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1.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 548-556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146340

RESUMO

The aims of this investigation were to describe the profile of men and women victims of violence and identify factors associated with the severity of facial trauma. A retrospective study was carried out from 762 records of victims attended at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Dentistry located in a metropolitan region of Northeastern Brazil. The dependent variable was type of facial trauma suffered by victims. Independent variables were the sociodemographic characteristics of victims, characteristics of aggressors and circumstances of violence. Descriptive, bivariate (c2 test) and multivariate statistics were made through logistic regression. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The mean age of victims was 29.78 years (SD=13.33). Based on the final regression model, male subjects [odds ratio (OR)=2.22, 95% CI=1.08-4.57, p=0.030], assaulted by other male subjects (OR=4.88; 95% CI=1.12-21.26; p=0.035) through instrument (OR=6.67; 95% CI=2.85-15.60; p<0,001) or mixed aggressions (OR=4.34; 95% CI=1.44-13.02; p=0.009) were more likely to exhibit facial bone fractures or dentoalveolar fractures. The findings highlight that men and women present important victimization differentials in relation to interpersonal violence and facial trauma. Victim's gender, aggressor's gender and mechanism of aggression may exert influence on facial trauma patterns.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Traumatismos Faciais , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Violência
2.
Harefuah ; 159(11): 793-796, 2020 11.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center is the first of its kind in Israel. It was launched in 2000 by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and has since served over 4000 victims. The center provides care by a multidisciplinary team of gynecologists, social workers, forensic physicians, and police investigators, in a single place and with a supporting atmosphere. AIMS: To review the characteristics of female victims who were treated in the Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center between 2000 and 2017. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. The data of all female victims who were treated in our center were retrieved from the medical files. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: During the study period, 3598 (90.5%) women and 376 (9.5%) men were treated in our center. The mean age of the female victims was 23.0 years, of whom 27.1% were minors. Most victims (69.8%) arrived at the center within 24 hours from the assault. The victim knew the perpetrator before the assault in half of the cases. About half of the assaults occurred on weekends. The victims reported a high rate of alcohol and drug use before the assault (36.2% and 8.1%, respectively), and this rate has increased over the years. Most victims (70.4%) filed a police report, though this rate has decreased over the years. DISCUSSION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center treats many victims each year. The challenges that we will face in the future are education against irresponsible use of alcohol and drugs, and efforts to increase the proportion of victims willing to report to the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194493

RESUMO

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have generally focused on only one partner. Although this has allowed advances in scientific knowledge on the causes of IPV, currently recent literature is demanding the need to study both members of the couple. Methodologically, the study of dyads requires the use of appropriate statistical techniques to avoid possible systematic biases (for example, type I error due to dependence of observations). We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to study aggression and victimization in 361 heterosexual couples of young adults. The results indicated, on the one hand, that self-reported mutual aggression was found in more than 50% of the couples. On the other hand, we found that participants' victimization was largely predicted by their own aggressive behavior towards the other member of the couple. While this result suggests the existence of a victim-offender overlap, it may also hide an upwards victimization scores bias: when participants are aggressive toward their partners, they may bias their victimization scores upwards to justify their levels of aggression ("I was aggressive because I felt victimized")


Los estudios sobre la violencia de pareja (en inglés IPV) generalmente han centrado sus análisis sólo en uno de los miembros. Aunque esto ha permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas de la IPV, la literatura reciente ha señalado la necesidad de estudiar a los dos miembros de la pareja. Metodológicamente el estudio de las parejas requiere el uso de técnicas estadísticas apropiadas para evitar posibles sesgos sistemáticos (por ejemplo, error tipo I debido a la dependencia de las observaciones). En este estudio utilizamos el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja para el estudio de la agresión y la victimización en 361 parejas jóvenes heterosexuales de jóvenes adultos. Los resultados indicaban, por una parte, que había agresión mutua autoinformada en más de la mitad de las parejas. Por otro lado, encontramos que el principal predictor de la victimización de los participantes fue su propio comportamiento agresivo hacia el otro miembro de la pareja. Este resultado sugiere que la víctima y el agresor son la misma persona. Sin embargo, también puede ocultar un posible sesgo al alza de las puntuaciones de victimización: cuando los participantes son agresivos con sus parejas, pueden sesgar al alza sus puntuaciones de victimización para justificar sus niveles de agresión ("Fui agresivo porque me sentí victimizado")


