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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112431, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862842

RESUMO

Last few decades, viruses are a real menace to human safety. Therefore, the rapid identification of viruses should be one of the best ways to prevent an outbreak and important implications for medical healthcare. The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus which belongs to the single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses. The pandemic dimension spread of COVID-19 poses a severe threat to the health and lives of seven billion people worldwide. There is a growing urgency worldwide to establish a point-of-care device for the rapid detection of COVID-19 to prevent subsequent secondary spread. Therefore, the need for sensitive, selective, and rapid diagnostic devices plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments and to prevent the epidemics. During the last decade, electrochemical biosensors have emerged as reliable analytical devices and represent a new promising tool for the detection of different pathogenic viruses. This review summarizes the state of the art of different virus detection with currently available electrochemical detection methods. Moreover, this review discusses different fabrication techniques, detection principles, and applications of various virus biosensors. Future research also looks at the use of electrochemical biosensors regarding a potential detection kit for the rapid identification of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Testes Imediatos , Vírus/patogenicidade
2.
Vet Rec ; 187(5): 195-196, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887829
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112436, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750677

RESUMO

Our recent experience of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of easy-to-use, quick, cheap, sensitive and selective detection of virus pathogens for the efficient monitoring and treatment of virus diseases. Early detection of viruses provides essential information about possible efficient and targeted treatments, prolongs the therapeutic window and hence reduces morbidity. Graphene is a lightweight, chemically stable and conductive material that can be successfully utilized for the detection of various virus strains. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be enhanced by its functionalization or combination with other materials. Introducing suitable functional groups and/or counterparts in the hybrid structure enables tuning of the optical and electrical properties, which is particularly attractive for rapid and easy-to-use virus detection. In this review, we cover all the different types of graphene-based sensors available for virus detection, including, e.g., photoluminescence and colorimetric sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Various strategies of electrochemical detection of viruses based on, e.g., DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions, are also discussed. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based systems for sensing a variety of viruses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, influenza, dengue fever, hepatitis C virus, HIV, rotavirus and Zika virus. General principles, mechanisms of action, advantages and drawbacks are presented to provide useful information for the further development and construction of advanced virus biosensors. We highlight that the unique and tunable physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials make them ideal candidates for engineering and miniaturization of biosensors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Colorimetria , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Desenho de Equipamento , Grafite/química , Humanos , Luminescência , Nanoestruturas/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Virologia/métodos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112471, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777726

RESUMO

The infection and spread of pathogens (e.g., COVID-19) pose an enormous threat to the safety of human beings and animals all over the world. The rapid and accurate monitoring and determination of pathogens are of great significance to clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental evaluation. In recent years, with the evolution of nanotechnology, nano-sized graphene and graphene derivatives have been frequently introduced into the construction of biosensors due to their unique physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. The combination of biomolecules with specific recognition capabilities and graphene materials provides a promising strategy to construct more stable and sensitive biosensors for the detection of pathogens. This review tracks the development of graphene biosensors for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens, mainly including the preparation of graphene biosensors and their working mechanism. The challenges involved in this field have been discussed, and the perspective for further development has been put forward, aiming to promote the development of pathogens sensing and the contribution to epidemic prevention.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Grafite/química , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Nanotecnologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008381, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804954

RESUMO

The world's most consequential pathogens occur in regions with the fewest diagnostic resources, leaving the true burden of these diseases largely under-represented. During a prospective observational study of sepsis in Takeo Province Cambodia, we enrolled 200 patients over an 18-month period. By coupling traditional diagnostic methods such as culture, serology, and PCR to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and advanced statistical analyses, we successfully identified a pathogenic cause in 46.5% of our cohort. In all, we detected 25 infectious agents in 93 patients, including severe threat pathogens such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and viral pathogens such as Dengue virus. Approximately half of our cohort remained undiagnosed; however, an independent panel of clinical adjudicators determined that 81% of those patients had infectious causes of their hospitalization, further underscoring the difficulty of diagnosing severe infections in resource-limited settings. We garnered greater insight as to the clinical features of severe infection in Cambodia through analysis of a robust set of clinical data.


