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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05007, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791096

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are prevalent seasonal community viruses. Although not completely understood, SARS-CoV-2 may have the same means of transmission. Preventive social measures aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread could impact transmission of other respiratory viruses as well. The aim of this study is to report the detection of RSV and influenza during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 pandemic in a heavily affected community. Methods: Prospective study with pediatric and adult populations seeking care for COVID-19-like symptoms during the fall and winter of 2020 at two hospitals in Southern Brazil. RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was performed for all participants. Results: 1435 suspected COVID-19 participants (1137 adults, and 298 children). were included between May and August. Median age was 37.7 years (IQR = 29.6-47.7), and 4.92 years (IQR = 1.96-9.53), for the adult and child cohorts, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 469 (32.7%) while influenza and RSV were not detected at all. Conclusions: Measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely exerted a huge impact in the spread of alternate respiratory pathogens. These findings contribute to the knowledge about the dynamics of virus spread. Further, it may be considered for guiding therapeutic choices for these other viruses.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670852

RESUMO

The diagnosis of respiratory viruses of zoonotic origin (RVsZO) such as influenza and coronaviruses in humans is crucial, because their spread and pandemic threat are the highest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical technique with promising impact for the point-of-care diagnosis of viruses. It has been applied to a variety of influenza A virus subtypes, such as the H1N1 and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this work, a review of the strategies used for the detection of RVsZO by SERS is presented. In addition, relevant information about the SERS technique, anthropozoonosis, and RVsZO is provided for a better understanding of the theme. The direct identification is based on trapping the viruses within the interstices of plasmonic nanoparticles and recording the SERS signal from gene fragments or membrane proteins. Quantitative mono- and multiplexed assays have been achieved following an indirect format through a SERS-based sandwich immunoassay. Based on this review, the development of multiplex assays that incorporate the detection of RVsZO together with their specific biomarkers and/or secondary disease biomarkers resulting from the infection progress would be desirable. These configurations could be used as a double confirmation or to evaluate the health condition of the patient.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , /instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1113-1124, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576898

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) inflict immense damage on the global poultry industry annually. Serological diagnostic methods are fundamental for the effective control and prevention of outbreaks caused by these viruses. In this study, a novel triplex protein microarray assay was developed and validated for the rapid and simultaneous visualized detection of antibodies against AIV, NDV, and IBV in chicken sera. The AIV nuclear protein (NP), NDV phosphoprotein (P), and IBV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) were produced in a prokaryotic expression system, purified, and immobilized onto an initiator integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (iPDMS) film as probes to detect antibodies against these viruses in chicken sera. After optimization of the reaction conditions, no cross-reactivity was detected with infectious bursal disease virus, avian leukosis virus subgroup J and chicken anemia virus antisera. The lowest detectable antibody titers in this assay corresponded to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers of 24 and 21 for AIV and NDV, respectively, and to an IDEXX antibody titer of 103 for IBV, using the HI assay and IDEXX commercial ELISA kit as the reference methods. When156 serum samples were tested using the new assay, the HI test and the IBV IDEXX ELISA kit, the assay showed 96.8% (151/156), 97.4% (152/156) and 99.4% (155/156) diagnostic accuracy for detection of AIV, NDV and IBV antibody, respectively. The current study suggests that the newly developed triplex microarray is rapid, sensitive, and specific, providing a viable alternative assay for AIV, NDV, and IBV antibody screening in epidemiological investigations and vaccination evaluations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Análise Serial de Proteínas/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Imunoensaio/normas , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
4.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1197-1201, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598814

RESUMO

Waterfowl are considered to be the natural hosts of avian influenza virus. In 2017, two reassortant highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses of clade 2.3.4.4, subclade II, were identified in wild birds in eastern China. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic and antigenicity analysis showed that the viruses originated from multiple reassortments. To evaluate their pathogenicity in mammals, 15 BALB/c mice were infected with these viruses, and survival and weight loss were monitored for 14 days. Infection was associated with moderate pathogenicity in the mice, and the viruses could replicate in the lungs without prior adaptation. Thus, the existence of these viruses poses a continuous threat to both birds and humans.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(2): 539-548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613111

