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1.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e56, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565899

RESUMO

Korea is located within the East Asian-Australian flyway of wild migratory birds during the fall and winter seasons. Consequently, the likelihood of introduction of numerous subtypes and pathotypes of the Avian influenza (AI) virus to Korea has been thought to be very high. In the current study, we surveyed wild bird feces for the presence of AI virus that had been introduced to Korea between September 2017 and February 2018. To identify and characterize the AI virus, we employed commonly used methods, namely, virus isolation (VI) via egg inoculation, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), conventional RT-PCR (cRT-PCR) and a newly developed next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. In this study, 124 out of 11,145 fresh samples of wild migratory birds tested were rRT-PCR positive; only 52.0% of VI positive samples were determined as positive by rRT-PCR from fecal supernatant. Fifty AI virus specimens were isolated from fresh fecal samples and typed. The cRT-PCR subtyping results mostly coincided with the NGS results, although NGS detected the presence of 11 HA genes and four NA genes that were not detected by cRT-PCR. NGS analysis confirmed that 12% of the identified viruses were mixed-subtypes which were not detected by cRT-PCR. Prevention of the occurrence of AI virus requires a workflow for rapid and accurate virus detection and verification. However, conventional methods of detection have some limitations. Therefore, different methods should be combined for optimal surveillance, and further studies are needed in aspect of the introduction and application of new methods such as NGS.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
2.
Analyst ; 144(21): 6172-6192, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584044

RESUMO

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a non-invasive, non-contact and label-free technique for biological and chemical sensing as THz-spectra are less energetic and lie in the characteristic vibration frequency regime of proteins and DNA molecules. However, THz-TDS is less sensitive for the detection of micro-organisms of size equal to or less than λ/100 (where, λ is the wavelength of the incident THz wave), and molecules in extremely low concentration solutions (like, a few femtomolar). After successful high-throughput fabrication of nanostructures, nanoantennas were found to be indispensable in enhancing the sensitivity of conventional THz-TDS. These nanostructures lead to strong THz field enhancement when in resonance with the absorption spectrum of absorptive molecules, causing significant changes in the magnitude of the transmission spectrum, therefore, enhancing the sensitivity and allowing the detection of molecules and biomaterials in extremely low concentration solutions. Herein, we review the recent developments in ultra-sensitive and selective nanogap biosensors. We have also provided an in-depth review of various high-throughput nanofabrication techniques. We also discussed the physics behind the field enhancements in the sub-skin depth as well as sub-nanometer sized nanogaps. We introduce finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation tools to study THz biomolecular interactions. Finally, we provide a comprehensive account of nanoantenna enhanced sensing of viruses (like, H1N1) and biomolecules such as artificial sweeteners which are addictive and carcinogenic.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Nanoestruturas/química , Edulcorantes/análise , Espectroscopia Terahertz/métodos , Aspartame/análise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas/química , Tiazinas/análise
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 825, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting avian influenza virus has become an important public health strategy for controlling the emerging infectious disease. METHODS: The HIS (hospital information system) modified influenza surveillance system (ISS) and a newly built pneumonia surveillance system (PSS) were used to monitor the influenza viruses in Changsha City, China. The ISS was used to monitor outpatients in two sentinel hospitals and to detect mild influenza and avian influenza cases, and PSS was used to monitor inpatients in 49 hospitals and to detect severe and death influenza cases. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2016, there were 3,551,917 outpatients monitored by the ISS system, among whom 126,076 were influenza-like illness (ILI) cases, with the ILI proportion (ILI%) of 3.55%. After the HIS was used, the reported incident cases of ILI and ILI% were increased significantly. From March, 2009 to September, 2016, there were 5,491,560 inpatient cases monitored by the PSS system, among which 362,743 were pneumonia cases, with a proportion of 6.61%. Among pneumonia cases, about 10.55% (38,260/362,743) of cases were severe or death cases. The pneumonia incidence increased each year in the city. Among 15 avian influenza cases reported from January, 2005 to September, 2016, there were 26.7% (4/15) mild cases detected by the HIS-modified ISS system, while 60.0% (9/15) were severe or death cases detected by the PSS system. Two H5N1 severe cases were missed by the ISS system in January, 2009 when the PSS system was not available. CONCLUSIONS: The HIS was able to improve the efficiency of the ISS for monitoring ILI and emerging avian influenza virus. However, the efficiency of the system needs to be verified in a wider area for a longer time span in China.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos
4.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 63, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533860

