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1.
J Forensic Nurs ; 16(1): 6-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human sex trafficking is a major public health issue. The United States is the second largest market for sex-trafficked women, yet few healthcare interventions, designed for women specifically, have been identified. The purpose of this review was to present a systematic review of the literature on the characteristics and healthcare needs of women who have been trafficked for sex in the United States. METHODS: This literature review was conducted following the methodology outlined by Whittmore and Knalf and written using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health, PsychInfo, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched. A quality assessment tool was used to determine rigor of the studies included in this review. RESULTS: Nine publications met the inclusion criteria. Three studies specifically explored health. Four studies were composed solely of women born outside the United States, and two studies reported differences across many variables, including overall health, between women born outside the United States and women born within the United States. A lack of resources and an inadequate response by the health system resulted in care that was not optimal. CONCLUSION: There are differences between U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born victims. Evidence on the healthcare needs of U.S.-born women trafficked for sex in the United States is extremely limited. Research focusing on the health perceptions of women survivors of human sex trafficking may shed light on how they perceive health, care, and the health system and what they identify as important for key stakeholders to understand.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Tráfico de Pessoas , Sobreviventes , Saúde da Mulher , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Abuso Físico , Pobreza , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 189-205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372375

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated that the sexual orientation of a sexual assault victim influences perceptions of blame. Although researchers have studied perceptions of blame toward straight and lesbian sexual assault victims, none have yet assessed perceptions of blame toward bisexual victims. The purpose of the current study is to examine perceptions of blame toward a female sexual assault victim and to determine whether the victim's sexual orientation impacts the level of attributed blame. Despite no previous research examining the impact of bisexuality on victim blaming, misconceptions that bisexual females are highly sexual, promiscuous, and untrustworthy make it likely that this population would be subject to greater levels of blame than either straight or lesbian victims. After random assignment to a vignette description of a sexual assault and completion of a victim-blaming questionnaire, results failed to support our hypotheses; participants did not blame the bisexual victim of sexual assault more than either the straight or lesbian victims. Further contrary to expected findings, males did not hold more blaming attitudes than females across conditions. Nonetheless, this study is important given the finding that attributions of blame influence whether sexual assault victims choose to disclose their assault, the failure of which can lead to negative mental health outcomes. Ultimately, the current study was a first step in understanding whether bisexual assault victims are evaluated differently than their straight and lesbian counterparts.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Revelação , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Humanos , Percepção Social , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e44-e45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850483

RESUMO

Drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) currently represent overwhelming issue in its multidisciplinary approach. They occur when alcohol or drugs are used to compromise an individual's ability to consent to a sexual act. These substances facilitate a perpetrator to commit sexual assault because they inhibit a person's ability to resist and can prevent them from remembering the assault. If on the one hand alcohol remains the most commonly used drug in crimes of sexual assault, on the other hand drugs being used by perpetrators in crimes of sexual assault include, but are not limited to, Rohypnol (but also other benzodiazepines can be used), GHB (Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid), GBL (Gamma-Butyrolactone), ketamine and others. The authors briefly examine the main issues of GHB-facilitated sexual assault in forensic investigation, drawing the attention of the whole scientific community to the importance of a correct assessment of each GHB-FSA, even when it is only suspected and by providing some practical advices.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxibato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 51-59, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183599

RESUMO

In order to examine the literature on the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence, a meta-analytic review was designed with 26 effect sizes assessing the relationship between child-to-parent and parent-to-child violence in 19 primary studies. Correlational effect sizes were computed and corrected for sampling error, and predictor and criterion unreliability. The results showed a significantly positive, medium magnitude (ρ = .36) mean true effect size for the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence. Similar results were found for direct and vicarious victimization. The probability of developing child-to-parent violence for children victimized by parents increased 71% as compared to non-victimized children. The child-to parent violence type (physical or psychological), and the population (judicial or community) were analysed as moderators. The results revealed similar effects in both types of child-to-parent violence and in both populations: a significantly positive, medium in magnitude mean true effect size. The theoretical and practical implications for measuring child-to parent violence are discussed