RESUMO

Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. A classifier combining chest X-ray (CXR) with clinical features may serve as a rapid screening approach. Methods: The study included 512 patients with COVID-19 and 106 with influenza A/B pneumonia. A deep neural network (DNN) was applied, and deep features derived from CXR and clinical findings formed fused features for diagnosis prediction. Results: The clinical features of COVID-19 and influenza showed different patterns. Patients with COVID-19 experienced less fever, more diarrhea, and more salient hypercoagulability. Classifiers constructed using the clinical features or CXR had an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.909 and 0.919, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of the classifier combining the clinical features and CXR was dramatically improved and the AUC was 0.952 with 91.5% sensitivity and 81.2% specificity. Moreover, combined classifier was functional in both severe and non-serve COVID-19, with an AUC of 0.971 with 96.9% sensitivity in non-severe cases, which was on par with the computed tomography (CT)-based classifier, but had relatively inferior efficacy in severe cases compared to CT. In extension, we performed a reader study involving three experienced pulmonary physicians, artificial intelligence (AI) system demonstrated superiority in turn-around time and diagnostic accuracy compared with experienced pulmonary physicians. Conclusions: The classifier constructed using clinical and CXR features is efficient, economical, and radiation safe for distinguishing COVID-19 from influenza A/B pneumonia, serving as an ideal rapid screening tool during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/métodos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Idoso , /fisiopatologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 51-57, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582905

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurs in the influenza season and has become a global pandemic. The present study aimed to examine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection with influenza A virus (IAV) in an attempt to provide clues for the antiviral interventions of co-infected patients. We described two patients who were co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and IAV treated at Wuhan Union Hospital, China. In addition, we performed a review in PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI (from January 1 up to November 1, 2020) with combinations of the following key words: "COVID-19, SARS-COV-2, influenza A and co-infection". A total of 28 co-infected patients were enrolled in the analysis. Of the 28 patients, the median age was 54.5 years (IQR, 34.25-67.5) and 14 cases (50.0%) were classified as severe types. The most common symptoms were fever (85.71%), cough (82.14%) and dyspnea (60.71%). Sixteen patients had lymphocytopenia on admission and 23 patients exhibited abnormal radiological changes. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 4 days (IQR, 3-6), and the median time of hospital stay was 14 days (IQR, 8.5-16.75). In conclusion, patients with SARS-COV-2 and IAV co-infection were similar to those infected with SARS-COV-2 alone in symptoms and radiological images. SARS-COV-2 co-infection with IAV could lead to more severe clinical condition but did not experience longer hospital stay compared with patients infected with SARS-COV-2 alone.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 395-403, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603116

RESUMO

The upcoming flu season in the Northern Hemisphere merging with the current COVID-19 pandemic raises a potentially severe threat to public health. Through experimental coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and either pseudotyped or live SARS-CoV-2 virus, we found that IAV preinfection significantly promoted the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in a broad range of cell types. Remarkably, in vivo, increased SARS-CoV-2 viral load and more severe lung damage were observed in mice coinfected with IAV. Moreover, such enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was not observed with several other respiratory viruses, likely due to a unique feature of IAV to elevate ACE2 expression. This study illustrates that IAV has a unique ability to aggravate SARS-CoV-2 infection, and thus, prevention of IAV infection is of great significance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/patologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , /fisiologia , /deficiência , /metabolismo , Animais , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Coinfecção/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Internalização do Vírus
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(2): 253-260, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550926

RESUMO

We report whole-genome sequencing of influenza A virus (IAV) with 100% diagnostic sensitivity and results available in <24-48 h using amplicon-based nanopore sequencing technology (MinION) on clinical material from wild waterfowl (n = 19), commercial poultry (n = 4), and swine (n = 3). All 8 gene segments of IAV including those from 14 of the 18 recognized hemagglutinin subtypes and 9 of the 11 neuraminidase subtypes were amplified in their entirety at >500× coverage from each of 16 reference virus isolates evaluated. Subgenomic viral sequences obtained in 3 cases using Sanger sequencing as the reference standard were identical to those obtained when sequenced using the MinION approach. An inter-laboratory comparison demonstrated reproducibility when comparing 2 independent laboratories at ≥99.8% across the entirety of the IAV genomes sequenced.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Galinhas , Patos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Perus , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498851

RESUMO

Wild birds are considered the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses (IAVs) making them critical for IAV surveillance efforts. While sea ducks have played a role in novel IAV emergence events that threatened food security and public health, very few surveillance samples have been collected from sea duck hosts. From 2014-2018, we conducted surveillance focused in the Mississippi flyway, USA at locations where sea duck harvest has been relatively successful compared to our other sampling locations. Our surveillance yielded 1662 samples from sea ducks, from which we recovered 77 IAV isolates. Our analyses identified persistence of sea duck specific IAV lineages across multiple years. We also recovered sea duck origin IAVs containing an H4 gene highly divergent from the majority of North American H4-HA with clade node age of over 65 years. Identification of IAVs with long branch lengths is indicative of substantial genomic change consistent with persistence without detection by surveillance efforts. Sea ducks play a role in the movement and long-term persistence of IAVs and are likely harboring more undetected IAV diversity. Sea ducks should be a point of emphasis for future North American wild bird IAV surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Genômica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404401