RESUMO

Widespread geographic movement and extensive comingling of exhibition swine facilitates the spread and transmission of infectious pathogens. Nasal samples were collected from 2862 pigs at 102 exhibitions and tested for five pathogens. At least one pathogen was molecularly detected in pigs at 63 (61.8%) exhibitions. Influenza A virus was most prevalent and was detected in 498 (17.4%) samples. Influenza D virus was detected in two (0.07%) samples. More than one pathogen was detected in 165 (5.8%) samples. Influenza A virus remains a top threat to animal and human health, but other pathogens may be disseminated through the exhibition swine population.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus 1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Respirovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Respirovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Respirovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 74(3): 163-167, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554032

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID) is an uncommon disease that is accompanied by intestinal eosinophil infiltration without a secondary cause of eosinophilia. Eosinophilic enteritis is a secondary portion of EGID that can present a range of gastrointestinal symptoms according to the affected depth of the intestinal layer. The subserosal type of eosinophilic enteritis presenting as ascites is relatively rarer than the mucosal type. In general, eosinophilic enteritis occurs in patients with food allergies, but its mechanism is unclear. The authors experienced a 29-year-old female patient with a large amount of ascites with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an influenza A infection one week earlier. Peripheral eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count: 6,351 cells/mm3) and eosinophilic ascites (97% of white blood cells in the ascites are eosinophil) were present. Abdominal CT revealed a large amount of ascites and edematous changes in the ileum and ascending colon wall. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was confirmed as eosinophilic ascites by paracentesis, with eosinophil infiltration of the bowel wall by an endoscopic biopsy. The patient's symptoms improved rapidly after using steroids. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis with massive ascites after an influenza A virus infection in a Korean adult.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ascite , Colonoscopia , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/etiologia , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Feminino , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/etiologia , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 762, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province. METHODS: A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian's first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient's H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS: The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient's viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Virais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 676, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to seasonal influenza viruses recently circulating in humans, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9 subtypes have also emerged and demonstrated human infection abilities with high mortality rates. Although influenza viral infections are usually diagnosed using viral isolation and serological/molecular analyses, the cost, accessibility, and availability of these methods may limit their utility in various settings. The objective of this study was to develop and optimized a multiplex detection system for most influenza viruses currently infecting humans. METHODS: We developed and optimized a multiplex detection system for most influenza viruses currently infecting humans including two type B (both Victoria lineages and Yamagata lineages), H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 using Reverse Transcriptional Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) technology coupled with a one-pot colorimetric visualization system to facilitate direct determination of results without additional steps. We also evaluated this multiplex RT-LAMP for clinical use using a total of 135 clinical and spiked samples (91 influenza viruses and 44 other human infectious viruses). RESULTS: We achieved rapid detection of seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and Type B) and avian influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N6, H5N8 and H7N9) within an hour. The assay could detect influenza viruses with high sensitivity (i.e., from 100 to 0.1 viral genome copies), comparable to conventional RT-PCR-based approaches which would typically take several hours and require expensive equipment. This assay was capable of specifically detecting each influenza virus (Type B, H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H5N6, H5N8 and H7N9) without cross-reactivity with other subtypes of AIVs or other human infectious viruses. Furthermore, 91 clinical and spiked samples confirmed by qRT-PCR were also detected by this multiplex RT-LAMP with 98.9% agreement. It was more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR approach (92.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that our multiplex RT-LAMP assay may provide a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic method for identifying recent influenza viruses infecting humans, especially in locations without access to large platforms or sophisticated equipment.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Transcrição Reversa
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1089, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring seasonal influenza epidemics is the corner stone to epidemiological surveillance of acute respiratory virus infections worldwide. This work aims to compare two sentinel surveillance systems within the Daily Acute Respiratory Infection Information System of Catalonia (PIDIRAC), the primary care ILI and Influenza confirmed samples from primary care (PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLU) and the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza system (SHLCI), in regard to how they behave in the forecasting of epidemic onset and severity allowing for healthcare preparedness. METHODS: Epidemiological study carried out during seven influenza seasons (2010-2017) in Catalonia, with data from influenza sentinel surveillance of primary care physicians reporting ILI along with laboratory confirmation of influenza from systematic sampling of ILI cases and 12 hospitals that provided data on severe hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed influenza (SHLCI-FLU). Epidemic thresholds for ILI and SHLCI-FLU (overall) as well as influenza A (SHLCI-FLUA) and influenza B (SHLCI-FLUB) incidence rates were assessed by the Moving Epidemics Method. RESULTS: Epidemic thresholds for primary care sentinel surveillance influenza-like illness (PIDIRAC-ILI) incidence rates ranged from 83.65 to 503.92 per 100.000 h. Paired incidence rate curves for SHLCI -FLU / PIDIRAC-ILI and SHLCI-FLUA/ PIDIRAC-FLUA showed best correlation index' (0.805 and 0.724 respectively). Assessing delay in reaching epidemic level, PIDIRAC-ILI source forecasts an average of 1.6 weeks before the rest of sources paired. Differences are higher when SHLCI cases are paired to PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLUB although statistical significance was observed only for SHLCI-FLU/PIDIRAC-ILI (p-value Wilcoxon test = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The combined ILI and confirmed influenza from primary care along with the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza data from PIDIRAC sentinel surveillance system provides timely and accurate syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza from the community level to hospitalization of severe cases.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/terapia , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Tuberk Toraks ; 67(2): 124-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414643

