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1.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-04-28.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52044

RESUMO

[Sumário]: Pandemias de Influenza ocorrem em intervalos imprevisíveis e causam considerável morbimortalidade. O vírus da Influenza é rapidamente transmissível entre pessoas, principalmente durante contato próximo e é de difícil controle. Nos estágios iniciais de epidemias e pandemias de Influenza, pode haver demora na disponibilidade de vacinas específicas e oferta limitada de drogas antivirais. Intervenções não farmacológicas (INFs) são o único grupo de medidas de combate, prontamente, disponíveis em todos os momentos e em todos os países. Os impactos potenciais das INFs em uma epidemia ou pandemia de Influenza são retardar a introdução do vírus da pandemia na população; retardar a altura e pico da epidemia, caso ela já tenha começado; reduzir a transmissão através de medidas de proteção pessoal ou ambiental; reduzir o número total de infecções e, portanto, o número total de casos graves. O presente documento fornece recomendações para o uso de INFs em futuras epidemias e pandemias de Influenza baseadas nos atuais documentos de orientação e na literatura científica recente. Recomendações específicas baseiam-se na revisão sistemática das evidências sobre a efetividade das INFs, inclusive medidas de proteção individual, medidas ambientais, medidas de distanciamento social e medidas relacionadas a viagens. As informações aqui fornecidas serão úteis para autoridades nacionais que estejam elaborando ou atualizando seus planos para mitigação do impacto de epidemias e pandemias de Influenza.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza B , Intervenção na Crise , Epidemias , Prevenção e Mitigação
2.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(1)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza attack rates in closed population settings, such as residential aged care facilities (RACFs), can be more than 50% during annual epidemics. Uncertainty about the effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) as prophylaxis for influenza outbreaks has led to variations in their use in RACFs in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. OBJECTIVES: To examine the use of prophylactic NAIs by NSW RACFs for residents during influenza outbreaks in the 2015 influenza season. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of influenza outbreaks reported to NSW Public Health Units from 1 June 2015 - 31 October 2015. RESULTS: Eighty-eight RACFs reported influenza outbreaks; 86 were included in the study. Fifty-two RACFs used prophylactic NAIs; 34 did not. The median time to start NAI prophylaxis from the onset date of the first case was 8.5 days (range 2-23). The average proportion of residents within a facility that received prophylaxis was 51%percnt; (range 0.7-95). CONCLUSION: Variations in the use of prophylactic NAIs exist across RACFs. Earlier initiation of NAI prophylaxis, improved resident coverage where appropriate and other practice changes are recommended for the management of influenza outbreaks in RACFs.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neuraminidase , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza B , Masculino , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , New South Wales , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178606

RESUMO

As part of its role in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza in Melbourne received a total of 3993 human influenza-positive samples during 2018. Viruses were analysed for their antigenic, genetic and antiviral susceptibility properties. Selected viruses were propagated in qualified cells or hens' eggs for use as potential seasonal influenza vaccine virus candidates. In 2018, influenza A(H1)pdm09 viruses predominated over influenza A(H3) and B viruses, accounting for a total of 53% of all viruses analysed. The majority of A(H1)pdm09, A(H3) and influenza B viruses analysed at the Centre were found to be antigenically similar to the respective WHO-recommended vaccine strains for the Southern Hemisphere in 2018. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that a significant proportion of circulating A(H3) viruses had undergone genetic drift relative to the WHO-recommended vaccine strain for 2018. Of 2864 samples tested for susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, three A(H1)pdm09 viruses showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, while one B/Victoria virus showed highly reduced inhibition by both oseltamivir and zanamivir.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza B , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antígenos Virais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Viral , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir , Filogenia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zanamivir
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(2): 106-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of influenza with plastic bronchitis (PB) in children, and to improve the awareness of the diagnosis and treatment of PB caused by influenza virus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 70 children with lower respiratory influenza virus infection from October 2018 to October 2019. According to the presence or absence of PB, they were divided into an influenza+PB group with 12 children and a non-PB influenza group with 58 children. Related clinical data were collected for the retrospective analysis, including general information, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination, imaging findings, treatment, and prognosis. RESULTS: In the influenza+PB group, most children experienced disease onset at the age of 1-5 years, with the peak months of January, February, July, and September. Major clinical manifestations in the influenza+PB group included fever, cough, and shortness of breath. The influenza+PB group had significantly higher incidence rates of shortness of breath and allergic diseases such as asthma than the non-PB influenza group (P<0.05). Of the 12 children in the influenza+PB group, 7(58%) had influenza A virus infection and 5 (42%) had influenza B virus infection, among whom 1 had nephrotic syndrome. For the children in the influenza+PB group, major imaging findings included pulmonary consolidation with atelectasis, high-density infiltration, pleural effusion, and mediastinal emphysema. Compared with the non-PB influenza group, the influenza+PB group had a significantly higher proportion of children who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (P<0.05). Bronchoscopic lavage was performed within 1 week after admission, and all children were improved and discharged after anti-infective therapy and symptomatic/supportive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza with PB tends to have acute onset and rapid progression, and it is important to perform bronchoscopy as early as possible. The possibility of PB should be considered when the presence of shortness of breath, allergic diseases such as asthma or nephrotic syndrome in children with influenza.