RESUMO

Introduction. Laboratories worldwide are facing high demand for molecular testing during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which might be further aggravated by the upcoming influenza season in the northern hemisphere.Gap Statement. Given that the symptoms of influenza are largely indistinguishable from those of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both SARS-CoV-2 and the influenza viruses require concurrent testing by RT-PCR in patients presenting with symptoms of respiratory tract infection.Aim. We adapted and evaluated a laboratory-developed multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 (dual target), influenza A and influenza B (SC2/InflA/InflB-UCT) on a fully automated high-throughput system (cobas6800).Methodology. Analytical performance was assessed by serial dilution of quantified reference material and cell culture stocks in transport medium, including pretreatment for chemical inactivation. For clinical evaluation, residual portions of 164 predetermined patient samples containing SARS-CoV-2 (n=52), influenza A (n=43) or influenza B (n=19), as well as a set of negative samples, were subjected to the novel multiplex assay.Results. The assay demonstrated comparable analytical performance to currently available commercial tests, with limits of detection of 94.9 cp ml-1 for SARS-CoV-2, 14.6 cp ml-1 for influenza A and 422.3 cp ml-1 for influenza B. Clinical evaluation showed excellent agreement with the comparator assays (sensitivity of 98.1, 97.7 and 100 % for Sars-CoV-2 and influenza A and B, respectively).Conclusion. The SC2/InflA/InflB-UCT allows for efficient high-throughput testing for all three pathogens and thus provides streamlined diagnostics while conserving resources during the influenza season.


Assuntos
/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , /genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. With the growing numbers of community spread cases worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Like influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be mainly transmitted by droplets and direct contact, and COVID-19 has a similar disease presentation to influenza. Here we present a case of influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection in a 60-year-old man with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old man with ESRD on hemodialysis presented for worsening cough, shortness of breath, and diarrhea. The patient first developed a mild fever (37.8 °C) during hemodialysis 3 days prior to presentation and has been experiencing worsening flu-like symptoms, including fever of up to 38.6 °C, non-productive cough, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and liquid green diarrhea. He lives alone at home with no known sick contacts and denies any recent travel or visits to healthcare facilities other than the local dialysis center. Rapid flu test was positive for influenza A. Procalcitonin was elevated at 5.21 ng/mL with a normal white blood cell (WBC) count. Computed tomography (CT) chest demonstrated multifocal areas of consolidation and extensive mediastinal and hilar adenopathy concerning for pneumonia. He was admitted to the biocontainment unit of Nebraska Medicine for concerns of possible COVID-19 and was started on oseltamivir for influenza and vancomycin/cefepime for the probable bacterial cause of his pneumonia and diarrhea. Gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen panel and Clostridioides difficile toxin assay were negative. On the second day of admission, initial nasopharyngeal swab came back positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The patient received supportive care and resumed bedside hemodialysis in strict isolation, and eventually fully recovered from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We presented a case of co-infection of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 in a hemodialysis patient. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection should not be overlooked even when other viruses including influenza can explain the clinical symptoms, especially in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico por imagem , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico por imagem , Coinfecção/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico por imagem , Influenza Humana/virologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Diálise Renal , /isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 53, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414457