RESUMO

Introduction: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often caused by respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and computed tomography features of patients with hospitalized COPD exacerbations in which respiratory viruses were detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: This retrospectively planned study included patients hospitalized in the chest diseases clinic due to exacerbation of COPD between November 2018-February 2019. The study included patients who had virus-specific real-time PCR, and computed tomography scans of the chest. Result: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Respiratory viruses were identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of 50 patients (45.5%) using the real-time PCR method, with rhinovirus (25%), influenza A (13.1%) and coronavirus (11.8%) being the most commonly isolated agents. The mean age of the patients was 68.28 ± 9.59 years in the virus-positive group and 68.20 ± 8.27 years in the virus-negative group (p= 0.963). Gender distribution, rate of smokers, exposure to biofuels, blood leukocyte count, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, FEV1/FVC ratio did not significantly differ between the two groups (p> 0.05). Procalcitonin (PCT) and FEV1 values were significantly lower (p= 0.001 and p= 0.028, respectively) and the number of exacerbations was significantly higher in the virus-positive group (p= 0.001). The length of hospital stay was longer in the virus-positive group than in the virus-negative group (p= 0.012). Among the findings of computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchial wall thickening, cystic bronchiectasis, and emphysema did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). The rate of infiltrative lesions (tree-in-bud opacity, ground-glass opacity, atypical pneumonia) was significantly higher in the virus-positive group (p= 0.020). Conclusions: Viral respiratory tract infections should be considered in hospitalized patients with an exacerbation of COPD who have a history of frequent exacerbations, normal PCT value, and the absence of consolidation in CT scan of the chest. The use of broadspectrum antibiotic therapy should be avoided in patients with these features.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Idoso , Bronquiectasia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Respiratória , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viroses/virologia
11.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(3): 299-304, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442009

RESUMO

An electrochemical genosensor based on an epoxy-phenanthroline-Fe(III)-NH2-ssDNA layer for the detection of RNA derived from Avian Influenza is presented. The biosensor preparation consists of: (I) modification of gold electrodes with aminoethanethiol, (II) modification of the self-assembled monolayer of aminoethanethiol with 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,10]-phenanthroline using "click" chemistry, (III) a first step of complexation of Fe(III) by 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,10]-phenanthroline, (IV) a second step of complexation of Fe(III) by 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,10]-phenanthroline, (V) immobilization of the single stranded amino-DNA probe via "click" chemistry between epoxy and amino groups. The interactions between the ssDNA probe and RNA targets were explored with Osteryoung Square Wave Voltammetry. The genosensor showed a remarkable detection limit of 3 copies/µL (5 aM) for RNA extracted from A/swan/Poland/305/06 (H5N1) containing a fully complementary sequence. A linear dynamic range for this sequence was observed from 3.0×103 to 3.0×105 [copies/µl]. RNA extracted from A/mallard/Poland/446/09 (H7N7), containing a non-complementary sequence, generated a much weaker response. Moreover, the developed genosensor allows to distinguish RNA present in biological samples having 2, 3 and 4 mismatches. This biosensing approach can become a potential alternative tool for detecting RNA samples in biomedical research and early clinical diagnosis of avian influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Embrião de Galinha , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Compostos Férricos , Ouro , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Polônia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Complementar , RNA Viral/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16861, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464913