Con el propósito de examinar la literatura sobre la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos, se diseñó una revisión metaanalítica con 26 tamaños del efecto que evalúan la relación de la violencia entre hijos y padres y padres e hijos en 19 estudios principales. Se calcularon y corrigieron los tamaños del efecto correlacional para el error de muestreo y la predicción y la fiabilidad del criterio. Los resultados mostraron una magnitud media significativamente positiva (ρ = .36), que significa el tamaño verdadero del efecto para la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos. Se encontraron resultados similares para la victimización directa e indirecta. La probabilidad de desarrollar violencia de hijos a padres para los niños victimizados por los padres aumentó 71% en comparación con los niños no victimizados. El tipo de violencia del niño hacia el padre (física o psicológica) y la población (judicial o comunitaria) se analizaron como moderadores. Los resultados revelaron efectos similares en ambos tipos de violencia entre padres e hijos en ambas poblaciones: un nivel de efecto medio significativamente positivo, de magnitud media. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas para medir la violencia de los hijos hacia sus padres


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887196

RESUMO

We argue that people will often eschew explicit victim blame (e.g., claiming that "X is to blame") because it is counternormative and socially undesirable, yet they might still engage in subtle victim blame by attributing victims' suffering to behaviors the victims can control (i.e., "high control causes"). We found support for this argument in three online studies with US residents. In Studies 1 and 2, participants viewed a victim posing either a high threat to the need to believe in a just world, which should heighten the motivation to engage in victim blame, or a low threat. They then rated explicit blame items and attributions for the victim's suffering. Explicit blame was low overall and not influenced by victim threat. However, participants attributed the high threat victim's suffering, more than the low threat victim's suffering, to high control causes, thus showing a subtle blame effect. In Study 2, explicit blame and subtle blame were less strongly associated (in the high threat condition) for individuals high in socially desirable responding. These results are consistent with our argument that explicit and subtle blame diverge in part due to social desirability concerns. In Study 3, most participants believed others viewed the explicit blame items, but not the attribution items, as assessing blame. Thus, attributions to high control causes can be seen as "subtle" in the sense that people believe others will view such statements as reflecting constructs other than blame. Our studies suggest a way of responding to innocent victims that could be particularly relevant in a modern context, given increasing social undesirability of various negative responses to disadvantaged and victimized individuals.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Julgamento , Motivação , Percepção Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1499, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyberbullying among children and adolescents is a major public health concern. However, research has not yet definitively identified the risk factors associated with cybervictimization. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of cybervictimization with use of social networks, personality traits and parental education in secondary students. METHODS: The study population consisted of 765 secondary students (56.5% girls) from Majorca (Spain) who were aged 15.99 years (grade 4). The data were from the 16 secondary school centers that participated in the ITACA Project, a multi-center, cluster randomized controlled trial. Cybervictimization was measured by the Garaigordobil Cybervictimization Scale, and the Big Five Questionnaire for Children was used to assess personality traits. RESULTS: Results showed that 39.9% of the students were cybervictims. Univariate analysis indicated that more girls than boys were cybervictimized (43.1% vs 35.7%). Cybervictims spent more time in social networking sites than non-victims (6 h 30 min vs. 5 h 16 min) and had greater emotional instability (0.16 vs. -0.23) and extraversion (0.11 vs. -0.09) and were less conscientious (- 0.001 vs. 0.20). Multivariable analysis indicated that social networking time was not significantly associated with cybervictimization after controlling for personality traits, but the same personality traits remained significantly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cyberbullying is a frequent and relevant problem in adolescents. Big Five personality traits are related with cybervictimization. Possible ways to design interventions include promoting social leisure activities, encourage responsible attitudes and provide stress coping tools.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Rede Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(11): 736-741, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697598

RESUMO

Previous research on cyberbullying has almost entirely focused on examining its prevalence among teens and young adults leaving it unclear how prevalent it is within the wider population. The present study used a New Zealand (NZ) national sample (N = 20,849) to examine gender, age, and ethnic differences in the experiences of cyberbullying victimization. On average, nearly 14.9 percent of respondents stated that they have ever been a target of cyberbullying before, with 2.2 percent respondents reporting such experiences within the past month. While young adults (18-25 years) experienced the highest levels of cyberbullying during both time frames (lifetime and past month), the prevalence of cyberbullying was lower among older age cohorts, with the lowest rate among the 66+ age group. Reports of cyberbullying slightly varied among men and women, with women overall reporting slightly greater levels of having ever experienced cyberbullying than men; however, this significant difference did not carry into reports of cyberbullying over the past month. On average, participants identifying as European reported lower levels of cyberbullying than Maori and Pacific Nations participants during both time frames, with Asian participants falling in the middle. Taken together, these findings provide a nuanced understanding of the prevalence of cyberbullying in a large national sample of NZ adults.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 214-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764525

