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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(3): 396-403, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249206

RESUMO

Background & objectives: : Globally, there is an effort to eliminate the measles and control rubella as these diseases lead to considerable morbidity and mortality especially among under-five children and are important public health problems. This study was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) antibodies among children of age 5-10 yr in Chandigarh, north India, to provide evidence on prevalent immunity levels. Methods: : This cross-sectional study was conducted in Chandigarh, among 196 randomly selected healthy children (5-10 yr), who received either one or two doses of measles or MMR combination vaccine. Socio-economic background and immunization history were recorded. Blood sample (2 ml) was collected to estimate the MMR IgG antibody titres by using ELISA kits. Results: : Protective seroprevalence of MMR antibodies was 40.8, 75.5 and 86.2 per cent, respectively. The geometric mean titres of MMR IgG antibodies in the study children were 11.3, 50.6 and 54.3 international units (IU)/ ml, respectively. The proportion of seroprotected children for measles was significantly higher among those who had received two or more doses (46.4%) of measles vaccine compared to those who had received single dose (35.6%) (P <0.001). About 16 per cent of children had received single dose of MMR vaccine. Among these, 71.4 and 100 per cent were seroprotected against mumps and rubella, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: : A large proportion of children aged 5-10 yr lacked protective immunity against measles (60%); about one-fourth (15-25%) were susceptible to infection with mumps and rubella virus. Mumps vaccination may be considered to be included in National Immunization Schedule for children with periodic serosurveillance.


Assuntos
Sarampo/epidemiologia , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/imunologia , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Vacinação
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(7)2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987195

RESUMO

Temperature control is the most important and fundamental part of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To date, there have been several methods to realize the periodic heating and cooling of the thermal-cycler system for continuous-flow PCR reactions, and three of them were widely used: the thermo-cycled thermoelectric cooler (TEC), the heating block, and the thermostatic heater. In the present study, a new approach called open-loop controlled single thermostatic TEC was introduced to control the thermal cycle during the amplification process. Differing from the former three methods, the size of this microdevice is much smaller, especially when compared to the microdevice used in the heating block method. Furthermore, the rising and cooling speed of this method is much rapider than that in a traditional TEC cycler, and is nearly 20-30% faster than a single thermostatic heater. Thus, a portable PCR system was made without any external heat source, and only a Teflon tube-wrapped TEC chip was used to achieve the continuous-flow PCR reactions. This provides an efficient way to reduce the size of the system and simplify it. In addition, through further experiments, the microdevice is not only found to be capable of amplification of a PCR product from Human papillomavirus type 49 (Genbank ref: X74480.1) and Rubella virus (RUBV), but also enables clinical diagnostics, such as a test for hepatitis B virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/diagnóstico , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Calefação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/instrumentação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Viroses/virologia
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
4.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 26(3): 338-346, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543540

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses. The outcome of an intraocular viral infection may largely be guided by the characteristics of the virus, which subsequently dictates the severity and type of the immune response, and the host immune status.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Infecções Oculares Virais , Herpes Simples , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Uveíte Anterior , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/imunologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/patologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Herpes Simples/imunologia , Herpes Simples/patologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/imunologia , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/patologia , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/patogenicidade , Humanos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/patologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Simplexvirus/patogenicidade , Uveíte Anterior/imunologia , Uveíte Anterior/patologia , Uveíte Anterior/virologia
5.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(2): 209-226, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980148

RESUMO

The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. The inflammatory reaction induced by these four agents has an important role in pathogenesis. The potential role of "strain differences" in pathogenesis of microcephaly by these four pathogens is examined. Specific epidemiologic factors, such as first and early second trimester maternal infection, and the manifestations of congenital infection in the infant, shed some light on the pathogenesis. Immune aspects of normal pregnancy and their role in congenital infections is examined. In this review, we integrate all these findings to create a unified hypothesis of the pathogenesis of congenital microcephaly induced by these infectious agents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/transmissão , Microcefalia/patologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/patologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/patologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
ACS Infect Dis ; 3(12): 886-897, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043768

