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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 438, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The field of viromics has greatly benefited from recent developments in metagenomics, with significant efforts focusing on viral discovery. However, functional annotation of the increasing number of viral genomes is lagging behind. This is highlighted by the degree of annotation of the protein clusters in the prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs) database, with 83% of its current 9518 pVOGs having an unknown function. RESULTS: In this study we describe a machine learning approach to explore potential functional associations between pVOGs. We measure seven genomic features and use them as input to a Random Forest classifier to predict protein-protein interactions between pairs of pVOGs. After systematic evaluation of the model's performance on 10 different datasets, we obtained a predictor with a mean accuracy of 0.77 and Area Under Receiving Operation Characteristic (AUROC) score of 0.83. Its application to a set of 2,133,027 pVOG-pVOG interactions allowed us to predict 267,265 putative interactions with a reported probability greater than 0.65. At an expected false discovery rate of 0.27, we placed 95.6% of the previously unannotated pVOGs in a functional context, by predicting their interaction with a pVOG that is functionally annotated. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this proof-of-concept methodology, wrapped in a reproducible and automated workflow, can represent a significant step towards obtaining a more complete picture of bacteriophage biology.


Assuntos
Vírus , Genoma Viral/genética , Genômica , Metagenômica , Células Procarióticas , Vírus/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Water Res ; 203: 117568, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450465

RESUMO

The discharge of wastewater-derived viruses in aquatic environments impacts catchment-scale virome composition. To explore this, we used viromic analysis of RNA and DNA virus-like particles to holistically track virus communities entering and leaving wastewater treatment plants and the connecting river catchment system and estuary. We reconstructed >40 000 partial viral genomes into 10 149 species-level groups, dominated by dsDNA and (+)ssRNA bacteriophages (Caudoviricetes and Leviviricetes) and a small number of genomes that could pose a risk to human health. We found substantial viral diversity and geographically distinct virus communities associated with different wastewater treatment plants. River and estuarine water bodies harboured more diverse viral communities in downstream locations, influenced by tidal movement and proximity to wastewater treatment plants. Shellfish and beach sand were enriched in viral communities when compared with the surrounding water, acting as entrapment matrices for virus particles. Extensive phylogenetic analyses of environmental-derived and reference sequences showed the presence of human-associated sapovirus GII in all sample types, multiple rotavirus A strains in wastewater and a diverse set of picorna-like viruses associated with shellfish. We conclude that wastewater-derived viral genetic material is commonly deposited in the environment and can be traced throughout the freshwater-marine continuum of the river catchment, where it is influenced by local geography, weather events and tidal effects. Our data illustrate the utility of viromic analyses for wastewater- and environment-based ecology and epidemiology, and we present a conceptual model for the circulation of all types of viruses in a freshwater catchment.


Assuntos
Vírus , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Filogenia , Rios , Viroma , Vírus/genética
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 657867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307189

RESUMO

Gut microbiome alteration was closely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies had demonstrated the bacteria composition changes but lacked virome profiles, trans-kindom interactions, and reliable diagnostic model explorations in CRC. Hence, we performed metagenomic sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome and microbial interactions in adenoma and CRC patients. We found the decreased microbial diversity in CRC and revealed the taxonomic alterations of bacteria and viruses were highly associated with CRC at the species level. The relative abundance of oral-derived species, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium hwasookii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides fragilis, increased. At the same time, butyrate-producing and anti-inflammatory microbes decreased in adenoma and CRC by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Despite that, the relative abundance of Escherichia viruses and Salmonella viruses increased, whereas some phages, including Enterobacteria phages and Uncultured crAssphage, decreased along with CRC development. Gut bacteria was negatively associated with viruses in CRC and healthy control by correlation analysis (P=0.017 and 0.002, respectively). Viruses were much more dynamic than the bacteria as the disease progressed, and the altered microbial interactions were distinctively stage-dependent. The degree centrality of microbial interactions decreased while closeness centrality increased along with the adenoma to cancer development. Uncultured crAssphage was the key bacteriophage that enriched in healthy controls and positively associated with butyrate-producing bacteria. Diagnostic tests based on bacteria by random forest confirmed in independent cohorts showed better performance than viruses for CRC. In conclusion, our study revealed the novel CRC-associated bacteria and viruses that exhibited specific differences and intensive microbial correlations, which provided a reliable diagnostic panel for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Vírus , Bactérias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fezes , Fusobacterium , Humanos , Vírus/genética
5.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 22(9): 585, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262155
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2633-2648, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231026

