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1.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 318-326, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351656

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate US nonlethal violent victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) males and females aged 16 years and older and to compare disparities among LGB and straight males and females, controlling for other correlates of victimization.Methods. We used data from the 2017 and 2018 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to provide nationally representative rates of various forms of violent victimization for self-identified LGB and straight persons. Multivariable models assessed the risk for violence associated with LGB status.Results. Total violence rates were 2 to 9 times higher among LGB persons compared with heterosexuals. For some forms of violence (e.g., rape and sexual assault, violence with serious injuries, and multiple offender violence) there were notably high disparities between bisexuals and heterosexuals. With adjustment for covariates, LGB orientation was associated with odds ratios nearly 2 to 4 times those of heterosexuals.Conclusions. This is one of the first known uses of NCVS data to estimate LGB victimization, revealing substantially higher rates of violence directed at LGB individuals.Public Health Implications. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions in federal surveys such as the NCVS enable monitoring of violent victimization rates and should continue. Collecting these data can help researchers understand victimization risk and guide appropriate resources toward victim services, especially important given the high violent crime levels experienced by LGB individuals.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e179, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153509

RESUMO

AIMS: Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. METHODS: A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. RESULTS: Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied (B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others (B = 0.02, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. CONCLUSIONS: This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 269-272, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bullying is an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend himself or herself. However, with the advent of electronic communication via the internet and mobile phones has led to appearence of a new form of violence, i.e. cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is define as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through computer, cell phones and other electronic device". The aim of this paper is to point to the growing problem of cyberbullying. METHODS: Review the research and theoretical literature. RESULTS: Bullying through the Internet tends to occur at a later age, around 14 years, when children spend more time on their mobile phones and social networking sites. Estimates indicate that between 15% and 35% of young people have been victims of cyberbullying and between 10% and 20% of individuals admit to having cyberbullied others. Perpetrators of cyberbullying have a degree of anonymity not possible in traditional bullying, and the potential exposure and embarrassment of the victim is on a larger scale. It is possible to victimize a peer within their own home or elsewhere at any time of day or night, and should they remove themselves from the site, the messages often accumulate. Victims of bullying often have mental health problems, including depressive symptomatology, self-harm and suicidal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This presents new challenges for individuals, families, schools, professionals, researchers, and policy makers.


Assuntos
Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Ideação Suicida
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
7.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e152, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772993

RESUMO

AIMS: The factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents have been extensively characterised, but the mechanisms underlying the complexities of the relationship between experiences of childhood trauma and suicidal ideation have been less studied. This study examined the direct effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation on the one hand and whether school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediate the association between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation on the other hand. METHODS: This school-based mental health survey was carried out in Qinghai Province in Northwest China in December 2019. We employed standardised questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and target mental health outcomes. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression and structural equation modelling were performed for the data analyses. RESULTS: This study included 5864 university students. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and Internet addiction were 34.7% and 21.4%, respectively. Overall, 16.4% and 11.4% of participants reported experiences of childhood trauma and school bullying victimisation, respectively. There were direct effects of childhood trauma, school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction on suicidal ideation. The total effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation was 0.201 (p < 0.001). School bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation. Internet addiction played a mediating role between school bullying and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood trauma had both direct and indirect effects on suicidal ideation; these effects were mediated by school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction in Chinese university students. Elucidating these relationships will therefore be useful in developing and implementing more targeted interventions and strategies to improve the mental well-being of Chinese university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859073