RESUMO

The practice of trauma-informed care (TIC) allows nurses in any setting to identify and intervene with traumatized individuals and to create a continuum of care when forensic nursing services are needed. The purpose of this article is to suggest ways to incorporate TIC content into baccalaureate nursing programs. We begin with an overview of baccalaureate nursing curricula and common types of traumatic experience important for students to understand. We then propose specific strategies for inclusion of TIC content in baccalaureate nursing education, using the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. With a solid foundation in TIC, baccalaureate-prepared nursing students can provide effective patient care and better support forensic nursing practice. This will increase the capacity of the nursing profession in general to meet the needs of those affected by trauma, violence, and abuse.


Assuntos
Currículo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Trauma Psicológico/enfermagem , Comunicação , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Segurança do Paciente , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Profissionalismo , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 222-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764526

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study tests associations between reporting sexual victimization to a healthcare provider, campus authority, police, or social contact, and emotional well-being among college women. METHODS: Data from 2,162 women who participated in the 2015 College Student Health Survey at 17 colleges in Minnesota was used. Analyses tested associations between reporting sexual assault to formal or informal resources and diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as self-rated health. RESULTS: Significantly higher rates of all four diagnoses were observed among those who reported to formal resources (e.g., healthcare provider, police) compared with those who reported to informal resources (i.e., friends, family). However, no differences were seen in self-rated physical or mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Expansion of trauma-informed healthcare services and advocacy efforts is recommended to optimally support students who report sexual assault experiences.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 440-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined testimonies of women who were sexually assaulted multiple times by multiple unknown offenders. In these testimonial narratives, it is possible to detect specific modalities of traumatic event expression. This expression lacks any spatial, temporal, auditory or emotional determinants of the event. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: These fourteen women (out of 17) were imprisoned and forcefully isolated in detention camps or private houses in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war. At the same time, some of these women were raped by the offenders that were previously known to them. The average length of detention was 141 days among the seventeen victims (range of 7 to 395 days), while the average time from the first day of imprisonment to the first day of testimony was 311 days (range of 30 to 889 days). RESULTS: Based on the narrative descriptions of the events acquired from these testimonies, our analysis showed that these expressions differed when the offender was known to the victim, contrasted to the situation when the offender was completely unknown. This finding has a significant implication in victim's testimony at judicial hearings. Specifically, women that were raped by unknown perpetrator(s) were often unable to provide persuasive testimony and their recollection of the events was deemed insufficient for the further prosecution. Testimonies in these cases substantially lacked in vividness and were devoid of visuospatial determinants of the rape event. Consequently, this often resulted in the case's dismissal. CONCLUSION: The unusual and problematic expression of these traumatic memories might indicate that these events were not properly stored in the conceptual form of memory. Ultimately, victims could not make any coherent recollection or reconstruct the cascade of events by using perceptual information. We argue that this could be due to an aberrant mechanism of memory storage and difficulties that emerge on the level of sensory input. This problem needs to be further examined and correspondingly accounted for since it can exert significant influence on judicial outcomes in the domain of sexual assault cases worldwide.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Episódica
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 718, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) damages the health of survivors and increases use of healthcare services. We report findings from a multi-site evaluation of hospital-based advocacy services, designed to support survivors attending emergency departments and maternity services. METHODS: Independent Domestic Violence Advisors (IDVA) were co-located in five UK hospitals. Case-level data were collected at T1 (initial referral) and T2 (case closure) from survivors accessing hospital (T1 N = 692; T2 N = 476) and community IDVA services (T1 N = 3544; T2 N = 2780), used as a comparator. Measures included indicators of sociodemographic characteristics, experience of abuse, health service use, health and safety outcomes. Multivariate analyses tested for differences in changes in abuse, health and factors influencing safety outcomes. Health service use data in the 6 months pre-and post- intervention were compared to generate potential cost savings by hospital IDVA services. RESULTS: Hospital IDVAs worked with survivors less visible to community IDVA services and facilitated intervention at an earlier point. Hospital IDVAs received higher referrals from health services and enabled access to a greater number of health resources. Hospital survivors were more likely to report greater reductions in and cessation of abuse. No differences were observed in health outcomes for hospital survivors. The odds of safety increased two-fold if hospital survivors received over five contacts with an IDVA or accessed six or more resources / programmes over a longer period of time. Six months preceding IDVA intervention, hospital survivors cost on average £2463 each in use of health services; community survivors cost £533 each. The cost savings observed among hospital survivors amounted to a total of £2050 per patient per year. This offset the average cost of providing hospital IDVA services. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital IDVAs can identify survivors not visible to other services and promote safety through intensive support and access to resources. The co-location of IDVAs within the hospital encouraged referrals to other health services and wider community agencies. Further research is required to establish the cost-effectiveness of hospital IDVA services, however our findings suggest these services could be an efficient use of health service resources.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Maternidades , Defesa do Paciente , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Maternidades/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Sobreviventes/psicologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1345, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slapping/spanking is related to a number of poor health outcomes. Understanding what factors are related to the increased or decreased use of spanking/slapping is necessary to inform prevention. This study used a population-based sample to determine the prevalence of slapping/spanking reported by youth; the relationship between sociodemographic factors and slapping/spanking; and the extent to which parental exposures to victimization and maltreatment in childhood and current parental mental health, substance use and family circumstances, are associated with youth reports of slapping/spanking. METHODS: Data were from the 2014 Ontario Child Health Study, a provincially representative sample of households with children and youth aged 4-17 years. Self-reported lifetime slapping/spanking prevalence was determined using a sub-sample of youth aged 14-17 years (n = 1883). Parents/primary caregivers (i.e., person most knowledgeable (PMK) of the youth) self-reported their own childhood experiences including bullying victimization, slapping/spanking and child maltreatment, and current mental health, substance use and family circumstances including mental health functioning and emotional well-being, alcohol use, smoking, marital conflict and family functioning. Analyses were conducted in 2018. RESULTS: Living in urban compared to rural residence and family poverty were associated with decreased odds of slapping/spanking. PMK childhood experiences of physical and verbal bullying victimization, spanking, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and exposure to physical intimate partner violence were associated with increased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 1.33-1.77). PMK experiences of physical abuse and exposure to emotional/verbal intimate partner violence in childhood was associated with decreased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (AOR = 0.72 and 0.88, respectively). PMK's higher levels of marital conflict, languishing to moderate mental health functioning and emotional well-being, and moderate or greater alcohol use were associated with increased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (AOR ranged from 1.36-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: It may be important to consider parent/primary caregiver's childhood experiences with victimization and maltreatment along with their current parental mental health, substance use and family circumstances when developing and testing strategies to prevent slapping/spanking.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Punição , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
14.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2403-2417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605292

