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1.
J Cell Sci ; 136(5)2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093836

RESUMO

Intracellular mature viruses (IMVs) are the first and most abundant infectious form of vaccinia virus to assemble during its replication cycle. IMVs can undergo microtubule-based motility, but their directionality and the motor involved in their transport remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that IMVs, like intracellular enveloped viruses (IEVs), the second form of vaccinia that are wrapped in Golgi-derived membranes, recruit kinesin-1 and undergo anterograde transport. In vitro reconstitution of virion transport in infected cell extracts revealed that IMVs and IEVs move toward microtubule plus ends with respective velocities of 0.66 and 0.56 µm/s. Quantitative imaging established that IMVs and IEVs recruit an average of 139 and 320 kinesin-1 motor complexes, respectively. In the absence of kinesin-1, there was a near-complete loss of in vitro motility and reduction in the intracellular spread of both types of virions. Our observations demonstrate that kinesin-1 transports two morphologically distinct forms of vaccinia. Reconstitution of vaccinia-based microtubule motility in vitro provides a new model to elucidate how motor number and regulation impacts transport of a bona fide kinesin-1 cargo.


Assuntos
Cinesinas , Vaccinia , Extratos Celulares , Humanos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Vaccinia/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia , Vírion/fisiologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1017574, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451817

RESUMO

Insufficient intratumoral T-cell infiltration and lack of tumor-specific immune surveillance in tumor microenvironment (TME) hinder the progression of cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we explored a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding an EpCAM BiTE (VV-EpCAM BiTE) to modulate the immune suppressive microenvironment to enhance antitumor immunity in several solid tumors. VV-EpCAM BiTE effectively infected, replicated and lysed malignant cells. The EpCAM BiTE secreted from infected malignants effectively mediated the binding of EpCAM-positive tumor cells and CD3ϵ on T cells, which led to activation of naive T-cell and the release of cytokines, such as IFN-γ and IL-2. Intratumoral administration of VV-EpCAM BiTE significantly enhanced antitumor activity in malignancies with high other than with low EpCAM expression level. In addition, immune cell infiltration was significantly increased in TME upon VV-EpCAM BiTE treatment, CD8+ T cell exhaustion was reduced and T-cell-mediated immune activation was markedly enhanced. Taken together, VV-EpCAM BiTE sophistically combines the antitumor advantages of bispecific antibodies and oncolytic viruses, which provides preclinical evidence for the therapeutic potential of VV-EpCAM BiTE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Vírus Oncolíticos , Vaccinia , Humanos , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Vigilância Imunológica , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5152): 1610-1615, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580416

RESUMO

As of November 14, 2022, monkeypox (mpox) cases had been reported from more than 110 countries, including 29,133 cases in the United States.* Among U.S. cases to date, 95% have occurred among males (1). After the first confirmed U.S. mpox case on May 17, 2022, limited supplies of JYNNEOS vaccine (Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine, Bavarian Nordic) were made available to jurisdictions for persons exposed to mpox. JYNNEOS vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019 as a 2-dose series (0.5 mL per dose, administered subcutaneously) to prevent smallpox and mpox disease.† On August 9, 2022, FDA issued an emergency use authorization to allow administration of JYNNEOS vaccine by intradermal injection (0.1 mL per dose) (2). A previous report on U.S. mpox cases during July 31-September 3, 2022, suggested that 1 dose of vaccine offers some protection against mpox (3). This report describes demographic and clinical characteristics of cases occurring ≥14 days after receipt of 1 dose of JYNNEOS vaccine and compares them with characteristics of cases among unvaccinated persons with mpox and with the vaccine-eligible vaccinated population in participating jurisdictions. During May 22-September 3, 2022, among 14,504 mpox cases reported from 29 participating U.S. jurisdictions,§ 6,605 (45.5%) had available vaccination information and were included in the analysis. Among included cases, 276 (4.2%) were among persons who had received 1 dose of vaccine ≥14 days before illness onset. Mpox cases that occurred in these vaccinated persons were associated with lower percentage of hospitalization (2.1% versus 7.5%), fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and chills, compared with cases in unvaccinated persons. Although 1 dose of JYNNEOS vaccine offers some protection from disease, mpox infection can occur after receipt of 1 dose, and the duration of protection conferred by 1 dose is unknown. Providers and public health officials should therefore encourage persons at risk for acquiring mpox to complete the 2-dose vaccination series and provide guidance and education regarding nonvaccine-related prevention strategies (4).