RESUMO

This article reports the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2021. The entire ICTV was invited to vote on 290 taxonomic proposals approved by the ICTV Executive Committee at its meeting in October 2020, as well as on the proposed revision of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). All proposals and the revision were ratified by an absolute majority of the ICTV members. Of note, ICTV mandated a uniform rule for virus species naming, which will follow the binomial 'genus-species' format with or without Latinized species epithets. The Study Groups are requested to convert all previously established species names to the new format. ICTV has also abolished the notion of a type species, i.e., a species chosen to serve as a name-bearing type of a virus genus. The remit of ICTV has been clarified through an official definition of 'virus' and several other types of mobile genetic elements. The ICVCN and ICTV Statutes have been amended to reflect these changes.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Filogenia , Vírus não Classificados/classificação , Vírus/classificação , Cooperação Internacional , Viroides/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus não Classificados/genética , Vírus não Classificados/isolamento & purificação
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1515-1518, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269641

RESUMO

We show a shift in the prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our data support the efficiency of non-pharmaceutical interventions on virus circulation except for rhinoviruses. The consequences of an altered circulation on subsequent winter seasons remain unclear and support the importance of systematic virological surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
8.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209034

RESUMO

Host plasma membrane protein SERINC5 is incorporated into budding retrovirus particles where it blocks subsequent entry into susceptible target cells. Three structurally unrelated proteins encoded by diverse retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) S2, and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) GlycoGag, disrupt SERINC5 antiviral activity by redirecting SERINC5 from the site of virion assembly on the plasma membrane to an internal RAB7+ endosomal compartment. Pseudotyping retroviruses with particular glycoproteins, e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), renders the infectivity of particles resistant to inhibition by virion-associated SERINC5. To better understand viral determinants for SERINC5-sensitivity, the effect of SERINC5 was assessed using HIV-1, MLV, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) virion cores, pseudotyped with glycoproteins from Arenavirus, Coronavirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus, Paramyxovirus, and Orthomyxovirus genera. SERINC5 restricted virions pseudotyped with glycoproteins from several retroviruses, an orthomyxovirus, a rhabdovirus, a paramyxovirus, and an arenavirus. Infectivity of particles pseudotyped with HIV-1, amphotropic-MLV (A-MLV), or influenza A virus (IAV) glycoproteins, was decreased by SERINC5, whether the core was provided by HIV-1, MLV, or M-PMV. In contrast, particles pseudotyped with glycoproteins from M-PMV, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), or rabies virus (RABV) were sensitive to SERINC5, but only with particular retroviral cores. Resistance to SERINC5 did not correlate with reduced SERINC5 incorporation into particles, route of viral entry, or absolute infectivity of the pseudotyped virions. These findings indicate that some non-retroviruses may be sensitive to SERINC5 and that, in addition to the viral glycoprotein, the retroviral core influences sensitivity to SERINC5.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírus/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Leucemia Murina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Retroviridae/classificação , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vírion/genética , Internalização do Vírus , Vírus/química , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202098

RESUMO

Inhibition of the binding of enveloped viruses surface glycoproteins to host cell receptor(s) is a major target of vaccines and constitutes an efficient strategy to block viral entry and infection of various host cells and tissues. Cellular entry usually requires the fusion of the viral envelope with host plasma membranes. Such entry mechanism is often preceded by "priming" and/or "activation" steps requiring limited proteolysis of the viral surface glycoprotein to expose a fusogenic domain for efficient membrane juxtapositions. The 9-membered family of Proprotein Convertases related to Subtilisin/Kexin (PCSK) serine proteases (PC1, PC2, Furin, PC4, PC5, PACE4, PC7, SKI-1/S1P, and PCSK9) participate in post-translational cleavages and/or regulation of multiple secretory proteins. The type-I membrane-bound Furin and SKI-1/S1P are the major convertases responsible for the processing of surface glycoproteins of enveloped viruses. Stefan Kunz has considerably contributed to define the role of SKI-1/S1P in the activation of arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever. Furin was recently implicated in the activation of the spike S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and Furin-inhibitors are being tested as antivirals in COVID-19. Other members of the PCSK-family are also implicated in some viral infections, such as PCSK9 in Dengue. Herein, we summarize the various functions of the PCSKs and present arguments whereby their inhibition could represent a powerful arsenal to limit viral infections causing the present and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Pró-Proteína Convertases/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Internalização do Vírus , Vírus/genética , Transporte Biológico , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertases/genética , Proteólise , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Vírus/metabolismo
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(6): 761-765, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to determine the coinfections with other respiratory pathogens in SARS-CoV-2 infected children patients in a pediatric unit in Istanbul. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted in a 1000-bedded tertiary education and research hospital in Istanbul. All children hospitalized with the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection had been investigated for respiratory agents in nasopharyngeal secretions. Laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 and the other respiratory pathogens were performed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 209 hospitalized children with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020-May 2020 were enrolled in this study. Among 209 children, 93 (44.5%) were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 116 (55.5%) were RT-PCR negative. The most common clinical symptoms in all children with SARS-CoV-2 infection were fever (68.8%) and cough (57.0%). The other clinical symptoms in decreasing rates were headache (10.8%), myalgia (5.4%), sore throat (3.2%), shortness of breath (3.2%), diarrhea (2.2%) and abdominal pain in one child. In 7 (7.5%) patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, coinfection was detected. Two were with rhinovirus/enterovirus, two were with Coronavirus NL63, one was with adenovirus, and one was with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In one patient, two additional respiratory agents (rhinovirus/enterovirus and adenovirus) were detected. There was a significantly longer hospital stay in patients with coinfection (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Although the coinfection rate was low in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in our study, we found coinfection as a risk factor for length of hospital stay in the coinfected patient group.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus/genética , Adenoviridae/genética , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14276, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253798