RESUMO

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual cisgender peers. At the same time, SGM youth experience sexuality- and gender identity-specific stressors known to exacerbate negative health outcomes. Though scholars have established a link between minority stressors (e.g., internalized stigma and victimization) and increased alcohol use for SGM youth as a whole, there is little indication of whether internalized stigma and victimization are more strongly associated with alcohol use for specific groups of SGM youth. A United States sample of 11,811 racially and geographically diverse 13-17 year old SGM youth was used to employ a series of gender-stratified multivariable regression models to examine the association among internalized stigma, victimization, and alcohol-related behaviors, and whether they differed for specific groups of sexual minority youth. Sexual orientation moderated several associations between sexual minority stressors (i.e., victimization and stigma) and youth's alcohol use (i.e., recent use and heavy episodic drinking) across models stratified by gender (i.e., male, female, and non-binary). For example, bisexual boys had stronger associations between SGM-specific victimization and alcohol use frequency and heavy episodic drinking relative to gay boys; conversely, victimization and alcohol use frequency were more weakly associated among bisexual girls relative to lesbian/gay girls. Pansexual girls showed weaker associations between internalized stigma and alcohol use frequency compared to lesbian/gay girls. This paper demonstrates who among SGM youth are more likely to engage in alcohol-related behaviors as a function of differential forms of SGM-related victimization and stigma. These findings can inform substance use interventions that are tailored to youth of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
15.
J Pers Disord ; 33(5): 640-644, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621542

RESUMO

The article by Lilienfeld and colleagues (this issue) proposes that the study of personality disorders could be substantially advanced by viewing at least some of them as emergent interpersonal syndromes. This commentary considers the need for a developmental approach in understanding how the emergent interpersonal syndromes arise. It also highlights the importance of systematically studying individual differences in victimization. We need to understand why some are more likely than others to be exploited, victimized, or remain in a dysfunctional relationship with an individual with a personality disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2360-2376, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595383