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Autorrelato , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Análise de Variância
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986720

RESUMO

The popularity of Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has made people's driving environment more comfortable and convenient. However, with the integration of external networks and the vehicle networks, the vulnerabilities of the Controller Area Network (CAN) are exposed, allowing attackers to remotely invade vehicle networks through external devices. Based on the remote attack model for vulnerabilities of the in-vehicle CAN, we designed an efficient and safe identity authentication scheme based on Feige-Fiat-Shamir (FFS) zero-knowledge identification scheme with extremely high soundness. We used the method of zero-one reversal and two-to-one verification to solve the problem that FFS cannot effectively resist guessing attacks. Then, we carried out a theoretical analysis of the scheme's security and evaluated it on the software and hardware platform. Finally, regarding time overhead, under the same parameters, compared with the existing scheme, the scheme can complete the authentication within 6.1ms without having to go through multiple rounds of interaction, which reduces the additional authentication delay and enables all private keys to participate in one round of authentication, thereby eliminating the possibility that a private key may not be involved in the original protocol. Regarding security and soundness, as long as private keys are not cracked, the scheme can resist guessing attacks, which is more secure than the existing scheme.


Assuntos
Automação/métodos , Segurança Computacional/instrumentação , Segurança Computacional/tendências , Algoritmos , Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , China , Confidencialidade , Vítimas de Crime , Excipientes , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação/instrumentação , Sistemas de Informação/tendências , Internet , Conhecimento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Software
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970746

RESUMO

The majority of the existing evidence-base on violence against women focuses on women of reproductive age (15-49), and globally there is sparse evidence concerning patterns of and types of violence against women aged 50 and older. Improved understanding of differing patterns and dynamics of violence older women experienced is needed to ensure appropriate policy or programmatic responses. To address these gaps in the evidence, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative literature on violence against older women, including any form of violence against women, rather than adopting a specific theoretical framework on what types of violence or perpetrators should be included from the outset, and focusing specifically on qualitative studies, to explore the nature and dynamics of violence against older women from the perspective of women. Following pre-planned searches of 11 electronic databases, two authors screened all identified titles, abstracts and relevant full texts for inclusion in the review. We extracted data from 52 manuscripts identified for inclusion, and conducted quality assessment and thematic synthesis from the key findings of the included studies. Results indicated that the vast majority of included studies were conducted in high-income contexts, and did not contain adequate information on study setting and context. Thematic synthesis identified several central themes, including the intersection between ageing and perceptions of, experiences of and response to violence; the centrality of social and gender norms in shaping older women's experiences of violence; the cumulative physical and mental health impact of exposure to lifelong violence, and that specific barriers exist for older women accessing community supports and health services to address violence victimization. Our findings indicated that violence against older women is prevalent and has significant impacts on physical and mental well-being of older women. Implications for policy and programmatic response, as well as future research directions, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência de Gênero/tendências , Violência/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 269-272, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bullying is an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend himself or herself. However, with the advent of electronic communication via the internet and mobile phones has led to appearence of a new form of violence, i.e. cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is define as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through computer, cell phones and other electronic device". The aim of this paper is to point to the growing problem of cyberbullying. METHODS: Review the research and theoretical literature. RESULTS: Bullying through the Internet tends to occur at a later age, around 14 years, when children spend more time on their mobile phones and social networking sites. Estimates indicate that between 15% and 35% of young people have been victims of cyberbullying and between 10% and 20% of individuals admit to having cyberbullied others. Perpetrators of cyberbullying have a degree of anonymity not possible in traditional bullying, and the potential exposure and embarrassment of the victim is on a larger scale. It is possible to victimize a peer within their own home or elsewhere at any time of day or night, and should they remove themselves from the site, the messages often accumulate. Victims of bullying often have mental health problems, including depressive symptomatology, self-harm and suicidal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This presents new challenges for individuals, families, schools, professionals, researchers, and policy makers.


