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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306696

RESUMO

Knife crime is a source of concern for the police in England and Wales, however little published research exists on this crime type. Who are the offenders who use knives to commit crime, when and why? Who are their victims, and is there a victim-offender overlap? What is the social network formation for people who are exposed to knife crime? Using a multidimensional approach, our aim is to answer these questions about one of England and Wales' largest jurisdictions: Thames Valley. We first provide a state-of-the-art narrative review of the knife crime literature, followed by an analysis of population-level data on central tendency and dispersion of knife crimes reported to the police (2015-2019), on offences, offenders, victims, victim-offender overlaps and gang-related assaults. Social network analysis was used to explore the formations of offender-victim networks. Our findings show that knife crime represents a small proportion of crime (1.86%) and is associated largely with violence offenses. 16-34 year-old white males are at greatest risk of being the victims, offenders or victim-offenders of knife crime, with similar relative risks between these three categories. Both knife offenders and victims are likely to have a criminal record. Knife crimes are usually not gang-related (less than 20%), and experienced mostly between strangers, with the altercation often a non-retaliatory 'one-off event'. Even gang-related knife crimes do not follow 'tit-for-tat' relationships-except when the individuals involved have extensive offending histories and then are likely to retaliate instantaneously. We conclude that while rare, an incident of knife crime remains predicable, as a substantial ratio of offenders and victims of future knife crime can be found in police records. Prevention strategies should not be focused on gang-related criminals, but on either prolific violent offenders or repeat victims who are known to the police-and therefore more susceptible to knife crime exposure.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Criminosos/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Crime/tendências , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Social , Violência/psicologia , Violência/tendências , País de Gales
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242802, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No prospective studies have examined the prevalence, antecedents or concurrent characteristics associated with self-harm in non-treatment-seeking primary school-aged children. METHODS: In this cohort study from Melbourne, Australia we assessed 1239 children annually from age 8-9 years (wave 1) to 11-12 years (wave 4) on a range of health, social, educational and family measures. Past-year self-harm was assessed at wave 4. We estimated the prevalence of self-harm and used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations with concurrent and antecedent factors. RESULTS: 28 participants (3% of the 1059 with self-harm data; 18 girls [3%], 10 boys [2%]) reported self-harm at age 11-12 years. Antecedent (waves 1-3) predictors of self-harm were: persistent symptoms of depression (sex-age-socioeconomic status adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 7.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.6 to 24) or anxiety (aOR: 5.1; 95%CI 2.1 to 12), frequent bullying victimisation (aOR: 24.6; 95%CI 3.8 to 158), and recent alcohol consumption (aOR: 2.9; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.1). Concurrent (wave 4) associations with self-harm were: having few friends (aOR: 8.7; 95%CI 3.2 to 24), poor emotional control (aOR: 4.2; 95%CI 1.9 to 9.6), antisocial behaviour (theft-aOR: 3.1; 95%CI 1.2 to 7.9; carrying a weapon-aOR: 6.9; 95%CI 3.1 to 15), and being in mid-puberty (aOR: 6.5; 95%CI 1.5 to 28) or late/post-puberty (aOR: 14.4; 95%CI 2.9 to 70). CONCLUSIONS: The focus of intervention efforts aimed at preventing and reducing adolescent self-harm should extend to primary school-aged children, with a focus on mental health and peer relationships during the pubertal transition.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137915

RESUMO

Prior research has consistently shown that perceptions of procedural justice promote individuals' compliance with the law. Several studies have also identified mechanisms that explain the association between perceptions of procedural justice and compliance (e.g., social identity). However, the potential role of risky behaviors as a mediator of the association between procedural justice and compliance remains unexplored. This study examined whether risky behaviors can mediate the relationship between procedural justice and violent inmate misconduct. Data for this study were derived from a sample of 986 incarcerated felons in South Korea. The present study employed structural equation modeling to test how risky lifestyles mediate the association between procedural justice and violent misconduct. The results showed that procedural justice reduced violent inmate misconduct. Additionally, the mediation hypothesis received partial support: the direct effect of procedural justice on violent misconduct was partially mediated by involvement in risky activities. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of the interrelationship between procedural justice, risky lifestyles, and violent misconduct in a prison setting.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Justiça Social , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , República da Coreia , Assunção de Riscos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 668-675, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163030