RESUMO

Research is inconclusive about the trajectory of dating violence during adolescence and whether there are differences across gender and race/ethnicity. We examined dating victimization and perpetration trajectories among a diverse sample of rural youth (N = 580, 52.7% female, 49% Black, 39% White, 11% Hispanic or other minorities) in middle and high school who were surveyed annually across four years and explored the influences of gender and ethnicity. The results based on cohort-sequential latent growth modeling revealed that for boys, victimization peaked at 11th grade, and then declined. For girls, victimization was stable throughout adolescence. Perpetration was reported less frequently and increased steadily for males and females. For White youth, victimization peaked at grades 9 and 10, followed by a decline. For Black youth, victimization followed a linear increase. Perpetration trajectory followed a linear increase for White and Black but not Hispanic youth. The findings indicate that the developmental progression of dating violence during adolescence varies by demographics. The discussion focuses on future directions for research on teen dating violence among rural youth and implications for prevention and interventions initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Percepção Social
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569667

RESUMO

One of the current trends in homicide research includes developing works based on scientific study and empirical evidence, which offer conclusions that can be used in an operational manner during police investigations. The objective of this study was to identify homicide characteristics from behaviors carried out on the crime scene and victim characteristics associated with those of the perpetrators of these crimes in Spain. The sample consisted of 448 homicide cases from the database of the Homicide Revision Project led by the Office of Coordination and Studies of the Secretary of State and Security. After creating six classification tree models, it was found that the modus operandi of the aggressor and the victim characteristics may permit hypothesizing about the demographic characteristics of the perpetrator (gender, age, and country of origin), his/her criminal record, and the type of relationship with the victim. Furthermore, the importance of the study of victimology during a criminal investigation is highlighted, as it may indirectly offer information about the potential perpetrator. The findings of this study suggest that criminal profiling contributes notably to the decision-making process to establish more rigorous suspect prioritization, improve the management of human resources and materials, and increase the efficiency of criminal investigations.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Medicina Legal , Psicologia Forense , Homicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 471-474, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509039

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated whether psychopathy-associated personality traits and behavioral styles affect the manner in which homicides are committed or the motives underlying them. Materials and methods: Using three nationwide registries and an in-house homicide database based on court verdicts, we identified all cases of homicide in Sweden during the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. In 72 male offenders who had undergone assessment using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), the manner of homicide was categorized as instrumental or expressive, and the motive as belonging to one of five categories: (1) intimate-partner or family-related homicide; (2) homicide occurring during altercations, (3) robberies or burglaries, or (4) criminal conflicts; or (5) sexual homicide. Results and conclusions: Offenders who had committed homicide in an instrumental manner or with a sexual motive had higher scores on PCL-R factor 1 than offenders displaying an expressive manner or other motives, suggesting that partially adaptive personality traits influence the crime-scene behavior of the former type of offenders more than maladaptive behavioral styles.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Homicídio/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1656905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512573

RESUMO

Bullying has been described as one of the most tractable risk factors for poor mental health and educational outcomes, yet there is a lack of evidence-based interventions for use in low and middle-income settings. We aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of an adolescent-led school intervention for reducing bullying among adolescents in Indonesian secondary schools. The intervention was developed in iterative stages: identifying promising interventions for the local context; formative participatory action research to contextualize proposed content and delivery; and finally two pilot studies to assess feasibility and acceptability in South Sulawesi and Central Java. The resulting intervention combines two key elements: 1) a student-driven design to influence students pro-social norms and behavior, and 2) a teacher-training component designed to enhance teacher's knowledge and self-efficacy for using positive discipline practices. In the first pilot study, we collected data from 2,075 students in a waitlist-controlled trial in four schools in South Sulawesi. The pilot study demonstrated good feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We found reductions in bullying victimization and perpetration when using the Forms of Bullying Scale. In the second pilot study, we conducted a randomised waitlist controlled trial in eight schools in Central Java, involving a total of 5,517 students. The feasibility and acceptability were good. The quantitative findings were more mixed, with bullying perpetration and victimization increasing in both control and intervention schools. We have designed an intervention that is acceptable to various stakeholders, feasible to deliver, is designed to be scalable, and has a clear theory of change in which targeting adolescent social norms drives behavioral change. We observed mixed findings across different sites, indicating that further adaptation to context may be needed. A full-randomized controlled trial is required to examine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the program.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Desenvolvimento de Programas
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