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines are a promising model for the early phase of human embryonic development. Here, their contribution to the still incompletely understood pathogenesis of congenital virus infections was evaluated. The infection of iPSC lines with miscarriage-associated coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and measles virus (MV) was compared to the efficient teratogen rubella virus (RV). While CVB3 and MV were found to be cytopathogenic on iPSC lines, RV replicated without impairment of iPSC colony morphology and integrity. This so far outstanding course of infection enabled maintenance of RV-infected iPSC cultures over several passages and their subsequent differentiation to ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. A modification of the metabolic profile of infected iPSC lines was the only common aspect for all three viruses. This study points toward two important aspects. First, iPSC lines represent a suitable cell culture model for early embryonic virus infection. Second, metabolic activity represents an important means for evaluation of pathogen-associated alterations in iPSC lines.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Enterovirus Humano B/patogenicidade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/virologia , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Teratogênese , Animais , Caspases/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 723, 2016 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to control the spread of rubella and reduce the risk for congenital rubella syndrome, an additional rubella vaccination program was set up for all secondary school students since 2008 in Zhejiang, China. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analysis of rubella incidence among different age groups from 2005 to 2015 and a serosurvey of female subjects aged 15-39 years to understand the possible effects of this immunization program. RESULTS: The average annual rubella incidence rate had decreased from 15.86 per 100,000 population (2005-2007) to 0.75 per 100,000 population (2013-2015) in Zhejiang. The decrease in the rate of rubella incidence in girls aged 15-19 years was more accelerated (from 138.30 to 0.34 per 100,000) than in the total population during 2008-2015 (from 32.20 to 0.46 per 100,000). Of 1225 female subjects in the serosurvey, 256 (20.9%) were not immune to rubella. The proportion of subjects immune to rubella was significantly different among different age groups (Wald χ2 = 22.19, p = 0.000), and subjects aged 15-19 years old had the highest immunity (88.0%). Rubella antibody levels were significantly lower in women aged 25-30 years with 26.7% of them not immune, followed by the group aged 20-24 years (25.0%) and 30-35 years (24.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Rubella vaccine included in the Expanded Program on Immunization together with vaccination activities for secondary school students can help in rubella control, particularly in targeted age groups in the program. Seroprevalence of antibodies to the rubella virus amongst the female population within childbearing age in Zhejiang, China, is still too low to provide immunity. In addition to vaccination programs in the secondary schools, rubella vaccination should also be encouraged in women of childbearing age, which can be done effectively combined with pre-marital examination in China.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 90, 2016 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ocular infections remain a major cause of blindness and morbidity worldwide. While prognosis is dependent on the timing and accuracy of diagnosis, the etiology remains elusive in ~50 % of presumed infectious uveitis cases. The objective of this study is to determine if unbiased metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS) can accurately detect pathogens in intraocular fluid samples of patients with uveitis. METHODS: This is a proof-of-concept study, in which intraocular fluid samples were obtained from five subjects with known diagnoses, and one subject with bilateral chronic uveitis without a known etiology. Samples were subjected to MDS, and results were compared with those from conventional diagnostic tests. Pathogens were identified using a rapid computational pipeline to analyze the non-host sequences obtained from MDS. RESULTS: Unbiased MDS of intraocular fluid produced results concordant with known diagnoses in subjects with (n = 4) and without (n = 1) uveitis. Samples positive for Cryptococcus neoformans, Toxoplasma gondii, and herpes simplex virus 1 as tested by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory were correctly identified with MDS. Rubella virus was identified in one case of chronic bilateral idiopathic uveitis. The subject's strain was most closely related to a German rubella virus strain isolated in 1992, one year before he developed a fever and rash while living in Germany. The pattern and the number of viral identified mutations present in the patient's strain were consistent with long-term viral replication in the eye. CONCLUSIONS: MDS can identify fungi, parasites, and DNA and RNA viruses in minute volumes of intraocular fluid samples. The identification of chronic intraocular rubella virus infection highlights the eye's role as a long-term pathogen reservoir, which has implications for virus eradication and emerging global epidemics.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Metagenômica , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Humor Aquoso/microbiologia , Humor Aquoso/parasitologia , Humor Aquoso/virologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Filogenia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/classificação , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Úvea/microbiologia , Úvea/parasitologia , Úvea/patologia , Úvea/virologia , Uveíte/microbiologia , Uveíte/parasitologia , Uveíte/virologia , Replicação Viral
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 143(2): 227-31, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. METHODS: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. RESULTS: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/virologia , Vírus do Sarampo/isolamento & purificação , Vírus do Sarampo/patogenicidade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 89: 16-20, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968901

RESUMO

The rubella virus is the causative agent of postnatal German measles and the congenital rubella syndrome. The majority of the rubella virus replication complexes originate from the endomembrane system. The rubella virus perturbs the signaling pathways regulating the formation of autophagic membranes in the infected cells, including the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. It is widely accepted that these pathways inhibit autophagy. In contrast, the class III PI3K enzymes are essential for autophagy initiation. By manipulating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, class I PI3K/Akt and class III PI3K axes of signal transduction, the rubella virus may differentially regulate the autophagic cascade, with consequent stimulation of the initiation and strong suppression of the later phases. Dysregulation of autophagy by this virus can have a significant impact on the construction of replication compartments by regulating membrane trafficking. We hypothesize that the rubella virus perturbs the autophagic process in order to prevent the degradation of the virus progeny, and to ensure its replication by hijacking omegasomes for the construction of the replication complexes. The virus is therefore able to utilize an antiviral mechanism to its own advantage. Therapeutic modalities targeting the autophagic process may help to ameliorate the serious consequences of the congenital rubella syndrome.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/fisiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647548

