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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4198, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826914

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic requiring the development of interventions for the prevention or treatment to curtail mortality and morbidity. No vaccine to boost mucosal immunity, or as a therapeutic, has yet been developed to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we discover and characterize a cross-reactive human IgA monoclonal antibody, MAb362. MAb362 binds to both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and competitively blocks ACE2 receptor binding, by overlapping the ACE2 structural binding epitope. Furthermore, MAb362 IgA neutralizes both pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in 293 cells expressing ACE2. When converted to secretory IgA, MAb326 also neutralizes authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus while the IgG isotype shows no neutralization. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies, such as MAb362, may provide effective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing mucosal immunity within the respiratory system, a potentially critical feature of an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1965-1973, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819220

RESUMO

Serology is a crucial part of the public health response to the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we describe the development, validation and clinical evaluation of a protein micro-array as a quantitative multiplex immunoassay that can identify S and N-directed SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity and distinguish them from all currently circulating human coronaviruses. The method specificity was 100% for SARS-CoV-2 S1 and 96% for N antigen based on extensive syndromic (n=230 cases) and population panel (n=94) testing that also confirmed the high prevalence of seasonal human coronaviruses. To assess its potential role for both SARS-CoV-2 patient diagnostics and population studies, we evaluated a large heterogeneous COVID-19 cohort (n=330) and found an overall sensitivity of 89% (≥ 21 days post onset symptoms (dps)), ranging from 86% to 96% depending on severity of disease. For a subset of these patients longitudinal samples were provided up to 56 dps. Mild cases showed absent or delayed, and lower SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. Overall, we present the development and extensive clinical validation of a multiplex coronavirus serological assay for syndromic testing, to answer research questions regarding to antibody responses, to support SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and to evaluate epidemiological developments efficiently and with high-throughput.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/sangue , Idoso , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Testes de Neutralização , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
4.
Immunol Rev ; 296(1): 205-219, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658335

RESUMO

This article provides a review of studies evaluating the role of host (and viral) genetics (including variation in HLA genes) in the immune response to coronaviruses, as well as the clinical outcome of coronavirus-mediated disease. The initial sections focus on seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. We then examine the state of the knowledge regarding genetic polymorphisms and SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The article concludes by discussing research areas with current knowledge gaps and proposes several avenues for future scientific exploration in order to develop new insights into the immunology of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
6.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104521, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the COVID-19 epidemic extent and the level of herd immunity is urgently needed to help manage this pandemic. METHODS: We used a panel of 167 samples (77 pre-epidemic and 90 COVID-19 seroconverters) and SARS-CoV1, SARS-CoV2 and MERS-CoV Spike and/or Nucleopcapsid (NC) proteins to develop a high throughput multiplex screening assay to detect IgG antibodies in human plasma. Assay performances were determined by ROC curves analysis. A subset of the COVID-19+ samples (n = 36) were also tested by a commercial NC-based ELISA test and the results compared with those of the novel assay. RESULTS: On samples collected ≥14 days after symptoms onset, the accuracy of the assay is 100 % (95 % CI: 100-100) for the Spike antigen and 99.9 % (95 % CI:99.7-100) for NC. By logistic regression, we estimated that 50 % of the patients have seroconverted at 5.7 ± 1.6; 5.7 ± 1.8 and 7.9 ± 1.0 days after symptoms onset against Spike, NC or both antigens, respectively and all have seroconverted two weeks after symptoms onset. IgG titration in a subset of samples showed that early phase samples present lower IgG titers than those from later phase. IgG to SARS-CoV2 NC cross-reacted at 100 % with SARS-CoV1 NC. Twenty-nine of the 36 (80.5 %) samples tested were positive by the commercial ELISA while 31/36 (86.1 %) were positive by the novel assay. CONCLUSIONS: Our assay is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV2 proteins, suitable for high throughput epidemiological surveys. The novel assay is more sensitive than a commercial ELISA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Cell ; 182(3): 722-733.e11, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645327