Assuntos
Bronquite , Influenza Humana , Criança , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(7): 177-182, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078591

RESUMO

During the 2019-20 influenza season, influenza-like illness (ILI)* activity first exceeded the national baseline during the week ending November 9, 2019, signaling the earliest start to the influenza season since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Activity remains elevated as of mid-February 2020. In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season, CDC estimates seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This interim report used data from 4,112 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during October 23, 2019-January 25, 2020. Overall, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against any influenza virus associated with medically attended ARI was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36%-53%). VE was estimated to be 50% (95% CI = 39%-59%) against influenza B/Victoria viruses and 37% (95% CI = 19%-52%) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, indicating that vaccine has significantly reduced medical visits associated with influenza so far this season. Notably, vaccination provided substantial protection (VE = 55%; 95% CI = 42%-65%) among children and adolescents aged 6 months-17 years. Interim VE estimates are consistent with those from previous seasons, ranging from 40%-60% when influenza vaccines were antigenically matched to circulating viruses. CDC recommends that health care providers continue to administer influenza vaccine to persons aged ≥6 months because influenza activity is ongoing, and the vaccine can still prevent illness, hospitalization, and death associated with currently circulating influenza viruses as well as other influenza viruses that might circulate later in the season.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(1): 109-121, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072786

RESUMO

The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology directs Cas9 protein to recognize, bind and cleave the target site specifically by using artificial single-guide RNA (sgRNA), through non-homologous end joining or homologous end-recombinant repair mechanisms of cells, which can be engineered to knockout or knock-in of genomes. RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes the 5'-triphosphate-containing RNA in the cytoplasm and activates IRF3/7 and NF-κB by interacting with the downstream signaling molecule MAVS, thus initiating the expression of type I interferons and inflammatory factors. Previous studies found that influenza B virus (IBV) can up-regulate the expression of RIG-I. In the present study, to explore whether RIG-I is the major receptor for IBV to active the antiviral innate immune response and its effect on IBV replication, RIG-I gene in 293T cells was knocked out by CRISPR-Cas9 system, and a stable RIG-I knockout 293T (RIG-I(-/-) 293T) cell line was screened by puromycin pressure. The results of Western blotting showed that RIG-I was not expressed in this cell line after IBV or Sendai virus (SeV) infection, indicating that the RIG-I(-/-) 293T cell line was successfully constructed. The transcription levels of interferons, inflammatory factors and interferon-stimulated genes in RIG-I(-/-) 293T cells which were infected by IBV decreased significantly compared with those in wild-type 293T cells. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p65 and IRF3 were not detected in IBV or SeV infected RIG-I(-/-) 293T cells. It is indicated that the expression of cytokines mainly depends on the RIG-I-mediated signaling pathway at the early stage of IBV infection. Furthermore, the multi-step growth curves of IBV in the wild type and RIG-I(-/-) 293T cells showed that RIG-I inhibited the replication of IBV. Collectively, the RIG-I knockout 293T cell line was successfully constructed. We found that RIG-I is the main receptor for IBV to active the antiviral innate immune response and is critical for inhibiting IBV replication, which lays the foundation for further study of IBV infection mechanism.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B , Proteína DEAD-box 58 , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferons , Replicação Viral
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMO

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1251: 115-121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989546