Assuntos
Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Ideação Suicida
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
12.
Aggress Behav ; 46(6): 559-569, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749734

RESUMO

Due to the impersonal and anonymous nature of cyberspace, past work underscored the pivotal role of social influence processes in cyberbullying among adolescents. However, there was also evidence revealing the weak influences that some referent groups yield on youth. The current study argues that the strength of normative influences on cyberbullying depends on the properties of the referent groups. In the school context, we examined whether class entitativity-the extent to which a class is a unified and coherent group, rather than a mere aggregation of students-moderated the relationship between class norms and cyberbullying. A total of 474 adolescent students responded to measures of descriptive and injunctive class norms about cyberbullying, perceived class entitativity, and cyberbullying. The results indicated that pro-cyberbullying descriptive and injunctive class norms were positively correlated with cyber aggression. Most importantly, higher levels of pro-cyberbullying class norms predicted increases in cyber aggression when students perceived their classes as highly entitative. In contrast, this effect was not significant when students perceived their classes having low entitativity. These findings promote an understanding of how peer norms work and provide an alternative strategy for interventions into cyber aggression in schools.


Assuntos
Agressão , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Humanos , Normas Sociais , Estudantes
13.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 555-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762635

RESUMO

Young adults are at high risk for sexual harassment and sexual assault. Although attention has been given to prevention on college campuses, the need for prevention may be at least as high for young adults who do not attend college as for young adults who do. In October 2019, we administered a nationally representative survey of 893 adults to measure sexual harassment and sexual assault victimization during a recall period defined as "during college years" for respondents who had enrolled in college at any time or "ages 18-24" for respondents not in college. Reported rates of sexual harassment (32.7%) and sexual assault (24.6%) during early adulthood were similar for respondents who reported having ever enrolled in college and for respondents who reported never attending college. Women were more likely than men to report both sexual harassment (37.4% vs 22.4%) and sexual assault (36.0% vs 16.0%) during early adulthood. Compared with respondents aged ≥30, respondents aged 18-29 were 105% more likely to report sexual harassment and 65% more likely to report sexual assault. Moreover, sexual harassment experiences predicted sexual assault victimization (adjusted odds ratio = 18.1). This study highlights the importance of attending to sexual harassment and sexual assault risks for young adults through research, policy, and criminal justice structures beyond institutions of higher education. Evidence that sexual harassment is strongly associated with sexual assault victimization of young adults highlights the importance of naming and stemming early behavioral transgressions across the US population.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822366

RESUMO

Rape is the most demoralizing type of crime violating human rights worldwide. Research has primarily focused on children and women's experiences of rape, even though victims include men and little documentation available concerning their experiences of reporting these incidents. The study aimed to investigate men's experiences when reporting rape to the police. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to collect and analyze qualitative data from a purposive sample of eleven men who were rape victims. The findings of the study revealed three superordinate and twenty-two subordinate themes. First, motivation for reporting rape to the police included self-protection from re-victimization, being killed, and prevalent prison cultural practice, seeking justice and answers for rape, moral duty, family support, and encouraging reports of the crime. Second, perceived barriers for reporting rape included fear of stigmatization and ridicule, unknown perpetrators, internalized homophobia, men's preconceived prejudices, perceived justice system delays, fear of being killed, and protecting their reputation. Third, negative experiences when reporting rape included a long waiting period at the reception before opening a case file and the delayed responses of police investigating the rape scene. Also, there was discouragement from the police, disparaging behavior of police, victim-blaming, lack of communication with the victim about case progress and experiences of police homosexual intolerance. The findings show that most men were motivated to report rape to the police despite the perceived barriers and negative experiences they had with the police. Thus, this provides baseline evidence for strategies to be developed to encourage the reporting of rape. Each police station must provide dedicated personnel for professional and sensitive handling of all rape victims, including men. Furthermore, future studies should be conducted to evaluate rape victims' satisfaction with the services provided by the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Riso , Polícia/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Justiça Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 155-161, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841198

RESUMO

The purpose of our study is to assess the situation with safety of children when they use the Internet. A comprehensive analysis of the risks and dangers, the source of which is the World Wide Web, has been carried out. Researchers have used the survey method, which confirms the hypothesis that the problem of negative influence in the uncontrolled use of Internet technologies by children exists and is becoming more acute. The quantitative indicators of Internet users among schoolchildren are analyzed, types of crimes are identified, the victims of which can be children who use the Internet. An empirical study showed that one of the main goals of teenagers using Internet technologies is communication, which allows minors to be more free, and in some cases, makes it possible to be relaxed, liberated, frivolous, which leads to increased victimization. The article discusses the impact of virtual communication on the physical and mental health of children, the occurrence of Internet addiction, gaming disorders, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, depression and other diseases. In this case, special attention is paid to the characteristics of adolescence, which must be taken into account in the future when studying the safety of children on the Web. The results of our study indicate the need to continue working in the direction of studying the dangers that lurk for children on the Internet, developing measures to prevent harm to children when they use the Network, taking into account the positive foreign experience in applying such measures.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Comportamento Aditivo , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Internet , Saúde Mental
16.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e152, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772993