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in four bat species: Rhinolophus acuminatus, Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus malayanus, and Rhinolophus shameli. Here, we analysed 343 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) from georeferenced bats of the four Rhinolophus species identified as reservoirs of viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Haplotype networks were constructed in order to investigate patterns of genetic diversity among bat populations of Southeast Asia and China. No strong geographic structure was found for the four Rhinolophus species, suggesting high dispersal capacity. The ecological niche of bat viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 was predicted using the four localities in which bat viruses were recently discovered and the localities where bats showed the same CO1 haplotypes than virus-positive bats. The ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV was deduced from the localities where bat viruses were previously detected. The results show that the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV2 includes several regions of mainland Southeast Asia whereas the ecological niche of bat viruses related to SARS-CoV is mainly restricted to China. In agreement with these results, human populations in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand appear to be much less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic than other countries of Southeast Asia. In the climatic transitional zone between the two ecological niches (southern Yunnan, northern Laos, northern Vietnam), genomic recombination between highly divergent viruses is more likely to occur. Considering the limited data and the risk of recombinant bat-CoVs emergence as the source of new pandemics in humans, the bat populations in these regions should be under surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Filogeografia , Vírus/genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vírus/patogenicidade
13.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev ; 85(3): e0005321, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259570

RESUMO

Fifty years ago, David Baltimore published a brief conceptual paper delineating the classification of viruses by the routes of genome expression. The six "Baltimore classes" of viruses, with a subsequently added 7th class, became the conceptual framework for the development of virology during the next five decades. During this time, it became clear that the Baltimore classes, with relatively minor additions, indeed cover the diversity of virus genome expression schemes that also define the replication cycles. Here, we examine the status of the Baltimore classes 50 years after their advent and explore their links with the global ecology and biology of the respective viruses. We discuss an extension of the Baltimore scheme and why many logically admissible expression-replication schemes do not appear to be realized in nature. Recent phylogenomic analyses allow tracing the complex connections between the Baltimore classes and the monophyletic realms of viruses. The five classes of RNA viruses and reverse-transcribing viruses share an origin, whereas both the single-stranded DNA viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses evolved on multiple independent occasions. Most of the Baltimore classes of viruses probably emerged during the earliest era of life evolution, at the stage of the primordial pool of diverse replicators, and before the advent of modern-like cells with large dsDNA genomes. The Baltimore classes remain an integral part of the conceptual foundation of biology, providing the essential structure for the logical space of information transfer processes, which is nontrivially connected with the routes of evolution of viruses and other replicators.


Assuntos
Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Animais , DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(6): 858-861, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111394

RESUMO

Enteric eukaryotic viruses are increasingly recognized as non-pathogenic, immunomodulatory participants in the healthy intestinal microbiota. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Dallari et al. (2021) use a single virus infection approach to reveal both generalized viral immune responses and numerous unique, virus-specific response profiles.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Microbiota , Vírus , Humanos , Imunidade , Vírus/genética
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068736

RESUMO

Deoxyuridine in DNA has recently been in the focus of research due to its intriguing roles in several physiological and pathophysiological situations. Although not an orthodox DNA base, uracil may appear in DNA via either cytosine deamination or thymine-replacing incorporations. Since these alterations may induce mutation or may perturb DNA-protein interactions, free living organisms from bacteria to human contain several pathways to counteract uracilation. These efficient and highly specific repair routes uracil-directed excision repair initiated by representative of uracil-DNA glycosylase families. Interestingly, some bacteriophages exist with thymine-lacking uracil-DNA genome. A detailed understanding of the strategy by which such phages can replicate in bacteria where an efficient repair pathway functions for uracil-excision from DNA is expected to reveal novel inhibitors that can also be used for biotechnological applications. Here, we also review the several potential biotechnological applications already implemented based on inhibitors of uracil-excision repair, such as Crispr-base-editing and detection of nascent uracil distribution pattern in complex genomes.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Uracila , Vírus/genética , Bacteriófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Uracila/química , Uracila-DNA Glicosidase/química , Uracila-DNA Glicosidase/metabolismo , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/metabolismo
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2348: 243-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160812

RESUMO

Viruses, like their metazoan hosts, have evolved to utilize intricate transcriptional mechanisms to generate a vast array of both coding and noncoding RNA transcripts. The resolution of specific noncoding RNA transcripts produced by viruses, particularly herpesviruses, presents a particularly difficult challenge due to their highly dense dsDNA genomes and their complex, overlapping, and context-dependent network of transcripts. While new long read sequencing platforms have facilitated the resolution of some noncoding transcripts from virus genomes, empirical molecular validation of transcripts from individual regions is essential. Herein, we demonstrate that the use of strand specific northern blots is essential for true validation of specific viral noncoding RNAs, and provide here a detailed molecular method for such an approach.