RESUMO

Some children hospitalized for severe influenza virus infection require intensive care or die because of disease progression, which may be combined with other complications. The objective of this study was to identify the mortality risk factors in the patients with severe influenza virus infection admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).Seventy-seven pediatric patients with severe influenza virus infection who were admitted in the PICU at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between 2013 and 2017 were evaluated. Data were transcribed and analyzed.The patients' median age was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 1.0-4.0 years), with 59.7% of the patients aged <3 years. The mortality was 16.9%, and patients aged >3 years accounted for 69.2% of the cases. Influenza A virus infection was found in 83.1% of the patients. Coinfection was detected in 58.7% of the patients. Haemophilus influenzae (11.7%) and adenovirus (9.1%) were the predominant bacterial and viral pathogens isolated, respectively. Older age, oxygen saturation level of <90% at admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumorrhagia, influenza-associated encephalopathy (IEA), septic shock, low ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, <60 mm Hg) to the fraction concentration of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2; P/F), higher oxygenation index, increased alanine aminotransferase level (>100 IU/L), increased aspartate aminotransferase level (>100 IU/L), increased lactate dehydrogenase level (>500 IU/L), high fraction concentration of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2 > 60%), and positive end-expiratory pressure (>8 cmH2O) were associated with poor outcome. The deceased patients were more likely to have oxygen saturation levels of <90% at admission and IEA than those who survived. Higher P/F ratio was a protective factor against death in patients.The children with severe influenza virus infection who were admitted in the PICU were mainly aged <3 years. The presence of an oxygen saturation level of <90% at admission and IEA were the prognostic variables independently associated with mortality. Higher P/F ratio was a protective factor against death in patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Virol J ; 16(1): 91, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments. METHODS: This study was designed to compare the performance of two different one-step-combined test strips for the detection of influenza A and B: one strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the other strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT). To test the strips, cultures of influenza A, B, and other pathogenic viruses were used, in addition to 1085 clinical specimens from symptomatic patients with respiratory infections. Real-time RT-PCR was also considered as a reference method used to detect the different results of FMT and CTM. RESULTS: Detection thresholds for influenza A and B cultures using serial dilutions revealed that the sensitivity of FMT was higher than that of CMT (both P < 0.05). With the culture mixtures of Coxsackie virus (A16), enteric cytopathic human orphan virus (ECHO type30), enterovirus (EV71), rotavirus (LLR strain), and enteric adenovirus (AdV 41), specificity assessment demonstrated that there was no cross reaction during the usage of the two test strips as shown by the results which were negative. In the detection of influenza A in 1085 clinical specimens, the total coincidence rate was 96.7%, the positive coincidence rate was 97.1%, and the negative coincidence rate was 96.7%. In the case of influenza B detection, the total coincidence rate was 99.1%, the positive coincidence rate was 92.6%, and the negative coincidence rate was 98.5%. In addition, with influenza A or B real-time RT-PCR detection method, the results showed that, for influenza A, 26 of the 33 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 3 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result; For influenza B, 12 of the 15 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 5 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result. CONCLUSIONS: FMT performed better than CMT in the combined detection of influenza A and B viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Microesferas , Fitas Reagentes/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Cor , Fluorescência , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia
14.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(15-16): 362-368, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinical presentation, complications and mortality in molecularly confirmed influenza A and B infections were analyzed. METHODS: This retrospective observational single-centre study included all influenza positive patients older than 18 years who were hospitalized and treated at the flu isolation ward during 2017/2018. The diagnosis was based on point-of-care tests with the AlereTM. RESULTS: Of the 396 patients tested positive for influenza, 24.2% had influenza A and 75.8% influenza B. Influenza A patients were younger (median age 67.5 years vs. 77 years, p < 0.001), were more often smokers (27.7% vs. 16.8%, p = 0.021), had chronic pulmonary diseases more frequently (39.6% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.013), presented with a higher body temperature (38.6 °C vs. 38.3 °C, p = 0.004), leucocyte count (8 G/L vs. 6.8 G/L, p = 0.002), C­reactive protein (CRP) level (41 mg/l vs. 23 mg/l, p < 0.001) and had dyspnea more often (41.7% vs. 28%, p = 0.012). Influenza B patients had an underlying chronic kidney disease in 37% vs. 18.8% (p < 0.001) and presented with vomiting on admission more frequently (21.7% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.027). Influenza A patients were admitted for 8 days vs. 7 days (p = 0.023). There were no differences in the rate of complications; however, 22 (5.6%) patients died during the hospital stay. The in-hospital mortality was higher in influenza A patients (8.3% vs 4.7%, p = 0.172). CONCLUSION: Some differences were found between influenza A and B virus infections but symptoms were overlapping, which necessitates polymerase chain reaction point-of-care testing for accurate diagnosis. Influenza A was a more severe disease than influenza B during the period 2017/2018.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana , Testes Imediatos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242207