RESUMO

Background: Rape remains a controversial issue with a few victims reporting experience because of the myriad of societal perception, prolonged steps in pursuing a case to logical conclusion of securing conviction, as well as psychological and physical residuals of the experience. Data in Nigeria is therefore hard to come by as it is diminished and often not available. Objectives: To assess the pattern and trend of rape cases in a State in Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study where data records on socio-demographics and case specifics was collected on victims of sexual assault that reported to DFID/ PATHS 2 supported Tamar Sexual Assault Centre between 2014 and 2016 after which it was analysed and presented in bar charts. Result: The yearly prevalence varied for the different age groups studied with the highest prevalence noted for 13 years and above (175,200,255) over the 3 years of 2014, 2015 and 2016 studied. The reported cases also improved over the studied years with rates of 0.47, 0.96 and 0.5 respectively. Conclusion: The yearly comparison and baseline data show that the centre's establishment caused an improvement in rape case reporting and follow-up.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e179, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153509

RESUMO

AIMS: Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. METHODS: A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. RESULTS: Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied (B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others (B = 0.02, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. CONCLUSIONS: This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Bissexualidade/etnologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175858

RESUMO

The present study aims to collect data about the prevalence of cyberbullying and the role of self-esteem, empathy, and social skills in predicting cybervictimization and cyberaggression in two different countries: Spain and Ecuador. Additionally, it compares the similarities found in both countries. A wide sample of adolescents from Secondary Education (N = 24943; mean age = 13.92; SD = 1.30, girls = 49.9%) from both countries (Spain = 14,206 and Ecuador = 10,737) took part by filling in a set of self-reports. Weighted analyses and structural equation models were used. The results revealed that 8.8% were cybervictims, 3.1% were cyberaggressors and 4.9% cybervictims-cyberaggressors in Spain; whereas 8.7% were cybervictims, 5.1% were cyberaggressors and 14.3% were cybervictims-cyberaggressors in Ecuador. Cybervictimization could be predicted in both countries by means of self-deprecation and social skills, although the meaning of some skills was different depending on the country. Cyberaggression could be predicted in both countries by means of empathy, assertiveness, and conflict-resolution skills, as well as by communicative and relational skills. Self-deprecation was a predictor of cyberaggression only in Spain. These results are discussed, and educational inferences are drawn for prevention.


Assuntos
Agressão , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003331

RESUMO

There has been concern about the effects of high levels of internet use on the mental well-being of young people. This has generally been phrased in terms of a displacement hypothesis, that the extent of internet use and mental well-being are directly proportional. This linear model has been contrasted with a Goldilocks Hypothesis, proposed by Przybylski and Weinstein. This supposes that moderate levels of internet use may be the least harmful, conforming to a curvilinear relationship. Here these hypotheses were tested on a sample of 1140 adolescents (42% boys, 58% girls) aged 12-18 years, in 12 schools from Southern Thailand. We first report levels of internet use, and of cybervictimization, taken as one important aspect of mental well-being. We then assess the relationship of four factors of internet use (frequency, time spent, number of places accessed, number of activities) with (a) being a victim of cyberbullying, and (b) being a frequent victim; taking these as indicators of mental well-being. For (a) there was limited evidence of a Goldilocks effect on two out of four measures. For (b) the evidence did support a Goldilocks effect for all four measures, but these were under-powered analyses and the findings did not reach statistical significance. If substantiated on larger samples, a curvilinear relationship between aspects of internet use and cyberbullying would suggest a 'safe zone' for adolescent internet use, bringing its benefits while minimizing risks of cyberbullying. In the future, similar research should use larger sample sizes or longitudinal measures when exploring nonlinear trends and include other aspects of mental well-being.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying , Tecnologia da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066202

