in a 46-year-old expatriate of Company A. The patient, Mr. A, was evacuated from Uganda to Kenya and died. He had recently been exposed to dromedary camels (MERS-CoV) and wild birds with influenza A (H5N6). We investigated the cause of illness, transmission, and recommended control. We defined a suspected case of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) as acute onset of fever (≥38°C) with sore throat or cough and at least one of the following: headache, lethargy, or difficulty in breathing. In addition, we looked at cases with onset between February 1 and March 31 in a person with a history of contact with Mr. A, his family, or other Company A employees. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case with laboratory confirmation of the same pathogen detected in Mr. A. Influenza-like illness was defined as onset of fever (≥38°C) and cough or sore throat in a Uganda contact, and as fever (≥38°C) and cough lasting less than 10 days in a Kenya contact. We collected Mr. A's exposure and clinical history, searched for cases, and traced contacts. Specimens from the index case were tested for complete blood count, liver function tests, plasma chemistry, Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and MERS-CoV. Robust field epidemiology, laboratory capacity, and cross-border communication enabled investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino
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