RESUMO

Genetically related highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype caused outbreaks simultaneously in East Asia and Europe-geographically distinct regions-during winter 2017-2018. This situation prompted us to consider whether the application of phylogeographic analysis to a particular gene segment of AIVs could provide clues for understanding how AIV had been disseminated across the continent. Here, the N6 NA genes of influenza viruses isolated across the world were subjected to phylogeographic analysis to illustrate the inter- and intracontinental dissemination of AIVs. Those isolated in East Asia during winter and in Mongolia/Siberia during summer were comingled within particular clades of the phylogeographic tree. For AIVs in one clade, their dissemination in eastern Eurasia extended from Yakutia, Russia, in the north to East Asia in the south. AIVs in western Asia, Europe, and Mongolia were also comingled within other clades, indicating that Mongolia/Siberia plays an important role in the dissemination of AIVs across the Eurasian continent. Mongolia/Siberia may therefore have played a role in the simultaneous outbreaks of H5N6 HPAIVs in Europe and East Asia during the winter of 2017-2018. In addition to the long-distance intracontinental disseminations described above, intercontinental disseminations of AIVs between Eurasia and Africa and between Eurasia and North America were also observed. Integrating these results and known migration flyways suggested that the migration of wild birds and the overlap of flyways, such as that observed in Mongolia/Siberia and along the Alaskan Peninsula, contributed to the long-distance intra- and intercontinental dissemination of AIVs. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the movement of migratory birds and the dynamics of AIVs in breeding areas-especially where several migration flyways overlap-in forecasting outbreaks caused by HPAIVs.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Ásia/epidemiologia , Aves/classificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Voo Animal , Genes Virais , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203585

RESUMO

As part of its role in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza in Melbourne received a record total of 5866 human influenza positive samples during 2017. Viruses were analysed for their antigenic, genetic and antiviral susceptibility properties and were propagated in qualified cells and hens' eggs for use as potential seasonal influenza vaccine virus candidates. In 2017, influenza A(H3) viruses predominated over influenza A(H1)pdm09 and B viruses, accounting for a total of 54% of all viruses analysed. The majority of A(H1)pdm09, A(H3) and influenza B viruses analysed at the Centre were found to be antigenically similar to the respective WHO recommended vaccine strains for the Southern Hemisphere in 2017. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of circulating A(H3) viruses had undergone genetic drift relative to the WHO recommended vaccine strain for 2017. Of 3733 samples tested for susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, only two A(H1)pdm09 viruses and one A(H3) virus showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, while just one A(H1)pdm09 virus showed highly reduced inhibition by zanamivir.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral , Ovos , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Filogenia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zanamivir/farmacologia
17.
Avian Pathol ; 48(5): 492-498, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203638