RESUMO

Although bullying and cyberbullying have been widely studied in diverse geographical areas, the number of studies in isolated regions, located in rainforests such as the Peruvian Amazonia, is low. Most research has been conducted in wealthy, Western countries, although disadvantaged areas are usually the most affected by various problems. Thus, the aims of this study were to validate bullying and cyberbullying measurement instruments among adolescents in the Peruvian Amazonia, to determine the prevalence rates of bullying and cyberbullying among this population, and to examine how bullying and cyberbullying relate to self-esteem, empathy, and social skills. The sample included 607 students from the region of Loreto (Peruvian Amazonia) who completed self-report questionnaires. Both questionnaires used in the sample were found to have good psychometric properties. Results showed that bullying and cyberbullying are prevalent among teenagers in the Amazonia. Low self-esteem and high affective empathy predicted bullying victimization. Being a bully was related to high assertiveness. Being a bully-victim was related to low self-esteem and low assertiveness. Cybervictims showed higher cognitive empathy. Cyberbullies showed higher affective empathy in comparison to uninvolved adolescents. Having low self-esteem and higher affective empathy were related to being a cyberbully/victim. This study provides a validated questionnaire that can be used for research and practice in the Amazonia. Based on the current results, tailored anti-bullying and anti-cyberbullying interventions with components focused on self-esteem, empathy, and social skills should be implemented in Peruvian secondary schools.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Empatia , Áreas de Pobreza , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Peru , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822366

RESUMO

Rape is the most demoralizing type of crime violating human rights worldwide. Research has primarily focused on children and women's experiences of rape, even though victims include men and little documentation available concerning their experiences of reporting these incidents. The study aimed to investigate men's experiences when reporting rape to the police. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to collect and analyze qualitative data from a purposive sample of eleven men who were rape victims. The findings of the study revealed three superordinate and twenty-two subordinate themes. First, motivation for reporting rape to the police included self-protection from re-victimization, being killed, and prevalent prison cultural practice, seeking justice and answers for rape, moral duty, family support, and encouraging reports of the crime. Second, perceived barriers for reporting rape included fear of stigmatization and ridicule, unknown perpetrators, internalized homophobia, men's preconceived prejudices, perceived justice system delays, fear of being killed, and protecting their reputation. Third, negative experiences when reporting rape included a long waiting period at the reception before opening a case file and the delayed responses of police investigating the rape scene. Also, there was discouragement from the police, disparaging behavior of police, victim-blaming, lack of communication with the victim about case progress and experiences of police homosexual intolerance. The findings show that most men were motivated to report rape to the police despite the perceived barriers and negative experiences they had with the police. Thus, this provides baseline evidence for strategies to be developed to encourage the reporting of rape. Each police station must provide dedicated personnel for professional and sensitive handling of all rape victims, including men. Furthermore, future studies should be conducted to evaluate rape victims' satisfaction with the services provided by the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Riso , Polícia/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Justiça Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e159, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792037

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China. RESULTS: Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39-6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89,95% CI = 0.86-0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 555-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762635

RESUMO

Young adults are at high risk for sexual harassment and sexual assault. Although attention has been given to prevention on college campuses, the need for prevention may be at least as high for young adults who do not attend college as for young adults who do. In October 2019, we administered a nationally representative survey of 893 adults to measure sexual harassment and sexual assault victimization during a recall period defined as "during college years" for respondents who had enrolled in college at any time or "ages 18-24" for respondents not in college. Reported rates of sexual harassment (32.7%) and sexual assault (24.6%) during early adulthood were similar for respondents who reported having ever enrolled in college and for respondents who reported never attending college. Women were more likely than men to report both sexual harassment (37.4% vs 22.4%) and sexual assault (36.0% vs 16.0%) during early adulthood. Compared with respondents aged ≥30, respondents aged 18-29 were 105% more likely to report sexual harassment and 65% more likely to report sexual assault. Moreover, sexual harassment experiences predicted sexual assault victimization (adjusted odds ratio = 18.1). This study highlights the importance of attending to sexual harassment and sexual assault risks for young adults through research, policy, and criminal justice structures beyond institutions of higher education. Evidence that sexual harassment is strongly associated with sexual assault victimization of young adults highlights the importance of naming and stemming early behavioral transgressions across the US population.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Nepal , Assunção de Riscos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635567