Assuntos
Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Testes Sorológicos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139960, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758945

RESUMO

There is currently a clear benefit for many countries to utilize wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as part of ongoing measures to manage the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Since most wastewater virus concentration methods were developed and validated for nonenveloped viruses, it is imperative to determine the efficiency of the most commonly used methods for the enveloped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Municipal wastewater seeded with a human coronavirus (CoV) surrogate, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), was used to test the efficiency of seven wastewater virus concentration methods: (A-C) adsorption-extraction with three different pre-treatment options, (D-E) centrifugal filter device methods with two different devices, (F) polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000) precipitation, and (G) ultracentrifugation. MHV was quantified by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the recovery efficiency was calculated for each method. The mean MHV recoveries ranged from 26.7 to 65.7%. The most efficient methods were adsorption-extraction methods with MgCl2 pre-treatment (Method C), and without pre-treatment (Method B). The third most efficient method used the Amicon® Ultra-15 centrifugal filter device (Method D) and its recovery efficiency was not statistically different from the most efficient methods. The methods with the worst recovery efficiency included the adsorption-extraction method with acidification (A), followed by PEG precipitation (F). Our results suggest that absorption-extraction methods with minimal or without pre-treatment can provide suitably rapid, cost-effective and relatively straightforward recovery of enveloped viruses in wastewater. The MHV is a promising process control for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance and can be used as a quality control measure to support community-level epidemic mitigation and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Hepatite Murina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vírus , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Camundongos , Águas Residuárias
7.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 69-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730403

RESUMO

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting mainly children and the elderly. They are associated with a high economic burden, increased number of medical visits and hospitalizations. The surveillance of the circulation of respiratory viruses can reduce the health care associated costs, and to optimize the health response. A platform based on R and its package Shiny was designed, to create an interactive and friendly web interface for gathering, analysis and publication of the data. The data from the Chilean metropolitan respiratory viruses surveillance network, available since 2006, was uploaded into the platform. Using this platform, the researcher spends less than 1 minute to upload the data, and the analysis and publication is immediate, available to be seen by any user with a device connected to Internet, who can choose the variables to be displayed. With a very low cost, in a short time, and using the R programming language, it was possible to create a simple, and interactive platform, considerably decreasing the upload and analysis time, and increasing the impact and availability of this surveillance.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções Respiratórias , Software , Viroses , Idoso , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Software/economia , Software/normas , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus
8.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 68(3): 105-110, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616467

RESUMO

The relative ease of isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different tissues coupled with their culture expansion in vitro and their differentiation capacity to mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages have made these cells attractive for a large number of therapeutic applications. In recent years, there has been remarkable progress in the utilization of MSCs in diverse clinical indications both in animal models and human clinical trials. However, the potential of MSCs to control or treat viral diseases is still in its infancy. In this study, we report quantitative data on the MSC-based clinical trials over the last ten years as they appear on the online database of clinical research studies from US National Institutes of Health. In particular, we provide comprehensive review of either completed or ongoing clinical trials using MSCs for virus-associated diseases focusing on HIV, hepatitis B virus and COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Viroses/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , HIV/fisiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
9.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674515

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers a powerful opportunity to identify low-abundance, intra-host viral sequence variants, yet the focus of many bioinformatic tools on consensus sequence construction has precluded a thorough analysis of intra-host diversity. To take full advantage of the resolution of NGS data, we developed HAplotype PHylodynamics PIPEline (HAPHPIPE), an open-source tool for the de novo and reference-based assembly of viral NGS data, with both consensus sequence assembly and a focus on the quantification of intra-host variation through haplotype reconstruction. We validate and compare the consensus sequence assembly methods of HAPHPIPE to those of two alternative software packages, HyDRA and Geneious, using simulated HIV and empirical HIV, HCV, and SARS-CoV-2 datasets. Our validation methods included read mapping, genetic distance, and genetic diversity metrics. In simulated NGS data, HAPHPIPE generated pol consensus sequences significantly closer to the true consensus sequence than those produced by HyDRA and Geneious and performed comparably to Geneious for HIV gp120 sequences. Furthermore, using empirical data from multiple viruses, we demonstrate that HAPHPIPE can analyze larger sequence datasets due to its greater computational speed. Therefore, we contend that HAPHPIPE provides a more user-friendly platform for users with and without bioinformatics experience to implement current best practices for viral NGS assembly than other currently available options.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Vírus/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , HIV/genética , Haplótipos , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
10.
Water Res ; 183: 116074, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721707

RESUMO

Sunlight can be an effective tool for inactivating pathogens in water disinfection processes. In clear water, photoinactivation of viruses is driven by the absorption of UVB radiation and it is more efficient at shorter wavelengths. Moreover, the temperature can significantly improve the efficiency of the process. To date, no kinetic model has been reported that describes the simultaneous thermal and spectral effects that occur during the solar inactivation of viruses. This work presents a novel comprehensive kinetic model for the solar inactivation of MS2 coliphage as a function of the water temperature, irradiance, and spectral distribution of the incident radiation. The model is based on a combination of the modified Arrhenius equation, a wavelength-dependent first-order inactivation model with the quantum yield, and thermal parameters estimated from laboratory data. Model predictions have a 9% error with respect to experiments in the temperature range from 30 to 50 °C and UV irradiance range from 15 to 50 W/m2. Moreover, the model was validated in three scenarios using different plastic materials that modify the spectral range of the radiation reaching the water, confirming an accurate prediction of inactivation rates for real solar disinfection systems worldwide using containers made of any material.