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Vacinas , Vaccinia , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Demografia
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(12): e1010800, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574441

RESUMO

Genome-wide genetic screens are powerful tools to identify genes that act as host factors of viruses. We have applied this technique to analyze the infection of HeLa cells by Vaccinia virus, in an attempt to find genes necessary for infection. Infection of cell populations harboring single gene inactivations resulted in no surviving cells, suggesting that no single gene knock-out was able to provide complete resistance to Vaccinia virus and thus allow cells to survive infection. In the absence of an absolute infection blockage, we explored if some gene inactivations could provide partial protection leading to a reduced probability of infection. Multiple experiments using modified screening procedures involving replication restricted viruses led to the identification of multiple genes whose inactivation potentially increase resistance to infection and therefore cell survival. As expected, significant gene hits were related to proteins known to act in virus entry, such as ITGB1 and AXL as well as genes belonging to their downstream related pathways. Additionally, we consistently found ß2-microglobulin, encoded by the B2M gene, among the screening top hits, a novel finding that was further explored. Inactivation of B2M resulted in 54% and 91% reduced VV infection efficiency in HeLa and HAP1 cell lines respectively. In the absence of B2M, while virus binding to the cells was unaffected, virus internalization and early gene expression were significantly diminished. These results point to ß2-microglobulin as a relevant factor in the Vaccinia virus entry process.


Assuntos
Vírus Vaccinia , Vaccinia , Humanos , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vaccinia/genética , Células HeLa , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Testes Genéticos , Replicação Viral/genética
5.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7022-7031, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319490

RESUMO

Historically, virulent variola virus infection caused hundreds of millions of deaths. The smallpox pandemic in human beings has spread for centuries until the advent of the attenuated vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which played a crucial role in eradicating the deadly contagious disease. Decades of exploration and utilization have validated the attenuated VV as a promising vaccine vehicle against various lethal viruses. In this review, we focus on the advances in VV-based vaccine vector studies, including construction approaches of recombinant VV, the impact of VV-specific pre-existing immunity on subsequent VV-based vaccines, and antigen-specific immune responses. More specifically, the recombinant VV-based flaviviruses are intensively discussed. Based on the publication data, this review aims to provide valuable insights and guidance for future VV-based vaccine development.


Assuntos
Flavivirus , Vacina Antivariólica , Vacinas , Vaccinia , Humanos , Vírus Vaccinia , Flavivirus/genética , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas , Vetores Genéticos
6.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7321-7327, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344361

RESUMO

The current worldwide monkepox outbreak has reaffirmed the continued threat monkeypox virus (MPXV) poses to public health. JYNNEOS, a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based live, non-replicating vaccine, was recently approved for monkeypox prevention for adults at high risk of MPXV infection in the United States. Although the safety and immunogenicity of JYNNEOS have been examined previously, the clinical cohorts studied largely derive from regions where MPXV does not typically circulate. In this study, we assess the quality and longevity of serological responses to two doses of JYNNEOS vaccine in a large cohort of healthcare workers from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We show that JYNNEOS elicits a strong orthopoxvirus (OPXV)-specific antibody response in participants that peaks around day 42, or 2 weeks after the second vaccine dose. Participants with no prior history of smallpox vaccination or exposure have lower baseline antibody levels, but experience a similar fold-rise in antibody titers by day 42 as those with a prior history of vaccination. Both previously naïve and vaccinated participants generate vaccinia virus and MPXV-neutralizing antibody in response to JYNNEOS vaccination. Finally, even though total OPXV-specific IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers declined from their peak and returned close to baseline levels by the 2-year mark, most participants remain IgG seropositive at the 2-year timepoint. Taken together, our data demonstrates that JYNNEOS vaccination triggers potent OPXV neutralizing antibody responses in a cohort of healthcare workers in DRC, a monkeypox-endemic region. MPXV vaccination with JYNNEOS may help ameliorate the disease and economic burden associated with monkeypox and combat potential outbreaks in areas with active virus circulation.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Orthopoxvirus , Vacina Antivariólica , Vaccinia , Humanos , Adulto , Vírus Vaccinia , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Imunoglobulina G
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(43): 1374-1378, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301741