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of research focused on analyzing the overlap and continuity of the roles in victims and aggressors of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as the exchange of roles in both harassment dynamics in adolescents. Searches in the main electronic databases for studies published in the last 20 years identified 19 studies that fulfilled inclusion criteria. The findings of the studies analyzed were not homogeneous, however, the main conclusion of all of them, to a greater or lesser extent, was that there is a component of continuity or superposition in the roles of both forms of bullying. Some studies also found an exchange of roles, especially in the case of victims and cybervictims who decide to reprimand their aggressors in an online context, becoming in cyberaggressors too. It is necessary to continue investigating the coexistence of bullying and cyberbullying and its exchange in certain contexts and people, as well as whether they are part of the same phenomenon with a certain continuity, or if cyberbullying is another expression of traditional bullying. Future intervention programs focusing on traditional school bullying could also evaluate their impact in situations of cyberbullying among peers.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence against women is one of the most common forms of violence. Different research fields are trying to understand the cycle of violence, such as the psychological field, to understand how these women's relational patterns and intrapsychic conflict function in the cycle of violence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis of women victims of domestic violence, exploring the severity and experience of violence, structural functions, dysfunctional interpersonal patterns, and intrapsychic conflicts. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study using the OPD-2 Clinical Interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. The sample was composed by 56 women victims of domestic violence, mean age 30.07 (SD = ±9.65). Reliability was satisfactory for judges interviews(k>0,6). RESULTS: According to the OPD-2 evaluation, we found that the severity of the violence was associated with the intensity of women's subjective suffering. In the relational pattern, they stay in the relationship, leaving themselves vulnerable; perceive the partner as controlling, aggressive, offensive, and fear abandonment. As a defensive mechanism to relational discomfort and suffering victims anticipate the aggressor's desire, resulting in submissive behavior. The main psychic conflict was the "need for care versus self-sufficiency" (78.6%). And medium was the predominant structure level, in which they presented insecure internal objects, presenting difficulties in emotional regulation and perceiving reality in a distorted way. Hence, they do not recognize their limitations and needs. We found that 78.6% of the cases had some psychiatric disorder: MDD, PTSD. CONCLUSION: This study provides empirical evidence on clinical observations on the psychological functioning of this population and the issues that make up the maintenance of domestic violence against women. The understanding of internalized patterns, structural functions, and motivational tensions are fundamental for the prevention of re-victimization and improving coping mechanisms, as well as promoting greater adherence to treatment.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevista Psicológica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicanálise , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMO

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
14.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194493

RESUMO

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have generally focused on only one partner. Although this has allowed advances in scientific knowledge on the causes of IPV, currently recent literature is demanding the need to study both members of the couple. Methodologically, the study of dyads requires the use of appropriate statistical techniques to avoid possible systematic biases (for example, type I error due to dependence of observations). We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to study aggression and victimization in 361 heterosexual couples of young adults. The results indicated, on the one hand, that self-reported mutual aggression was found in more than 50% of the couples. On the other hand, we found that participants' victimization was largely predicted by their own aggressive behavior towards the other member of the couple. While this result suggests the existence of a victim-offender overlap, it may also hide an upwards victimization scores bias: when participants are aggressive toward their partners, they may bias their victimization scores upwards to justify their levels of aggression ("I was aggressive because I felt victimized")


Los estudios sobre la violencia de pareja (en inglés IPV) generalmente han centrado sus análisis sólo en uno de los miembros. Aunque esto ha permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas de la IPV, la literatura reciente ha señalado la necesidad de estudiar a los dos miembros de la pareja. Metodológicamente el estudio de las parejas requiere el uso de técnicas estadísticas apropiadas para evitar posibles sesgos sistemáticos (por ejemplo, error tipo I debido a la dependencia de las observaciones). En este estudio utilizamos el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja para el estudio de la agresión y la victimización en 361 parejas jóvenes heterosexuales de jóvenes adultos. Los resultados indicaban, por una parte, que había agresión mutua autoinformada en más de la mitad de las parejas. Por otro lado, encontramos que el principal predictor de la victimización de los participantes fue su propio comportamiento agresivo hacia el otro miembro de la pareja. Este resultado sugiere que la víctima y el agresor son la misma persona. Sin embargo, también puede ocultar un posible sesgo al alza de las puntuaciones de victimización: cuando los participantes son agresivos con sus parejas, pueden sesgar al alza sus puntuaciones de victimización para justificar sus niveles de agresión ("Fui agresivo porque me sentí victimizado")


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Autorrelato , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Análise de Variância
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 269-272, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bullying is an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend himself or herself. However, with the advent of electronic communication via the internet and mobile phones has led to appearence of a new form of violence, i.e. cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is define as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through computer, cell phones and other electronic device". The aim of this paper is to point to the growing problem of cyberbullying. METHODS: Review the research and theoretical literature. RESULTS: Bullying through the Internet tends to occur at a later age, around 14 years, when children spend more time on their mobile phones and social networking sites. Estimates indicate that between 15% and 35% of young people have been victims of cyberbullying and between 10% and 20% of individuals admit to having cyberbullied others. Perpetrators of cyberbullying have a degree of anonymity not possible in traditional bullying, and the potential exposure and embarrassment of the victim is on a larger scale. It is possible to victimize a peer within their own home or elsewhere at any time of day or night, and should they remove themselves from the site, the messages often accumulate. Victims of bullying often have mental health problems, including depressive symptomatology, self-harm and suicidal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This presents new challenges for individuals, families, schools, professionals, researchers, and policy makers.