RESUMO

Vaccines are urgently needed to control the ongoing pandemic COVID-19 and previously emerging MERS/SARS caused by coronavirus (CoV) infections. The CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is an attractive vaccine target but is undermined by limited immunogenicity. We describe a dimeric form of MERS-CoV RBD that overcomes this limitation. The RBD-dimer significantly increased neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers compared to conventional monomeric form and protected mice against MERS-CoV infection. Crystal structure showed RBD-dimer fully exposed dual receptor-binding motifs, the major target for NAbs. Structure-guided design further yielded a stable version of RBD-dimer as a tandem repeat single-chain (RBD-sc-dimer) which retained the vaccine potency. We generalized this strategy to design vaccines against COVID-19 and SARS, achieving 10- to 100-fold enhancement of NAb titers. RBD-sc-dimers in pilot scale production yielded high yields, supporting their scalability for further clinical development. The framework of immunogen design can be universally applied to other beta-CoV vaccines to counter emerging threats.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Design Universal , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/química , Células Sf9 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Spodoptera , Transfecção , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero , Vacinas Virais
8.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102890, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) shares approximately 80% whole genome sequence identity and 66% spike (S) protein identity with that of SARS-CoV. The cross-neutralization between these viruses is currently not well-defined. METHODS: Here, by using the live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection assay as well as HIV-1 based pseudotyped-virus carrying the spike (S) gene of the SARS-CoV-2 (ppSARS-2) and SARS-CoV (ppSARS), we examined whether infections with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 can induce cross-neutralizing antibodies. FINDINGS: We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 infects cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV, and we also found that the recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein of SARS-CoV effectively inhibits ppSARS-2 entry in Huh7.5 cells. However, convalescent sera from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 patients showed high neutralizing activity only against the homologous virus, with no or limited cross-neutralization activity against the other pseudotyped virus. Similar results were also observed in vaccination studies in mice. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that although both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use ACE2 as a cellular receptor, the neutralization epitopes are not shared by these two closely-related viruses, highlighting challenges towards developing a universal vaccine against SARS-CoV related viruses. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China, the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, and the One Belt and One Road Major Project for infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Vírus da SARS/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
9.
Trends Biotechnol ; 38(9): 943-947, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600777

RESUMO

Vaccine solutions rarely reach the public until after an outbreak abates; an Ebola vaccine was approved 5 years after peak outbreak and SARS, MERS, and Zika vaccines are still in clinical development. Despite massive leaps forward in rapid science, other regulatory bottlenecks are hamstringing the global effort for pandemic vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aprovação de Drogas/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Ebola/biossíntese , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Regulamentação Governamental , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/biossíntese , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
10.
Immunity ; 53(2): 248-263, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717182

RESUMO

A key goal to controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is developing an effective vaccine. Development of a vaccine requires knowledge of what constitutes a protective immune response and also features that might be pathogenic. Protective and pathogenic aspects of the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not well understood, partly because the virus has infected humans for only 6 months. However, insight into coronavirus immunity can be informed by previous studies of immune responses to non-human coronaviruses, common cold coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we review the literature describing these responses and discuss their relevance to the SARS-CoV-2 immune response.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
11.
Nature ; 584(7821): 353-363, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659783

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease is a general concern for the development of vaccines and antibody therapies because the mechanisms that underlie antibody protection against any virus have a theoretical potential to amplify the infection or trigger harmful immunopathology. This possibility requires careful consideration at this critical point in the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we review observations relevant to the risks of ADE of disease, and their potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection. At present, there are no known clinical findings, immunological assays or biomarkers that can differentiate any severe viral infection from immune-enhanced disease, whether by measuring antibodies, T cells or intrinsic host responses. In vitro systems and animal models do not predict the risk of ADE of disease, in part because protective and potentially detrimental antibody-mediated mechanisms are the same and designing animal models depends on understanding how antiviral host responses may become harmful in humans. The implications of our lack of knowledge are twofold. First, comprehensive studies are urgently needed to define clinical correlates of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Second, because ADE of disease cannot be reliably predicted after either vaccination or treatment with antibodies-regardless of what virus is the causative agent-it will be essential to depend on careful analysis of safety in humans as immune interventions for COVID-19 move forward.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Pandemias , Ratos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
12.
Nature ; 584(7821): 443-449, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668443

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-24. Here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (S) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutralizing activity and fully block the receptor-binding domain of the S protein (SRBD) from interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Using competition-binding, structural and functional studies, we show that the monoclonal antibodies can be clustered into classes that recognize distinct epitopes on the SRBD, as well as distinct conformational states of the S trimer. Two potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, which recognize non-overlapping sites, bound simultaneously to the S protein and neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus in a synergistic manner. In two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of COV2-2196, COV2-2130 or a combination of both of these antibodies protected mice from weight loss and reduced the viral burden and levels of inflammation in the lungs. In addition, passive transfer of either of two of the most potent ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibodies (COV2-2196 or COV2-2381) as monotherapy protected rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Ligação Competitiva , Linhagem Celular , Reações Cruzadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
13.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 43-49, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653463

RESUMO

There is a strong consensus globally that a COVID-19 vaccine is likely the most effective approach to sustainably controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. An unprecedented research effort and global coordination has resulted in a rapid development of vaccine candidates and initiation of trials. Here, we review vaccine types, and progress with 10 vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - currently undergoing early phase human trials. We also consider the many challenges of developing and deploying a new vaccine on a global scale, and recommend caution with respect to our expectations of the timeline that may be ahead.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
15.
Cell ; 182(1): 7-9, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649880