Assuntos
Northern Blotting , Homologia de Genes , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Northern Blotting/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Herpesviridae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Vírus/genética
17.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(1): 115424, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111651

RESUMO

Cartridge-based multiplex panels covering numerous pathogens offer an advantage of minimal hands-on-time and short time to result to commercial RT-PCR assays. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the ePlex respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) compared to the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 multiplex RT-PCR assay (FTD21) using 400 clinical respiratory samples. Discrepant results were further analysed by a reference nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) and a composite reference approach was used for final interpretation. Discordant results were observed in 56 targets corresponding to 54 samples. Sensitivities and specificities were 85.5% and 99.9% for the ePlex RPP and 95.8% and 99.7% for the FTD21 system, respectively. Altogether, the ePlex RPP is a valuable tool for the rapid detection of a number of different respiratory viruses with the exception of the coronavirus family (low sensitivity ranging from 50-80%) and samples with a low pathogen load (Ct values >33).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133435

RESUMO

Many recent disease outbreaks in humans had a zoonotic virus etiology. Bats in particular have been recognized as reservoirs to a large variety of viruses with the potential to cross-species transmission. In order to assess the risk of bats in Switzerland for such transmissions, we determined the virome of tissue and fecal samples of 14 native and 4 migrating bat species. In total, sequences belonging to 39 different virus families, 16 of which are known to infect vertebrates, were detected. Contigs of coronaviruses, adenoviruses, hepeviruses, rotaviruses A and H, and parvoviruses with potential zoonotic risk were characterized in more detail. Most interestingly, in a ground stool sample of a Vespertilio murinus colony an almost complete genome of a Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by Next generation sequencing and confirmed by PCR. In conclusion, bats in Switzerland naturally harbour many different viruses. Metagenomic analyses of non-invasive samples like ground stool may support effective surveillance and early detection of viral zoonoses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Viroma/genética , Vírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Quirópteros/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/genética , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Suíça , Vírus/classificação
19.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073414

RESUMO

Over two years (2012-2014), 719 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 6-week- to 12-month-old infants presenting at the emergency department with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis. Viral testing was performed, and we found that 98% of samples were positive, including 90% for respiratory syncytial virus, 34% for human rhino virus, and 55% for viral co-detections, with a predominance of RSV/HRV co-infections (30%). Interestingly, we found that the risk of being infected by HRV is higher in the absence of RSV, suggesting interferences or exclusion mechanisms between these two viruses. Conversely, coronavirus infection had no impact on the likelihood of co-infection involving HRV and RSV. Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalizations in infants before 12 months of age, and many questions about its role in later chronic respiratory diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exist. The role of virus detection and the burden of viral codetections need to be further explored, in order to understand the physiopathology of chronic respiratory diseases, a major public health issue.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/virologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Bronquiolite Viral/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/classificação , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 312, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Except for bacteria, the taxonomic diversity of the human fecal metagenome has not been widely studied, despite the potential importance of viruses and eukaryotes. Widely used bioinformatic tools contain limited numbers of non-bacterial species in their databases compared to available genomic sequences and their methodologies do not favour classification of rare sequences which may represent only a small fraction of their parent genome. In seeking to optimise identification of non-bacterial species, we evaluated five widely-used metagenome classifier programs (BURST, Kraken2, Centrifuge, MetaPhlAn2 and CCMetagen) for their ability to correctly assign and count simulations of bacterial, viral and eukaryotic DNA sequence reads, including the effect of taxonomic order of analysis of bacteria, viruses and eukaryotes and the effect of sequencing depth. RESULTS: We found that the precision of metagenome classifiers varied significantly between programs and between taxonomic groups. When classifying viruses and eukaryotes, ordering the analysis such that bacteria were classified first significantly improved classification precision. Increasing sequencing depth decreased classification precision and did not improve recall of rare species. CONCLUSIONS: Choice of metagenome classifier program can have a marked effect on results with respect to precision of species assignment in different taxonomic groups. The order of taxonomic classification can markedly improve precision. Increasing sequencing depth can decrease classification precision and yields diminishing returns in probability of species detection.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Vírus , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Metagenômica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vírus/genética
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