RESUMO

An exogenous "armoured" PCR internal control (IC) short RNA was analyzed in conjunction with real-time RT-PCR method for diagnosis of avian influenza. The resistance to nucleases and increased physical stability of the IC was ensured using branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was in complex with IC-RNA. The option to add the IC directly to pathological material suspensions allows measurement of the nucleic acids extraction efficiency. Stability of armoured RNA-IC during storage and tissue suspension preparation was shown. The advantage of exogenous "armoured" IC was demonstrated in the experiment with AIV genome detection by qPCR in samples from different species of wild birds. The exogenous IC gave reproducible homogeneous Ct values in all tests.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Animais , Aves , Primers do DNA/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(5): 465-476, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus circulation is monitored through the Cambodian influenza-like illness (ILI) sentinel surveillance system and isolates are characterized by the National Influenza Centre (NIC). Seasonal influenza circulation has previously been characterized by year-round activity and a peak during the rainy season (June-November). OBJECTIVES: We documented the circulation of seasonal influenza in Cambodia for 2012-2015 and investigated genetic, antigenic, and antiviral resistance characteristics of influenza isolates. PATIENTS/METHODS: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) at 11 hospitals throughout Cambodia. First-line screening was conducted by the National Institute of Public Health and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences. Confirmation of testing and genetic, antigenic and antiviral resistance characterization was conducted by Institute Pasteur in Cambodia, the NIC. Additional virus characterization was conducted by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza (Melbourne, Australia). RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2015, 1,238 influenza-positive samples were submitted to the NIC. Influenza A(H3N2) (55.3%) was the dominant subtype, followed by influenza B (30.9%; predominantly B/Yamagata-lineage) and A(H1N1)pdm09 (13.9%). Circulation of influenza viruses began earlier in 2014 and 2015 than previously described, coincident with the emergence of A(H3N2) clades 3C.2a and 3C.3a, respectively. There was high diversity in the antigenicity of A(H3N2) viruses, and to a smaller extent influenza B viruses, during this period, with some mismatches with the northern and southern hemisphere vaccine formulations. All isolates tested were susceptible to the influenza antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal and year-round co-circulation of multiple influenza types/subtypes were detected in Cambodia during 2012-2015.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
A A Pract ; 13(7): 264-266, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206379

RESUMO

Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Although rare, peripartum splenic rupture (PSR) is a lethal cause of bleeding due to variable presentation and delayed diagnosis. A 22-year-old gravida 2, para 0, abortus 1 (G2P0A1) woman presented for premature rupture of membranes and was diagnosed with Influenza A and chorioamnionitis. She underwent emergent cesarean delivery under general anesthesia. Postoperatively, her condition worsened despite treatment for presumed sepsis. She was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, and a splenectomy was performed for splenic rupture. We discuss management, risk factors, challenges, and importance of prompt treatment of PSR.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Ruptura Esplênica/diagnóstico , Corioamnionite/diagnóstico , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/cirurgia , Gravidez , Esplenectomia , Ruptura Esplênica/complicações , Ruptura Esplênica/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During winter, after excluding obvious sites of infection, the most important diagnoses of isolated fever or influenza-like illness (ILI) to rule out are listeriosis and influenza, because of their severe potential outcomes and the straightforward management available for each. While awaiting laboratory results, the recommended management strategy is usually hospitalization for intravenous antibiotic therapy against potential listeria. This study sought to assess the effect of the use of a rapid test on hospitalization and antibiotic therapy rates. METHODS: The study included all pregnant women who consulted for ILI or isolated fever after clinical and laboratory investigations and had a molecular diagnostic assay for influenza during two time periods, both during influenza epidemics: before introduction of the rapid molecular assay use (period 1) and after this (period 2). RESULTS: The study included 38 women during period 1 and 124 during period 2. The influenza diagnosis was confirmed for 24 of 38 (63.2%) women during period 1 and 65 of 124 (52.4%) women during period 2 (P = 0.24). The hospitalization rate fell significantly from period 1 to period 2, both in the total population (71.0% versus 44.3%, P = 0.004) and among women with confirmed influenza (83.3% versus 38.5%, P<0.001), as did the antibiotic therapy rate in both groups (respectively, 86.8% versus 56.1%, P = 0.001 and 91.7% versus 44.7%, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of a rapid molecular assay for the diagnosis of influenza improved the management of pregnant women with an isolated fever or ILI by reducing the rates of unnecessary hospitalization and antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Febre , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
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