RESUMO

This transversal study over a random representative sample of 1687 Mexican students attending public and private secondary schools (54% girls, 12-17 years old, M = 13.65. DT = 1.14) aimed to analyze psychosocial differences between victims and non-victims of bullying from the bioecological model. It included individual variables (ontosystem), familiar, community, and scholar factors (microsystem), and gender (macrosystem) to perform a multivariate discriminant analysis and a logistic regression analysis. The discriminant analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with mother and father, and a positive attitude toward social norms transgression characterized the high victimization cluster. For the non-victims, the discriminant variables were community implication, positive attitude toward institutional authority, and open communication with the mother. These variables allowed for correctly predicting membership in 76% of the cases. Logistic regression analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with the father, and being a boy increased the probability of high victimization, while a positive attitude toward authority, open communication with the mother, and being a girl decrease this probability. These results highlight the importance of open and offensive communication between adolescents and their parents on psychological distress, attitude toward authority, community implication, and bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 937, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical partner violence victimization (IPV) and/or sexual violence victimization and various health risk behaviours and mental health in university students in 25 countries. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 18,335 university students with a median age of 20 years from 25 countries in Africa, the Americas and Asia, replied to self-reported measures of interpersonal violence, health compromising behaviours, mental health measures and protective factors. RESULTS: In adjusted logistic regression analysis, physical IPV and/or sexual violence victimization was associated, among men and/or among women, with sexual risk behaviours (multiple sexual partners, alcohol use in the context of sex, diagnosed with HIV and pregnancy), violence related behaviour (in a physical fight and carrying a weapon), poor mental health (depression, loneliness, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleeping problem and short sleep), addictive behaviour (binge drinking, tobacco and drug use), and other health risk behaviour (skipping breakfast and frequent salt intake). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that physical IPV and/or sexual violence victimization among female and/or male university students was associated with 4 of 5 sexual risk behaviours, 2 violence related behaviours, 5 of 5 poor mental health indicators, 3 of 3 addictive behaviours and 2 of 7 other health risk behaviours.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): e1-e14, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673114

RESUMO

Background: Transgender individuals experience unique vulnerabilities to intimate partner violence (IPV) and may experience a disproportionate IPV burden compared with cisgender (nontransgender) individuals.Objectives: To systematically review the quantitative literature on prevalence and correlates of IPV in transgender populations.Search Methods: Authors searched research databases (PubMed, CINAHL), gray literature (Google), journal tables of contents, and conference abstracts, and consulted experts in the field. Authors were contacted with data requests in cases in which transgender participants were enrolled in a study, but no disaggregated statistics were provided for this population.Selection Criteria: We included all quantitative literature published before July 2019 on prevalence and correlates of IPV victimization, perpetration, or service utilization in transgender populations. There were no restrictions by sample size, year, or location.Data Collection and Analysis: Two independent reviewers conducted screening. One reviewer conducted extraction by using a structured database, and a second reviewer checked for mistakes or omissions. We used random-effects meta-analyses to calculate relative risks (RRs) comparing the prevalence of IPV in transgender individuals and cisgender individuals in studies in which both transgender and cisgender individuals were enrolled. We also used meta-analysis to compare IPV prevalence in assigned-female-sex-at-birth and assigned-male-sex-at-birth transgender individuals and to compare physical IPV prevalence between nonbinary and binary transgender individuals in studies that enrolled both groups.Main Results: We identified 85 articles from 74 unique data sets (ntotal = 49 966 transgender participants). Across studies reporting it, the median lifetime prevalence of physical IPV was 37.5%, lifetime sexual IPV was 25.0%, past-year physical IPV was 16.7%, and past-year sexual IPV was 10.8% among transgender individuals. Compared with cisgender individuals, transgender individuals were 1.7 times more likely to experience any IPV (RR = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36, 2.03), 2.2 times more likely to experience physical IPV (RR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.66, 2.88), and 2.5 times more likely to experience sexual IPV (RR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.64, 3.69). Disparities persisted when comparing to cisgender women specifically. There was no significant difference in any IPV, physical IPV, or sexual IPV prevalence between assigned-female-sex-at-birth and assigned-male-sex-at-birth individuals, nor in physical IPV prevalence between binary- and nonbinary-identified transgender individuals. IPV victimization was associated with sexual risk, substance use, and mental health burden in transgender populations.Authors' Conclusions: Transgender individuals experience a dramatically higher prevalence of IPV victimization compared with cisgender individuals, regardless of sex assigned at birth. IPV prevalence estimates are comparably high for assigned-male-sex-at-birth and assigned-female-sex-at-birth transgender individuals, and for binary and nonbinary transgender individuals, though more research is needed.Public Health Implications: Evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to prevent and address IPV in this high-risk population with unique needs. Lack of legal protections against discrimination in employment, housing, and social services likely foster vulnerability to IPV. Transgender individuals should be explicitly included in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations promoting IPV screening in primary care settings. Interventions at the policy level as well as the interpersonal and individual level are urgently needed to address epidemic levels of IPV in this marginalized, high-risk population.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517209