Assuntos
Vírus , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1671-1681, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623963

RESUMO

Infectious diseases still remain one of the biggest challenges for human health. Accurate and early detection of infectious pathogens are crucial for transmission control, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. For a traditional reason, most immunological and microbiological laboratories are equipped with instruments designated for antibody-based assays in detection of infectious pathogens or clinical diagnosis. Emerging aptamer-based technologies have pushed a shift from antibody-based to aptamer-based assays due to equal specificity, even better sensitivity, lower manufacturing cost and more flexibility in amending for chemiluminescent, electrochemical or fluorescent detection in a multifaceted and high throughput fashion in comparison of aptamer-based to antibody-based assays. The nature of aptamer-based technologies is particularly suitable for point-of-care testing in remote areas at warm or hot atmosphere, and mass screening for potential infection in pandemic of emerging infectious agents, such as SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in an epicentre or other regions. This review intends to summarize currently available aptamer-based technologies in detection of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens for research and clinical application. It is anticipated that potential technologies will be further optimized and validated for clinical translation in meeting increasing demands for prompt, precise, and reliable detection of specific pathogens in various atmospheric conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640050

RESUMO

Several enveloped viruses, particularly some RNA viruses, have high rates of mutation or replication, which can make them virulent pathogens in humans and other mammals. A proposed treatment could use synthesized proteins to mask pathogenic viral surface proteins to quickly induce an immune attack on specific enveloped viruses by using existing immune cells. One treatment could inject dual-protein ligand masks into patients' bloodstreams to mask pathogenic surface proteins used to infect mammalian cells. The mammalian immune system already uses an analogous, more complex structure called a pentraxin to neutralize some pathogens by connecting their surface proteins to immune cells. And several types of antiviral peptides have already experimentally demonstrated effectiveness in blocking various viral pathogen infections. These treatments offer advantages, especially for currently untreatable viral pathogens. Furthermore, using dual-protein ligands and the antigenic memory of some sub-populations of NK cells would also allow the creation of defacto vaccines based on a host's NK cells, instead of vaccines utilizing CD4 and CD8 α:ß T cells, which are limited by the requirement of MHC presentation of the target antigens to α:ß T cells. Targeted NK cell vaccines could attack host cells latently or actively infected by intracellular pathogens, even host cells having pathogen downregulated MHC antigen presentation. Eight postulates concerning the effects of pathogen mutation, or change in phenotype from genetic recombination or rearrangement, and replication rates on pathogen vs host dominance are also listed, which should be applicable to viral and non-viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Mutação , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Replicação Viral , Vírus/genética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Fenótipo , Recombinação Genética , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/imunologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698494

RESUMO

Single-stranded RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles viruses and rhabdoviruses are characterized by their capacity of highly efficient self-amplification of RNA in host cells, which make them attractive vehicles for vaccine development. Particularly, alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be administered as recombinant particles, layered DNA/RNA plasmid vectors carrying the RNA replicon and even RNA replicon molecules. Self-amplifying RNA viral vectors have been used for high level expression of viral and tumor antigens, which in immunization studies have elicited strong cellular and humoral immune responses in animal models. Vaccination has provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of viral pathogens and tumor cells. Moreover, clinical trials have demonstrated safe application of RNA viral vectors and even promising results in rhabdovirus-based phase III trials on an Ebola virus vaccine. Preclinical and clinical applications of self-amplifying RNA viral vectors have proven efficient for vaccine development and due to the presence of RNA replicons, amplification of RNA in host cells will generate superior immune responses with significantly reduced amounts of RNA delivered. The need for novel and efficient vaccines has become even more evident due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, which has further highlighted the urgency in challenging emerging diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/virologia , Vacinação , Vírus/genética
14.
Immunity ; 52(6): 905-909, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324218

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses affect us throughout our lives, from infancy to old age, causing illnesses ranging from a common cold to severe pneumonia. They belong to several virus families, and although many features of infection with these diverse viruses are shared, some have unique characteristics. Here we explain what happens when we are infected by respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/classificação
15.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 30 jun 2020. 1-14 p. (Nota Informativa, 2).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1116029

RESUMO

As medidas recomendadas na Nota Informativa n° 2 são voltadas ao combate da COVID-19, visam, principalmente, a prevenção e o controle contra o novo coronavírus (SARS CoV-2), reduzindo os riscos à saúde humana, aplicáveis em serviços de restaurantes e congêneres. Apresenta recomendações adequadas no cenário de transmissão coletiva do vírus, quanto a higienização das mãos, uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, distanciamento, disposição de mesas e cadeiras, ventilação ambiental, apresentação e manuseio dos cardápios, proteção dos talheres, embalagens individualizadas para molhos e temperos, recomendações na manipulação/preparo dos alimentos, recomendações sobre os cuidados durante os procedimentos de limpeza e desinfecção e sobre serviços delivery