RESUMO

The objective of this review was to elaborate on changes in the virological characteristics of influenza seasons in Poland in the past decade. The elaboration was based on the international influenza surveillance system consisting of Sentinel and non-Sentinel programs, recently adopted by Poland, in which professionals engaged in health care had reported tens of thousands of cases of acute upper airway infections. The reporting was followed by the provision of biological specimens collected from patients with suspected influenza and influenza-like infection, in which the causative contagion was then verified with molecular methods. The peak incidence of influenza infections has regularly been in January-March each epidemic season. The number of tested specimens ranged from 2066 to 8367 per season from 2008/2009 to 2017/2018. Type A virus predominated in nine out of the ten seasons and type B virus of the Yamagata lineage in the 2017/2018 season. Concerning the influenza-like infection, respiratory syncytial virus predominated in all the seasons. There was a sharp increase in the proportion of laboratory confirmations of influenza infection from season to season in relation to the number of specimens examined, from 3.2% to 42.4% over the decade. The number of confirmations, enabling a prompt commencement of antiviral treatment, related to the number of specimens collected from patients and on the virological situation in a given season. Yet influenza remains a health scourge, with a dismally low yearly vaccination rate, which recently reaches just about 3.5% of the general population in Poland.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estações do Ano , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(1): 73-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Influenza is an important cause of morbimortality worldwide. Although people at the extremes of age have a greater risk of complications, influenza has been more frequently investigated in the elderly than in children, and inpatients than outpatients. Yearly vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent vaccines is the main strategy to control influenza. OBJECTIVES: Determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of influenza A and B infections in children and adolescents with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: A cohort of outpatient children and adolescents with ILI was followed for 20 months. Influenza was diagnosed with commercial multiplex PCR platforms. RESULTS: 179 patients had 277 episodes of ILI, being 79 episodes of influenza A and 20 episodes of influenza B. Influenza A and B cases were mild and had similar presentation. Phylogenetic tree of influenza B viruses showed that 91.6% belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, which is not included in trivalent vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A and B are often detected in children and adolescents with ILI episodes, with similar and mild presentation in outpatients. The mismatch between the circulating influenza viruses and the trivalent vaccine offered in Brazil may have contributed to the high frequency of influenza A and B in this population.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110985, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765700

RESUMO

Investigation of antiviral and cytotoxic effect of quercetin 3-glucoside (Q3G) from Dianthus superbus L over influenza virus infection and replication were studied. Moreover, anti-influenza mechanism was screened by time-dependent antiviral assay, virus-induced symptoms and related gene expressions. The blockade of cap-binding domain of polymerase basic protein subunit were analysed by molecular docking study. The Q3G demonstrated potent antiviral activity showing 4.93, 6.43, 9.94, 8.3, and 7.1 µg/mL of IC50 for A/PR/8/34, A/Victoria/3/75, A/WS/33, B/Maryland/1/59, and B/Lee/40, respectively. The cellular toxicity of Q3G and oseltamivir (control) were tested and >100 µg/mL of CC50 value considered as nontoxic. Influenza A virus infection induced a higher ROS production, however potentially reduced by Q3G treatment and significantly blocked virus infection induced acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Moreover, Q3G has no inhibitory effect for neuraminidase activity but blocked virus replication through time dependent assay and showed more competitive binding affinity (-8.0 kcal/mal) than GTP (-7.0 kcal/mol) to block polymerase basic protein-2 subunit of influenza virus. Q3G from D. superbus showed potent antiviral activity against influenza A and B viruses with suppressive effect on virus-induced cellular ROS generation and AVO formation. Thus, this study provided a new line of research for Q3G to develop possible natural anti-influenza drug.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Dianthus/química , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antivirais/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/toxicidade , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(2): 132-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the influenza virus is the main cause of acute seasonal respiratory infections and pandemic outbreaks, antiviral drugs are critical to mitigate infections and impair chain of transmission. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the main class of anti-influenza drugs in clinical use. Nevertheless, resistance to oseltamivir (OST), the most used NAI, has been detected in circulating strains of the influenza virus. Therefore, novel compounds with anti-influenza activity are necessary. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the NA from influenza A and B virus is susceptible to the compound 4-(4- phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tritempo). METHODS: Cell-free neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed with Tritempo, using wild-type (WT) and OST-resistant influenza strains. Cell-based assays in MDCKs were performed to confirm Tritempo`s antiviral activity and cytotoxicity. Multiple passages of the influenza virus in increasing concentrations of our compound, followed by the sequencing of NA gene and molecular docking, were used to identify our Tritempo's target. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Indeed, Tritempo inhibited the neuraminidase activity of WT and OSTresistant strains of influenza A and B, at the nanomolar range. Tritempo bound to WT and OST-resistant influenza NA isoforms at the sialic acid binding site with low free binding energies. Cell-free assays were confirmed using a prototypic influenza A infection assay in MDCK cells, in which we found an EC50 of 0.38 µM, along with very low cytotoxicity, CC50 > 2,000 µM. When we passaged the influenza A virus in the presence of Tritempo, a mutant virus with the G248P change in the NA was detected. This mutant was resistant to Tritempo but remained sensitive to OST, indicating no cross-resistance between the studied and reference drugs. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Tritempo's chemical structure is a promising one for the development of novel antivirals against influenza.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Vírus da Influenza A/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza B/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 619-628, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843889