RESUMO

Interleukin-38 has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in lung inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of IL-38 in viral pneumonia remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that circulating IL-38 concentrations together with IL-36α increased significantly in influenza and COVID-19 patients, and the level of IL-38 and IL-36α correlated negatively and positively with disease severity and inflammation, respectively. In the co-cultured human respiratory epithelial cells with macrophages to mimic lung microenvironment in vitro, IL-38 was able to alleviate inflammatory responses by inhibiting poly(I:C)-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through intracellular STAT1, STAT3, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, MEK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Intriguingly, transcriptomic profiling revealed that IL-38 targeted genes were associated with the host innate immune response to virus. We also found that IL-38 counteracts the biological processes induced by IL-36α in the co-culture. Furthermore, the administration of recombinant IL-38 could mitigate poly I:C-induced lung injury, with reduced early accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, activation of lymphocytes, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier. Taken together, our study indicates that IL-38 plays a crucial role in protection from exaggerated pulmonary inflammation during poly(I:C)-induced pneumonia, thereby providing the basis of a novel therapeutic target for respiratory viral infections.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Poli I-C/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Animais , /virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , /isolamento & purificação
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 517-524, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel quadruplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, differential diagnosis and detection of co-infections. METHODS: A one-step quadruplex rRT-PCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab and N genes, influenza A virus (hIAV) and influenza B virus (hIBV). RESULTS: The quadruplex rRT-PCR assay had good sensitivity and specificity. Correlation coefficients and amplification efficiencies of all singleplex and quadruplex rRT-PCR reactions were within acceptable ranges. The 95% lower limits of detection for plasmid standards and positive nucleic acid extracts of the quadruplex rRT-PCR assay were 57.38-95.11 copies/µL and 114.65-154.25 copies/µL, respectively. Excellent results were attained for inter- and intra-assay reproducibility. Among these clinical samples, only four samples showed results inconsistent with the singleplex rRT-PCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report a quadruplex rRT-PCR assay for the detection of two SARS-CoV-2 genes, hIAV and hIBV with perfect clinical performance.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , /isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370941

RESUMO

A 9-year-old girl was admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure due to influenza. Nine months earlier, she presented with unexplained lymphoedema of the lower extremities and monocytopenia. She had a history of occasional finger warts and onychomycoses. During hospitalisation, the patient was diagnosed with Emberger syndrome caused by GATA2 deficiency. The admission was complicated by thromboses in the right hand, leading to amputation of multiple fingers. From then on, the patient has been in good recovery, the function of her right hand was improving and an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation has now been successfully performed.


Assuntos
Dedos/patologia , Deficiência de GATA2/complicações , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/deficiência , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , /imunologia , Amputação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Códon sem Sentido , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Dedos/cirurgia , Deficiência de GATA2/diagnóstico , Deficiência de GATA2/genética , Deficiência de GATA2/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Gangrena/imunologia , Gangrena/cirurgia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/terapia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Respiração Artificial , /terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22284, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335272

RESUMO

Birds, notably wild ducks, are reservoirs of pathogenic and zoonotic viruses such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses. In the current study, we used metagenomics to detect and characterise avian DNA and RNA viruses from wild Pacific black ducks, Chestnut teals and Grey teals collected at different time points from a single location. We characterised a likely new species of duck aviadenovirus and a novel duck gyrovirus. We also report what, to the best of our knowledge, is the first finding of an avian orthoreovirus from Pacific black ducks and a rotavirus F from Chestnut teals. Other viruses characterised from the samples from these wild ducks belong to the virus families Astroviridae, Caliciviridae and Coronaviridae. Some of the viruses may have potential cross-species transmissibility, while others indicated a wide genetic diversity of duck viruses within a genus. The study also showed evidence of potential transmission of viruses along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway; potentially facilitated by migrating shorebirds. The detection and characterisation of several avian viruses not previously described, and causing asymptomatic but potentially also symptomatic infections suggest the need for more virus surveillance studies for pathogenic and potential zoonotic viruses in wildlife reservoirs.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Gyrovirus/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Patos/genética , Gyrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Filogenia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 863, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While hospital-acquired influenza A results in an additional cost burden and considerable mortality in patients, its risk factors are unknown. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired influenza A and to identify its risk factors to assist clinicians control hospital-acquired infections and reduce the burden of treatment. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years at a tertiary level teaching hospital during the 2018-2019 influenza A season. Patient data were retrieved from hospital-based electronic medical records. Hospital-acquired influenza A was defined as a case of influenza A diagnosed 7 days or more after admission, in a patient with no evidence of influenza A infection on admission. The controls without influenza A were selected among patients exposed to the same setting and time period. We identified risk factors using conditional logistic regression and described the characteristics of hospital-acquired influenza A by comparing the clinical data of infected patients and the controls. RESULTS: Of the 412 hospitalized patients with influenza A from all the departments in the study hospital, 93 (22.6%) cases were classified as hospital-acquired. The most common comorbidities of the 93 cases were hypertension (41.9%), coronary heart disease (21.5%), and cerebrovascular disease (20.4%). Before the onset of hospital-acquired influenza A, patients presented more lymphocytopenia (51.6% vs 35.5%, P = 0.027), hypoalbuminemia (78.5% vs 57.0%, P = 0.002), and pleural effusion (26.9% vs 9.7%, P = 0.002) than the matched controls. Infected patients also had longer hospital stays (18 days vs 14 days, P = 0.002), and higher mortality rates (10.8% vs 2.2%, P = 0.017) than the matched controls. Lymphocytopenia (odds ratio [OR]: 3.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-7.80; P = 0.016), hypoalbuminemia (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.10-4.57; P = 0.027), and pleural effusion (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.26-7.58; P = 0.014) were independently associated with hospital-acquired influenza A. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia and pleural effusion are independent risk factors that can help identify patients at high risk of hospital-acquired influenza A, which can extend hospital stay and is associated with a high mortality.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 864, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine blood parameters, such as the lymphocyte (LYM) count, platelet (PLT) count, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocytes multiplied by platelets (LYM*PLT) and mean platelet volume-to-platelet ratio (MPV/PLT), are widely used to predict the prognosis of infectious diseases. We aimed to explore the value of these parameters in the early identification of influenza virus infection in children. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study of fever with influenza-like symptoms in pediatric outpatients from different age groups and evaluated the predictive value of various routine blood parameters measured within 48 h of the onset of fever for influenza virus infection. RESULTS: The LYM count, PLT count, LMR and LYM*PLT were lower, and the NLR and MPV/PLT were higher in children with an influenza infection (PCR-confirmed and symptomatic). The LYM count, LMR and LYM*PLT in the influenza infection group were lower in the 1- to 6-year-old subgroup, and the LMR and LYM*PLT in the influenza infection group were lower in the > 6-year-old subgroup. In the 1- to 6-year-old subgroup, the cutoff value of the LMR for predicting influenza A virus infection was 3.75, the sensitivity was 81.87%, the specificity was 84.31%, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.886; the cutoff value of the LMR for predicting influenza B virus infection was 3.71, the sensitivity was 73.58%, the specificity was 84.31%, and the AUC was 0.843. In the > 6-year-old subgroup, the cutoff value of the LMR for predicting influenza A virus infection was 3.05, the sensitivity was 89.27%, the specificity was 89.61%, and the AUC was 0.949; the cutoff value of the LMR for predicting influenza B virus infection was 2.88, the sensitivity was 83.19%, the specificity was 92.21%, and the AUC was 0.924. CONCLUSIONS: Routine blood tests are simple, inexpensive and easy to perform, and they are useful for the early identification of influenza virus infection in children. The LMR had the strongest predictive value for influenza virus infection in children older than 1 year, particularly in children older than 6 years with influenza A virus infection.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Área Sob a Curva , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Plaquetas/citologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/virologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Monócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(46)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213683