Assuntos
Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Ideação Suicida
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 292: 113364, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771835

RESUMO

The effects of bullying on mental health among adolescents are of major public health concern, especially following modern bullying methods that technologically victimize adolescents. However, the independent effects of different forms of bullying (traditional, cyberbullying or both) on different types of mental disorders, suicidality and self-harm are not clear. Using a cross-sectional study design, involving 2166 Australian high schoolchildren (1131 Boys and 1035 Girls) aged 12-17 years, this study examined the associations of bullying victimization (traditional, cyber and both) with mental disorders, suicidality (ideation, plan and attempt) and self-harm. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess the associations. Victims of traditional bullying and cyberbullying incurred a significantly higher risk of major depressive disorder, suicidality and self-harm compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Findings also indicated the need for early identification of bullying victims to prevent the risk of mental disorders, suicidality and self-harm in schoolchildren. Furthermore, this evidence can be utilized to inform decisions regarding the provision of resources to address this important health issue in the context of any developed countries like Australia.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Suicídio/psicologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784597

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in preventing cyberbullying in youth. However, multiple questions remain as to the relationship between cyberbullying and psychosocial variables. This study examines the relationship between personality traits, aggression and cyberbullying (victims, bullies, victimized bullies and not involved) in 548 Spanish students aged 10 to 13 (50.2% boys). To do so, the Screening of Peer Harassment, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children and the Aggression Questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the extraversion trait is an explanatory factor for being a victim and openness is a protective factor against being a cyberbully. Agreeableness was found to be a positive predictor of being a cyberbullying victim. Only verbal aggression and anger were included as explanatory factors of being a victim and a victimized bully, respectively. The results are discussed, suggesting their potential implications in the development of preventive programs.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Personalidade , Bullying , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859073

RESUMO

Although bullying and cyberbullying have been widely studied in diverse geographical areas, the number of studies in isolated regions, located in rainforests such as the Peruvian Amazonia, is low. Most research has been conducted in wealthy, Western countries, although disadvantaged areas are usually the most affected by various problems. Thus, the aims of this study were to validate bullying and cyberbullying measurement instruments among adolescents in the Peruvian Amazonia, to determine the prevalence rates of bullying and cyberbullying among this population, and to examine how bullying and cyberbullying relate to self-esteem, empathy, and social skills. The sample included 607 students from the region of Loreto (Peruvian Amazonia) who completed self-report questionnaires. Both questionnaires used in the sample were found to have good psychometric properties. Results showed that bullying and cyberbullying are prevalent among teenagers in the Amazonia. Low self-esteem and high affective empathy predicted bullying victimization. Being a bully was related to high assertiveness. Being a bully-victim was related to low self-esteem and low assertiveness. Cybervictims showed higher cognitive empathy. Cyberbullies showed higher affective empathy in comparison to uninvolved adolescents. Having low self-esteem and higher affective empathy were related to being a cyberbully/victim. This study provides a validated questionnaire that can be used for research and practice in the Amazonia. Based on the current results, tailored anti-bullying and anti-cyberbullying interventions with components focused on self-esteem, empathy, and social skills should be implemented in Peruvian secondary schools.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Empatia , Áreas de Pobreza , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Peru , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand better the total burden of interpersonal violence on society, it is useful to assess the prevalence of interpersonal violence among both, men and women. Exposure to multiple forms of interpersonal violence, referred to as polyvictimization, has been associated with more severe health consequences than exposure to any form separately. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual interpersonal violence in childhood, adulthood and at both childhood and adulthood among men and women in Estonia, analyze the patterns of interpersonal violence and socio-demographic correlates of polyvictimization in adulthood by gender. METHODS: The analysis was based on two population-based, cross-sectional, self-administered surveys carried out among men and women in Estonia in 2014. In both surveys, the NorVold Abuse questionnaire was used to measure exposure to interpersonal violence. Men and women aged 18-44 were included to the analysis. RESULTS: Among men 66.6% and among women 54.2% had been exposed to at least one form of interpersonal violence during lifetime. Men had been more often exposed to isolated physical interpersonal violence, among women the distribution of different forms of interpersonal violence was more even and exposure to sexual violence was more common. The prevalence of polyvictimization in adulthood was two times higher among women compared to men and more socio-demographic correlates, were associated with it. Exposure to violence in childhood was associated with polyvictimization in adulthood across gender. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of interpersonal violence in Estonia is high among men and women. The most prevalent forms and patterns of interpersonal violence, however, differ by gender, as do the socio-demographic correlates. Screening for interpersonal violence, in childhood and adulthood, and gender-specific interventions are needed, especially for high-risk groups identified in this study. Primary prevention of childhood violence should be a priority, as it was associated with higher risk for exposure to violence later in life across gender.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência/classificação , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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