RESUMO

Influenza B viruses have circulated in humans for over 80 y, causing a significant disease burden. Two antigenically distinct lineages ("B/Victoria/2/87-like" and "B/Yamagata/16/88-like," termed Victoria and Yamagata) emerged in the 1970s and have cocirculated since 2001. Since 2015 both lineages have shown unusually high levels of epidemic activity, the reasons for which are unclear. By analyzing over 12,000 influenza B virus genomes, we describe the processes enabling the long-term success and recent resurgence of epidemics due to influenza B virus. We show that following prolonged diversification, both lineages underwent selective sweeps across the genome and have subsequently taken alternate evolutionary trajectories to exhibit epidemic dominance, with no reassortment between lineages. Hemagglutinin deletion variants emerged concomitantly in multiple Victoria virus clades and persisted through epistatic mutations and interclade reassortment-a phenomenon previously only observed in the 1970s when Victoria and Yamagata lineages emerged. For Yamagata viruses, antigenic drift of neuraminidase was a major driver of epidemic activity, indicating that neuraminidase-based vaccines and cross-reactivity assays should be employed to monitor and develop robust protection against influenza B morbidity and mortality. Overall, we show that long-term diversification and infrequent selective sweeps, coupled with the reemergence of hemagglutinin deletion variants and antigenic drift of neuraminidase, are factors that contributed to successful circulation of diverse influenza B clades. Further divergence of hemagglutinin variants with poor cross-reactivity could potentially lead to circulation of 3 or more distinct influenza B viruses, further complicating influenza vaccine formulation and highlighting the urgent need for universal influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neuraminidase/genética , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Seleção Genética/imunologia
13.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(7): 922-927, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859991

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations associated with influenza virus infection include encephalitis, encephalopathy, acute necrotizing encephalitis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, mild encephalitis with reversible splenial syndrome (MERS), and Guillaín Barré syndrome. We report a 16-year-old female who was admitted at our emergency department with seizures, confusion, nystagmus and motor clumsiness five days after an upper a respiratory tract infection. Influenza type B virus infection was confirmed by chain polymerase reaction analysis. The initial electroencephalogram demonstrated a pattern of global slowness without epileptic discharges. One week later, it showed a progression to slow-wave focal bilateral discharges at both temporal and occipital lobes. The patient had a favorable evolution and was discharged 19 days after admission with phenytoin to prevent seizures.


Assuntos
Encefalite/virologia , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia
14.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 22(12): 772-778, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore the pathogenic bacteria type, distribution, drug resistance and influencing factors of nosocomial pulmonary infection in patients with lung cancer during chemotherapy. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 411 patients with lung cancer who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College from January 2017 to December 2018, and counted the incidence of nosocomial lung infection, pathogens, drug resistance and influencing factors. RESULTS: There were 184 cases of nosocomial pulmonary infection in 411 lung cancer patients during chemotherapy, the infection rate was 44.77%. The isolated pathogens included Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, fungi and tuberculosis, among which Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 37.25%, followed by virus infection, accounting for 15.69%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the main Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the common gram-positive bacteria, influenza B virus is the main virus, Candida and Aspergillus are the most common fungi. The resistance rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem was 26.67%, while that of Klebsiella pneumoniae to imipenem was 12.50%, and that of the main Gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin was 0.00%. Hypoproteinemia, long chemotherapy cycle, high-intensity chemotherapy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and basic bronchiectasis were the high risk factors of lung cancer patients with nosocomial pulmonary infection during chemotherapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the chemotherapy of lung cancer patients with nosocomial pulmonary infection, the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria have certain characteristics. Clinicians should strengthen the detection of pathogenic bacteria and their drug resistance. On the basis of symptomatic treatment, to achieve the purpose of ensuring the treatment effect and prolonging the survival period of patients, preventive measures should be taken for high-risk patients to reduce the chemotherapy cycle and intensity as much as possible to reduce the incidence of infection life.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Candida/patogenicidade , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomed Khim ; 65(6): 520-525, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876523