RESUMO

Vaccination with JYNNEOS vaccine (Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine, Bavarian Nordic) to prevent monkeypox commenced shortly after confirmation of the first monkeypox case in the current outbreak in the United States on May 17, 2022 (1). To date, more than 27,000 cases have been reported across all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico.* JYNNEOS vaccine is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a 0.5-mL 2-dose series administered subcutaneously 28 days apart to prevent smallpox and monkeypox infections (2) and has been found to provide protection against monkeypox infection during the current outbreak (3). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) allocated 1.1 million vials of JYNNEOS vaccine from the Strategic National Stockpile, with doses allocated to jurisdictions based on case counts and estimated size of population at risk (4). However, initial vaccine supplies were severely constrained relative to vaccine demand during the expanding outbreak. Some jurisdictions with highest incidence responded by prioritizing first dose administration during May-July (5,6). The FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) of 0.1 mL dosing for intradermal administration of JYNNEOS for persons aged ≥18 years on August 9, 2022, substantially expanded available vaccine supply† (7). The U.S. vaccination strategy focuses primarily on persons with known or presumed exposures to monkeypox (8) or those at high risk for occupational exposure (9). Data on monkeypox vaccine doses administered and reported to CDC by U.S. jurisdictions were analyzed to assess vaccine administration and completion of the 2-dose series. A total of 931,155 doses of JYNNEOS vaccine were administered and reported to the CDC by 55 U.S. jurisdictions during May 22-October 10, 2022. Among persons who received ≥1 dose, 51.4% were non-Hispanic White (White), 22.5% were Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), and 12.6% were non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black). The percentages of vaccine recipients who were Black (5.6%) and Hispanic (15.5%) during May 22-June 25 increased to 13.3% and 22.7%, respectively, during July 31-October 10. Among 496,888 persons who received a first dose and were eligible for a second dose during the study period, 57.6% received their second dose. Second dose receipt was highest among older adults, White persons, and those residing in the South U.S. Census Bureau Region. Tracking and addressing disparities in vaccination can reduce inequities, and equitable access to and acceptance of vaccine should be an essential factor in planning vaccination programs, events, and strategies. Receipt of both first and second doses is necessary for optimal protection against Monkeypox virus infection.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Vacina Antivariólica , Vacinas , Vaccinia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(11): e0084122, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222522

RESUMO

The genus Orthopoxvirus contains several human pathogens, including vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox, and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Although there are a few effective vaccines, widespread prophylactic vaccination has ceased and is unlikely to resume, making therapeutics increasingly important to treat poxvirus disease. Here, we described efforts to improve the potency of the anti-poxvirus small molecule CMLDBU6128. This class of small molecules, referred to as pyridopyrimidinones (PDPMs), showed a wide range of biological activities. Through the synthesis and testing of several exploratory chemical libraries based on this molecule, we identified several compounds that had increased potency from the micromolar into the nanomolar range. Two compounds, designated (12) and (16), showed inhibitory concentrations of 326 nM and 101 nM, respectively, which was more than a 10-fold increase in potency to CMLDBU6128 with an inhibitory concentration of around 6 µM. We also expanded our investigation of the breadth of action of these molecules and showed that they can inhibit the replication of variola virus, a related orthopoxvirus. Together, these findings highlighted the promise of this new class of antipoxviral agents as broad-spectrum small molecules with significant potential to be developed as antiviral therapy. This would add a small molecule option for therapy of spreading diseases, including monkeypox and cowpox viruses, that would also be expected to have efficacy against smallpox.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Orthopoxvirus , Varíola , Vaccinia , Vírus da Varíola , Humanos , Varíola/tratamento farmacológico , Vaccinia/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Vaccinia
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010662, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215331

RESUMO

We have recently shown that the replication of rhinovirus, poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus requires the co-translational N-myristoylation of viral proteins by human host cell N-myristoyltransferases (NMTs), and is inhibited by treatment with IMP-1088, an ultrapotent small molecule NMT inhibitor. Here, we examine the importance of N-myristoylation during vaccinia virus (VACV) infection in primate cells and demonstrate the anti-poxviral effects of IMP-1088. N-myristoylated proteins from VACV and the host were metabolically labelled with myristic acid alkyne during infection using quantitative chemical proteomics. We identified VACV proteins A16, G9 and L1 to be N-myristoylated. Treatment with NMT inhibitor IMP-1088 potently abrogated VACV infection, while VACV gene expression, DNA replication, morphogenesis and EV formation remained unaffected. Importantly, we observed that loss of N-myristoylation resulted in greatly reduced infectivity of assembled mature virus particles, characterized by significantly reduced host cell entry and a decline in membrane fusion activity of progeny virus. While the N-myristoylation of VACV entry proteins L1, A16 and G9 was inhibited by IMP-1088, mutational and genetic studies demonstrated that the N-myristoylation of L1 was the most critical for VACV entry. Given the significant genetic identity between VACV, monkeypox virus and variola virus L1 homologs, our data provides a basis for further investigating the role of N-myristoylation in poxviral infections as well as the potential of selective NMT inhibitors like IMP-1088 as broad-spectrum poxvirus inhibitors.