The measures recommended in Informative Note No. 2 are aimed at combating COVID-19, mainly aiming at the prevention and control against the new coronavirus (SARS CoV-2), reducing the risks to human health, applicable in restaurant services and the like. It presents appropriate recommendations in the scenario of collective transmission of the virus, regarding hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, distance, arrangement of tables and chairs, environmental ventilation, presentation and handling of menus, protection of cutlery, individual packaging for sauces and spices, recommendations on food handling / preparation, recommendations on care during cleaning and disinfection procedures and delivery services


Assuntos
Humanos , Restaurantes , Vírus , Desinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Risco à Saúde Humana , Prevenção de Doenças , Higiene das Mãos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Manipulação de Alimentos , Serviço de Limpeza , Proteção
16.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 457-462, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578131

RESUMO

Death due to respiratory infection is commonly encountered at autopsy. With only one opportunity to obtain samples for identification of a causative agent, it is important to ensure that sampling regimes are optimized to provide the greatest detection, without the expense and redundancy that can arise from over-sampling. This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens. From 97 cases with all four samples, there were 24 with at least one positive result for viral infection. Some cases had multiple positive results and a total of 27 respiratory tract viruses were identified, of which rhinovirus, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Seventeen of the 27 viral infections (63%) were identified in all four samples. However, in nearly all cases (96%) the nasopharyngeal swab detected the infective agent when the multiplex PCR panel had detected infection in any of the four sample types. A nasopharyngeal swab is considered to be an optimal sample for detection of respiratory tract viral infection. As the samples analyzed were acquired before the appearance of the COVID-19 virus, the applicability of this finding for COVID-19 screening is not established.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes , Virologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , DNA Viral/classificação , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 1935-1945, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594322

RESUMO

Plants are a rich source of new antiviral, pharmacologically active agents. The naturally occurring plant alkaloid berberine (BBR) is one of the phytochemicals with a broad range of biological activity, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity. BBR targets different steps in the viral life cycle and is thus a good candidate for use in novel antiviral drugs and therapies. It has been shown that BBR reduces virus replication and targets specific interactions between the virus and its host. BBR intercalates into DNA and inhibits DNA synthesis and reverse transcriptase activity. It inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This isoquinoline alkaloid has the ability to regulate the MEK-ERK, AMPK/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways, which are necessary for viral replication. Furthermore, it has been reported that BBR supports the host immune response, thus leading to viral clearance. In this short review, we focus on the most recent studies on the antiviral properties of berberine and its derivatives, which might be promising agents to be considered in future studies in the fight against the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Berberina/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viroses/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 041001, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531777

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid, cost effective, accurate, and non-invasive testing for viral infections. Volatile compounds (VCs) have been suggested for several decades as fulfilling these criteria. However currently very little work has been done in trying to diagnose viral infections using VCs. Much of the work carried out to date involves the differentiation of bacterial and viral sources of infection and often the detection of bacterial and viral co-infection. However, this has usually been done in vitro and very little work has involved the use of human participants. Viruses hijack the host cell metabolism and do not produce their own metabolites so identifying virus specific VCs is at best a challenging task. However, there are proteins and lipids that are potential candidates as markers of viral infection. The current understanding is that host cell glycolysis is upregulated under viral infection to increase the available energy for viral replication. There is some evidence that viral infection leads to the increase of production of fatty acids, alkanes, and alkanes related products. For instance, 2,3-butandione, aldehydes, 2,8-dimethyl-undecane and n-propyl acetate have all been correlated with viral infection. Currently, the literature points to markers of oxidative stress (e.g. nitric oxide, aldehydes etc) being the most useful in the determination of viral infection. The issue, however, is that there are also many other conditions that can lead to oxidative stress markers being produced. In this review a range of (mainly mass spectrometric) methods are discussed for viral detection in breath, including breath condensate. Currently MALDI-ToF-MS is likely to be the preferred method for the identification of viral strains and variants of those strains, however it is limited by its need for the viral strains to have been sequenced and logged in a database.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/metabolismo , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pandemias , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Suínos , Viroses/metabolismo , Vírus
19.
Immunity ; 52(6): 905-909, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497522

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses affect us throughout our lives, from infancy to old age, causing illnesses ranging from a common cold to severe pneumonia. They belong to several virus families, and although many features of infection with these diverse viruses are shared, some have unique characteristics. Here we explain what happens when we are infected by respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/classificação
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