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the 2019/20 WHO European Region influenza surveillance. Compared with previous 4-year averages, antigenic and genetic characterisations decreased by 17% (3,140 vs 2,601) and 24% (4,474 vs 3,403). Of subtyped influenza A viruses, 56% (26,477/47,357) were A(H1)pdm09, 44% (20,880/47,357) A(H3). Of characterised B viruses, 98% (4,585/4,679) were B/Victoria. Considerable numbers of viruses antigenically differed from northern hemisphere vaccine components. In 2020/21, maintaining influenza virological surveillance, while supporting SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is crucial.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vigilância da População , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112643, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007615

RESUMO

Detection of antibodies to upper respiratory pathogens is critical to surveillance, assessment of the immune status of individuals, vaccine development, and basic biology. The urgent need for antibody detection tools has proven particularly acute in the COVID-19 era. We report a multiplex label-free antigen microarray on the Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry (AIR) platform for detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS, three circulating coronavirus strains (HKU1, 229E, OC43) and three strains of influenza. We find that the array is readily able to distinguish uninfected from convalescent COVID-19 subjects, and provides quantitative information about total Ig, as well as IgG- and IgM-specific responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/instrumentação , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 77(5): 262-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064680

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Alphainfluenzavirus are RNA viruses that cause coronavirus disease-19 and influenza, respectively. Both viruses infect the respiratory tract, show similar symptoms, and use surface proteins to infect the host. Influenza requires hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to infect, whereas SARS-CoV-2 uses protein S. Both viruses depend on a viral RNA polymerase to express their proteins, but only SARS-CoV-2 has a proofreading mechanism, which results in a low mutation rate compared to influenza. E1KC4 and camostat mesylate are potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, achieving an effect similar to oseltamivir. Due to the SARS-CoV-2 low mutation rate, nucleoside analogs have been developed (such as EIDD-2801), which insert lethal mutations in the viral RNA. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 low mutation rate suggests that a vaccine, as well as the immunity developed in recovered patients, could provide long-lasting protection compared to vaccines against influenza, which are rendered obsolete as the virus mutates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Mutação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais
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