RESUMO

AIMS: The factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents have been extensively characterised, but the mechanisms underlying the complexities of the relationship between experiences of childhood trauma and suicidal ideation have been less studied. This study examined the direct effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation on the one hand and whether school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediate the association between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation on the other hand. METHODS: This school-based mental health survey was carried out in Qinghai Province in Northwest China in December 2019. We employed standardised questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and target mental health outcomes. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression and structural equation modelling were performed for the data analyses. RESULTS: This study included 5864 university students. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and Internet addiction were 34.7% and 21.4%, respectively. Overall, 16.4% and 11.4% of participants reported experiences of childhood trauma and school bullying victimisation, respectively. There were direct effects of childhood trauma, school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction on suicidal ideation. The total effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation was 0.201 (p < 0.001). School bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation. Internet addiction played a mediating role between school bullying and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood trauma had both direct and indirect effects on suicidal ideation; these effects were mediated by school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction in Chinese university students. Elucidating these relationships will therefore be useful in developing and implementing more targeted interventions and strategies to improve the mental well-being of Chinese university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e159, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792037

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China. RESULTS: Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39-6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89,95% CI = 0.86-0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender role non-conforming behaviors are a significant risk factor for school-related violence. The objective of this study is to describe the types, prevalence and correlates of social violence among Thai secondary school students, with a focus on gender role non-conformity. METHODS: This article uses secondary data from a national study of 2070 secondary school students aged 13-20 years representing Bangkok and all four regions of Thailand. Students were asked about their gender/sexual identity, self-perception of their masculinity or femininity, and experiences of social violence. Correlates of social violence were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Prevalence of social violence victimization was high (57%). Most students considered themselves to be as masculine or as feminine as other members of their sex (82.6%), while 9.1% thought that they were less masculine/less feminine, and 8.3% thought they were more masculine/more feminine. Students who considered themselves less masculine or less feminine than others of their sex (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.25) were more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who considered themselves equally masculine/feminine. Students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.86) were also more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who did not identify as LGBT. However, students who considered themselves more masculine or feminine than other students of their sex (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88) were less likely to experience social violence. DISCUSSION: Students who identified as LGBT, or considered themselves to be less masculine or less feminine than other students of their sex, had higher odds of social violence victimization. Anti-bullying campaigns need to emphasize that perpetrating social violence is not tolerated, and gender-based violence needs to be included in comprehensive sexuality education curricula.


Assuntos
Bullying , Identidade de Gênero , Sexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Tailândia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Nepal , Assunção de Riscos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand better the total burden of interpersonal violence on society, it is useful to assess the prevalence of interpersonal violence among both, men and women. Exposure to multiple forms of interpersonal violence, referred to as polyvictimization, has been associated with more severe health consequences than exposure to any form separately. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual interpersonal violence in childhood, adulthood and at both childhood and adulthood among men and women in Estonia, analyze the patterns of interpersonal violence and socio-demographic correlates of polyvictimization in adulthood by gender. METHODS: The analysis was based on two population-based, cross-sectional, self-administered surveys carried out among men and women in Estonia in 2014. In both surveys, the NorVold Abuse questionnaire was used to measure exposure to interpersonal violence. Men and women aged 18-44 were included to the analysis. RESULTS: Among men 66.6% and among women 54.2% had been exposed to at least one form of interpersonal violence during lifetime. Men had been more often exposed to isolated physical interpersonal violence, among women the distribution of different forms of interpersonal violence was more even and exposure to sexual violence was more common. The prevalence of polyvictimization in adulthood was two times higher among women compared to men and more socio-demographic correlates, were associated with it. Exposure to violence in childhood was associated with polyvictimization in adulthood across gender. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of interpersonal violence in Estonia is high among men and women. The most prevalent forms and patterns of interpersonal violence, however, differ by gender, as do the socio-demographic correlates. Screening for interpersonal violence, in childhood and adulthood, and gender-specific interventions are needed, especially for high-risk groups identified in this study. Primary prevention of childhood violence should be a priority, as it was associated with higher risk for exposure to violence later in life across gender.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência/classificação , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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