RESUMO

To explore the audiological features in children who were sever sensorineural hearing loss infected with rubella virus. There were two cases of rubella virus infection in children who were deaf, they conducted the distortion product otoacoustic emission, ABR and auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) examination, then analyzed the results comprehensively. Two patients' mothers were prompted to have infected rubella virus during the early three months pregnant period by history and laboratory tests. The two patients were not detected deafness gene mutation. Audiology results implied the two patients were very severe binaural sensorineural deafness, so they were recommended to equipped with hearing aids and cochlear implant surgery. Early pregnancy women infected with rubella virus can cause very severe offspring sensorineural deafness. The crowd whose mother were suspected to infect with rubella virus in early pregnancy, that should be tracked and detected hearing in order to achieve early detection, early intervention and early treatment.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/etiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Criança , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/virologia , Humanos , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Gravidez
14.
Mult Scler ; 21(2): 252-4, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24852921

RESUMO

We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25286528

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluate effectiveness of measures specified by epidemiologic control for rubella in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 585 pregnant women with suspected measles were laboratory examined in 10 Regional Centers of Control for Measles and Rubella by EIA. RESULTS: 24 rubella infected pregnant women aged 16-36 years were detected among the examined pregnant women, most of those (91.7%) were either not immunized against rubella or had unknown immunization anamnesis: 16 women terminated pregnancy, in 8 women pregnancy ended with delivery at term. Of the 8 newborns only a single child had innate rubella infection (the child was clinically healthy). CONCLUSION: Epidemiologic investigation of each rubella case in pregnant women with obligatory laboratory examination of women and source of infection revealed a significant number of women at childbearing age susceptible to rubella virus that retains the possibility of birth of children with innate rubella syndrome.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/patologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vacina contra Rubéola
17.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 54(1): 35-40, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24588778

RESUMO

To reduce the incidence of infants with congenital infections, women should be aware of and know prevention measures against maternal infection with mother-to-child infections during pregnancy. Our objective was to assess the awareness of and knowledge about mother-to-child infections in Japanese pregnant women. A survey of 343 Japanese pregnant women was completed. Awareness of 13 pathogens capable of mother-to-child transmission was surveyed. Knowledge about the transmission route, the most susceptible time of infection that may cause severe fetal disease during pregnancy, and methods to prevent maternal infection were investigated for four major pathogens (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and parvovirus B19) and results were compared between these pathogens. The proportion of women aware of pathogens concerning TORCH syndrome was the following: rubella virus 76%, Treponema pallidum 69%, Toxoplasma gondii 58%, parvovirus B19 28%, herpes simplex virus 27%, and cytomegalovirus 18%. Only 8% knew how cytomegalovirus is transmitted, and only 12% knew how parvovirus B19 is transmitted; both were significantly lower than those who knew transmission routes for rubella virus or Toxoplasma gondii. The proportion of women who knew the most susceptible time for severe fetal infection by maternal acquisition of cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, or parvovirus B19 was significantly lower than that for rubella virus. The vast majority of surveyed women were not aware of methods to prevent maternal infection with cytomegalovirus or parvovirus B19. In conclusion, current awareness of and knowledge about cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 infection are low in Japanese pregnant women.


Assuntos
Mães , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade
18.
Uirusu ; 64(2): 137-46, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26437836

RESUMO

Rubella virus (RV), an infectious agent of rubella, is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus in the family of Togaviridae. RV has a positive-stranded sense RNA as a genome. A natural host of RV is limited to human, and rubella is considered to be a childhood disease in general. When woman is infected with RV during early pregnancy, her fetus may develop severe birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome. In this review, the RV life cycle from the virus entry to budding is illustrated in comparison with those of member viruses of the genus alphavirus in the same family. The multiple functions of the RV capsid protein are also introduced.


Assuntos
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Vírus da Rubéola/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Alphavirus , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Liberação de Vírus
19.
Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol ; (3): 28-34, 2012.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22984771

RESUMO

Live attenuated rubella vaccine is used for vaccination. Temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype was proved for almost all rubella vaccine strains, and the acquisition of the ts phenotype during cold adaptation was strongly correlated with the attenuation of the wild-type viruses. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of the attenuation have been insufficiently understood for rubella virus. Study ofthese mechanisms, identifying genotypic markers of attenuation, which together with the sequence analyses could be used for genetic stability control of vaccine strains, is still of current interest. In this work, we determined nearly complete genome sequences of attenuated (ca) and the wildtype progenitor (wt) of the rubella virus strain C-77 isolated in Russia. Possible genetic determinants of attenuation were detected. Thus, 13 nucleotide differences leading to 6 amino acid substitutions were found. Four amino acid substitutions were found to be almost unique. Special consideration should be given to Tyr1042Cys substitution in the protease domain of C-77 strain, because it most probably plays the crucial role in acquisition of ts-phenotype.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Vírus da Rubéola , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Temperatura Ambiente , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Células Vero
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