RESUMO

The overall model for prediction of IC50 values for inhibitors of neuraminidase influenza virus A and B has been created. It combines data about IC50 values of complexes of 40 variants of neuraminidases of influenza A (7 serotypes) and B and three known inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir). The model also uses only data of enthalpy contributions to the potential energy of inhibitor/protein and substrate (MUNANA)/protein complexes. The calculation procedures are ported to use software with support of GPU accelerators, that significant decrease the computation time. The corresponding correlation coefficient (R²) for pIC50 prediction was within 0.45-0.58, the SEM values of around 0.7 (the range of used pIC50 data set is from 4.55 to 10.22).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Ciclopentanos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Guanidinas/química , Vírus da Influenza A/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza B/enzimologia , Oseltamivir/química , Zanamivir/química
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 990, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 1985, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses (Victoria-like and Yamagata-like) have circulated globally. Trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain two circulating influenza A strains but a single B strain and thus provide limited immunity against circulating B strains of the lineage not included in the vaccine. In this study, we describe the characteristics of influenza B viruses that caused respiratory illness in the population in Italy over 13 consecutive seasons of virological surveillance, and the match between the predominant influenza B lineage and the vaccine B lineage, in each season. METHODS: From 2004 to 2017, 26,886 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were registered in Italy, of which 18.7% were type B. Among them, the lineage of 2465 strains (49%) was retrieved or characterized in this study by a real-time RT-PCR assay and/or sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. RESULTS: Co-circulation of both B lineages was observed each season, although in different proportions every year. Overall, viruses of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages caused 53.3 and 46.7% of influenza B infections, respectively. A higher proportion of infections with both lineages was detected in children, and there was a declining frequency of B/Victoria detections with age. A mismatch between the vaccine and the predominant influenza B lineage occurred in eight out of thirteen influenza seasons under study. Considering the seasons when B accounted for > 20% of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, a mismatch was observed in four out of six seasons. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 domain confirmed the co-circulation of both lineages and revealed a mixed circulation of distinct evolutionary viral variants, with different levels of match to the vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the understanding of the circulation of influenza B viruses in Italy. We found a continuous co-circulation of both B lineages in the period 2004-2017, and determined that children were particularly vulnerable to Victoria-lineage influenza B virus infections. An influenza B lineage mismatch with the trivalent vaccine occurred in about two-thirds of cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/classificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 967, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza causes a considerable burden to healthcare services every year. To better measure the impact of severe influenza cases in Romania, we analyzed active surveillance data collected during the 2017-2018 season from patients admitted for influenza-like illness (ILI) at a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest. METHODS: Patients admitted for acute ILI were included if they were resident in the Bucharest-Ilfov region, had been hospitalized for at least 24 h, and had onset of symptoms within 7 days before admission. Patient demographics, healthcare use, vaccination status, and outcome data were collected by questionnaire or by searching clinical records. Respiratory swabs were also obtained from each patient to confirm influenza A (A/H1 and A/H3 subtypes) or influenza B (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) infection by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The study included 502 patients, many (45.2%) of whom were aged < 5 years. Overall, 108 patients (21.5%) had one or more comorbidities. Seventeen adults aged 18-64 years (3.4%) had been vaccinated against influenza. Patients were hospitalized for a median of 5 days and most (90.4%) were prescribed antiviral treatment. More than one-half of the patients (n = 259, 51.6%) were positive for influenza. Most influenza cases were caused by B viruses (172/259, 66.4%), which were mostly of the B/Yamagata lineage (85 of 94 characterized, 90.4%). Most of the subtyped A viruses were A/H1 (59/74, 79.7%). A/H1 viruses were frequently detected in influenza-positive admissions throughout the 2017-2018 season, whereas the predominant B/Yamagata viruses were detected around the middle of the season, with a peak in cases at week 7 of 2018. Eleven patients were admitted to an intensive care unit; of these, one patient with confirmed B/Yamagata infection died. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that seasonal influenza results in considerable hospitalization in Bucharest-Ilfov, Romania and suggest vaccine coverage should be extended, especially to the youngest age groups. The data from this study should help inform and optimize national influenza healthcare policies.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenzavirus A/genética , Influenzavirus A/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Romênia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1049-1055, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607054