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has driven a global research effort to identify medical countermeasures at an unprecedented pace. In this issue of Cell, Cao et al. identify thousands of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies from convalescent donors. The authors improve our understanding of immunity against the coronavirus spike glycoprotein and detail novel pathways to rapidly identify and characterize protective monoclonal antibodies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700671

RESUMO

BackgroundA novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which emerged at the end of 2019 and causes COVID-19, has resulted in worldwide human infections. While genetically distinct, SARS-CoV-1, the aetiological agent responsible for an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, utilises the same host cell receptor as SARS-CoV-2 for entry: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Parts of the SARS-CoV-1 spike glycoprotein (S protein), which interacts with ACE2, appear conserved in SARS-CoV-2.AimThe cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated against the S protein of SARS-CoV-1 was assessed.MethodsThe SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequence was aligned to those of SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and common-cold coronaviruses. Abilities of mAbs generated against SARS-CoV-1 S protein to bind SARS-CoV-2 or its S protein were tested with SARS-CoV-2 infected cells as well as cells expressing either the full length protein or a fragment of its S2 subunit. Quantitative ELISA was also performed to compare binding of mAbs to recombinant S protein.ResultsAn immunogenic domain in the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-1 S protein is highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 but not in MERS and human common-cold coronaviruses. Four murine mAbs raised against this immunogenic fragment could recognise SARS-CoV-2 S protein expressed in mammalian cell lines. In particular, mAb 1A9 was demonstrated to detect S protein in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and is suitable for use in a sandwich ELISA format.ConclusionThe cross-reactive mAbs may serve as useful tools for SARS-CoV-2 research and for the development of diagnostic assays for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Western Blotting , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Sequência Conservada , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Genoma Viral , Camundongos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Plasmídeos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Transfecção , Células Vero , Integração Viral
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106740, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for HCoVs infection. The use of type I interferons for coronavirus is still under great debate in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of all relevant studies published on PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science database, Science Direct, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) until February 2020 was performed. RESULTS: Of the 1081 identified articles, only 15 studies were included in the final analysis. Comorbidities and delay in diagnosis were significantly associated with case mortality. Type I interferons seem to improve respiratory distress, relieve lung abnormalities, present better saturation, reduce needs for supplemental oxygen support. Type I interferons seem to be well tolerated, and don't increase life threating adverse effects. Data on IFNs in HCoVs are limited, heterogenous and mainly observational. CONCLUSIONS: Current data do not allow making regarding robust commendations for the use of IFNs in HCoVs in general or in specific subtype. But we still recommend type I interferons serving as first-line antivirals in HCoVs infections within local protocols, and interferons may be adopted to the treatments of the SARS-CoV-2 as well. Well-designed large-scale prospective randomized control trials are greatly needed to provide more robust evidence on this topic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon Tipo I/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/efeitos adversos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cell ; 182(4): 828-842.e16, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645326

RESUMO

Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses mainly target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the trimeric spike. Here, we characterized polyclonal immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and Fabs from COVID-19 convalescent individuals for recognition of coronavirus spikes. Plasma IgGs differed in their focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, and contributions of avidity to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. Using electron microscopy, we examined specificities of polyclonal plasma Fabs, revealing recognition of both S1A and RBD epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Moreover, a 3.4 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a neutralizing monoclonal Fab-spike complex revealed an epitope that blocks ACE2 receptor binding. Modeling based on these structures suggested different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking by IgGs on viruses, and characterized IgGs would not be affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. Overall, our studies structurally define a recurrent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody class derived from VH3-53/VH3-66 and similarity to a SARS-CoV VH3-30 antibody, providing criteria for evaluating vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Imunoglobulina G/química , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Reações Cruzadas , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/ultraestrutura , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/ultraestrutura , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/química , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 7201752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695833

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has highlighted the threat that highly pathogenic coronaviruses have on global health security and the imminent need to design an effective vaccine for prevention purposes. Although several attempts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus infections since the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, there is no available licensed vaccine yet. A better understanding of previous coronavirus vaccine studies may help to design a vaccine for the newly emerged virus, SARS-CoV-2, that may also cover other pathogenic coronaviruses as a potentially universal vaccine. In general, coronavirus spike protein is the major antigen for the vaccine design as it can induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. By considering the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, here, protective immunity against SARS-CoV spike subunit vaccine candidates in animal models has been reviewed to gain advances that can facilitate coronavirus vaccine development in the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Fármacos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Drogas em Investigação , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
20.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
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