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the prevalence, related factors, and emotional problems associated with teacher harassment victimization in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessed by self-reports and parent reports. A total of 219 adolescents with ASD participated in this study. The self-reported and parent-reported rates of teacher harassment victimization were calculated. Sociodemographic characteristics, parent-reported social communication deficits, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and suicidality were surveyed. In total, 26 (11.9%) adolescents with ASD experienced teacher harassment based on self-reports or parent reports; the convergence between adolescent and parent reports on adolescent experiences of teacher harassment was low. Victims of teacher harassment exhibited more severe social communication deficits and ODD symptoms than nonvictims of teacher harassment. Victims of teacher harassment displayed more severe depression and anxiety and were more likely to have suicidality. Socio-communication deficits and ODD symptoms were related to teacher harassment victimization, which in turn was significantly associated with emotional problems among adolescents with ASD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
17.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(5): 330-337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health issue with significant physical and mental health sequelae. A longer duration and greater severity of abuse are associated with adverse health outcomes and increased risk of revictimization. Current research has identified a variety of strategies used by women in response to abuse, but has not established whether the use of these strategies is associated with decreased IPV over time. For this study, we analyzed the associations between the use of specific actions in response to abuse-placating, resistance, informal or formal network help-seeking, safety planning, and substance use-and IPV victimization at the 1-year follow-up. METHODS: Ninety-five women with past-year IPV at baseline participated in a 1-year follow-up survey measuring their use of specific actions in response to IPV and subsequent IPV status. IPV victimization at the 1-year follow-up was analyzed as a function of types of actions taken and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Among women with past-year IPV at baseline (N = 95), 53% reported no further IPV victimization at the 1-year follow-up. In bivariate analysis, social support was associated with decreased risk of IPV victimization (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.99). In multivariable analyses, high use of placating (adjusted odds ratio, 9.40; 95% CI, 2.53-34.9), formal network help-seeking (adjusted odds ratio, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.97-26.74), and safety planning (adjusted odds ratio, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.02-8.69) strategies were associated with an increased risk of IPV victimization at the 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that IPV exposure can change over time and that the use of specific actions in response to IPV can be indicators of risk of subsequent victimization. Abuse severity is an important potential confounder of action efficacy.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(6): e333-e341, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homelessness is associated with crime victimisation, which is a leading cause of death, exacerbates health problems, and increases the risk of violence. We aimed to study the risk of police-recorded crime victimisation in individuals with experiences of homelessness compared with the general population. METHODS: We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of people aged 15 years or older, who were alive in 2001 and born in Denmark between 1980 and 2001. The cohort was constructed using the Danish Civil Registration System, with data linked across other registries (including the Danish Homeless Register, Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and the Danish Central Crime Register) by use of personal identification numbers. The exposure, experience of homelessness, was defined as at least one contact with a homeless shelter. The outcome was the date of first police-recorded crime victimisation. We calculated incidence rates per 1000 person-years, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and cumulative probability of any crime victimisation and of violent crime victimisation. Psychiatric disorders, socioeconomic markers, and history of criminal offences were included as confounders. FINDINGS: Within the study period (Jan 1, 2001, to Dec 31, 2015), 1 182 749 individuals (9 831 776 person-years) aged 15-35 years were included, of which 184 813 (15·6%) had at least one crime victimisation incident (73 999 [40%] of which were violent victimisations). 4286 individuals (22 240 person-years) had at least one homeless shelter contact. Relative to the general population, and adjusting for age and calendar year, individuals with experience of homelessness had an increased risk of any crime victimisation (IRR 2·7 [95% CI 2·4-3·0]) in females and 2·3 [2·1-2·5] in males), and especially of violent crime victimisation (7·2 [6·3-8·2] in females and 3·6 [3·2-4·0] in males). This increased risk remained significant after further adjustments for potential confounders. People with both a psychiatric diagnosis and experience of homelessness had the highest risk of violent victimisation (IRR 10·1 [95% CI 8·6-11·9] in females and 4·3 [3·8-4·9] in males), while people with no psychiatric diagnosis or experience of homelessness (the reference group) had the lowest risk. In the 5 years after an individual's first homeless shelter contact, the cumulative probabilities of any crime victimisation were 23% (95% CI 21-26) in females and 16% (15-18) in males, which were substantially higher than those of the general population. INTERPRETATION: Homeless populations are at substantially increased risk of crime victimisation, highlighting the need for strategic and targeted approaches to prevent homelessness and to help people out of homelessness. Improvements in multiagency working (such as between homeless shelters, health-care services, substance misuse services, and police forces) might be important to reduce the risk of victimisation in marginalised populations, such as those with complex psychiatric or social problems, with experience of homelessness. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 286, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against patients with schizophrenia is very common, however it is rarely studied in China, especially in primary health care institutions of rural areas. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of violence against patients with community-living schizophrenia in rural China and examined its associated factors and impact on quality of life (QoL) and social function. METHOD: A survey was conducted among 487 patients with schizophrenia living in rural communities. Data about violent victimization experiences in the past 6 months, demographic information, and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: We found that 92 (18.9%) of 487 subjects experienced at least one type of violent event in the past 6 months. Logistic regression analysis suggested that a history of conducting dangerous behaviors(OR = 1.702, P = 0.02, 95%CI: 1.05-2.73), higher Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (anxiety domain) score (OR = 1.15, P = 0.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.304) and lower hospitalization rates (OR = 0.89, P = 0.04, 95%CI: 0.81-0.99) were significantly associated with violent victimization in patients with schizophrenia. Analysis of covariance showed the victims of violence tended to have worse social function in patients with schizophrenia living in rural communities of China (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with schizophrenia living in rural China had a high risk of being exposed to violence and violent victimization of patients with schizophrenia had adverse consequences for social function. More attention is needed for those patients experiencing violent events, because they are simultaneously possible to conduct dangerous behaviors.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13421-13427, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482858