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically review the mortality burden study of influenza in mainland China. Method: "influenza", "flu", "H1N1", "pandemic", "mortality", "death", "fatality", "burden", "China" and "Chinese" were used as keywords, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles in three English databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) and three Chinese database (CNKI, WanFang and VIP) during 1990-2018 (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. The inclusion criteria were human-oriented researches with method based on population, and research indexes included mortality and excess mortality. The exclusion criteria were non-primary research materials, predictive research and research on the burden of avian influenza related deaths. A total of 17 literatures were included, and the basic information to descriptive characteristics, methodology of modeling and the corresponding results were extracted. Results: All the 17 studies adopted indirect statistical models, with 14 of which adopted the regression model, and all the research index was excess mortality. All causes (16 studies), respiratory and circulatory diseases (14 studies) and pneumonia and influenza (10 studies) were the main causes of death associated with influenza. Influenza associated mortality burden in the elderly was higher, with the lowest excess mortality rates of all causes, respiratory and circulatory diseases, pneumonia and influenza being 49.57, 30.80 and 0.69 per 100 000 people, and the highest rates being 228.16, 170.20 and 30.35 per 100 000 people, respectively. In the non-elderly, the corresponding lowest rates were -0.27, -0.08 and 0.04 per 100 000 people respectively, and the highest rates were 3.63, 2.6 and 0.91 per 100 000 people, respectively. The influenza-related excess mortality was higher in the north, with a minimum of 7.8 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.0 per 100 000, and slightly lower in the south, with a minimum of 6.11 per 100 000 and a maximum of 18.7 per 100 000. There were also differences in deaths caused by different influenza virus subtypes, with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B virus possibly posing a heavier mortality burden. Conclusions: Studies on influenza mortality burden is mainly based on indirect model and urban level in China. The mortality burden of influenza in the elderly, the northern and subtype A(H3N2) and B were more severe.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Idoso , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 880-884, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600182

RESUMO

During May 19-September 28, 2019,* low levels of influenza activity were reported in the United States, with cocirculation of influenza A and influenza B viruses. In the Southern Hemisphere seasonal influenza viruses circulated widely, with influenza A(H3) predominating in many regions; however, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were predominant in some countries. In late September, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended components for the 2020 Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccine and included an update to the A(H3N2) and B/Victoria-lineage components. Annual influenza vaccination is the best means for preventing influenza illness and its complications, and vaccination before influenza activity increases is optimal. Health care providers should recommend vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications to vaccination (1).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Farmacorresistência Viral , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 69-73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637606

RESUMO

This study seeks to define the level of antihemagglutinin antibodies, using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), in the serum of patients, stratified into seven age groups, in Poland during the influenza epidemic season of 2017/18. A quadrivalent influenza vaccine has been introduced in Poland as of this epidemic season, making it possible for the first time to conduct the analysis for four antigens: A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1) pdm09, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2), B/Brisbane/60/2008 - Victoria lineage, and B/Phuket/3073/2013 - Yamagata lineage. We found that the level of individual antihemagglutinin antibodies was different among the seven age groups studied; with the highest in patients of 5-9 years and 10-14 years of age. Interestingly, the protection factor, defined as the percentage of people with the level of antihemagglutinin antibodies of at least 1:40 after vaccination or due to a previous infection, was the highest for the antigen A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2) in the same age groups (74% and 75%, respectively). Taking into account the dismal 3.6% of the vaccinated population in Poland, these findings point toward the sustained presence of an immune system response in patients after a prior influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B , Influenza Humana/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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