RESUMO

Although the backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the United States is starting to be addressed, many municipalities are opting for selective testing of samples within a kit, where only the most probative samples are tested. We use data from the San Francisco Police Department Criminalistics Laboratory, which tests all samples but also collects information on the samples flagged by sexual assault forensic examiners as most probative, to build a standard machine learning model that predicts (based on covariates gleaned from sexual assault kit questionnaires) which samples are most probative. This model is embedded within an optimization framework that selects which samples to test from each kit to maximize the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) yield (i.e., the number of kits that generate at least one DNA profile for the criminal DNA database) subject to a budget constraint. Our analysis predicts that, relative to a policy that tests only the samples deemed probative by the sexual assault forensic examiners, the proposed policy increases the CODIS yield by 45.4% without increasing the cost. Full testing of all samples has a slightly lower cost-effectiveness than the selective policy based on forensic examiners, but more than doubles the yield. In over half of the sexual assaults, a sample was not collected during the forensic medical exam from the body location deemed most probative by the machine learning model. Our results suggest that electronic forensic records coupled with machine learning and optimization models could enhance the effectiveness of criminal investigations of sexual assaults.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Ciências Forenses/economia , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA/análise , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Ciências Forenses/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , São Francisco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo de Espécimes/estatística & dados numéricos
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