Assuntos
Vírus Vaccinia , Vaccinia , Humanos , Animais , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Ácido Mirístico/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Vaccinia/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Alcinos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16885, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207478

RESUMO

Somatostatin, a growth hormone-release inhibiting peptide, exerts antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects on tumor cells. However, the short half-life of somatostatin limits its application in human therapy, and long-acting somatostatin fusion protein is also limited by its severe terminal degradation. Therefore, oncolytic virus delivery system was introduced to express somatostatin fusion protein and the anti-tumor effects of both somatostatin and oncolytic virus were combined to destroy tumor tissues. Here, a vaccinia VG9/(SST-14)2-HSA recombinant was constructed by replacing somatostatin fusion gene into TK locus of attenuated VG9 strain via homologous recombination. Results showed that vaccinia VG9/(SST-14)2-HSA possessed a combined anti-tumor effect on sstr-positive tumor cells in vitro. In the tumor burden models, BALB/c mice with complete immunity are most suitable for evaluating tumor regression and immune activation. Complete tumor regression was observed in 3 out of 10 mice treated with vaccinia VG9/TK- or VG9/(SST-14)2-HSA, and the survival of all mice in both groups was significantly prolonged. Besides, vaccinia VG9/(SST-14)2-HSA is more effective in prolonging survival than VG9/TK-. Vaccinia VG9/(SST-14)2-HSA exerts a combined anti-tumor efficacy including the oncolytic ability provided by the virus and the anti-tumor effect contributed by (SST-14)2-HSA, which is expected to become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vaccinia , Animais , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Somatostatina/genética , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia
11.
J Gen Virol ; 103(10)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301238

RESUMO

Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes scores of proteins that suppress host innate immunity and many of these target intracellular signalling pathways leading to activation of inflammation. The transcription factor NF-κB plays a critical role in the host response to infection and is targeted by many viruses, including VACV that encodes 12 NF-κB inhibitors that interfere at different stages in this signalling pathway. Here we report that VACV proteins C2 and F3 are additional inhibitors of this pathway. C2 and F3 are BTB-Kelch proteins that are expressed early during infection, are non-essential for virus replication, but affect the outcome of infection in vivo. Using reporter gene assays, RT-qPCR analyses of endogenous gene expression, and ELISA, these BTB-Kelch proteins are shown here to diminish NF-κB activation by reducing translocation of p65 into the nucleus. C2 and F3 are the 13th and 14th NF-κB inhibitors encoded by VACV. Remarkably, in every case tested, these individual proteins affect virulence in vivo and therefore have non-redundant functions. Lastly, immunisation with a VACV strain lacking C2 induced a stronger CD8+ T cell response and better protection against virus challenge.


Assuntos
Vírus Vaccinia , Vaccinia , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
12.
Protein Sci ; 31(11): e4468, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214056

RESUMO

The vaccinia virus expression system is known for the efficient production of recombinant proteins with "appropriate" posttranslational modification using desired mammalian cell lines. However, being a replication competent virus, vaccinia virus poses a health threat to immunocompromised individuals and requires biosafety level 2 (BSL2) laboratory precautions, thereby restricting its use by the scientific community. Development of the host range restricted modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) system has allowed researchers to work with a safer virus even at BSL1. Here, we report on the use of an improved second generation MVA viral system incorporating two selective markers and fluorescent proteins for easier recombinant virus identification. Notably, we demonstrate that this novel system is capable of producing secreted recombinant proteins, a finding not previously reported. Through purification and characterization of wild type and mutant platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF D) dimer species, we demonstrate this system is capable of producing the latent full-length PDGF D dimer, partially processed intermediate dimer (hemidimer), as well as fully processed growth factor domain dimer that show chemical integrity and biological activity. Importantly, this system is amenable to scaling up for the mass production of recombinant PDGF D (rPDGF D) dimer species.


Assuntos
Vírus Vaccinia , Vaccinia , Humanos , Animais , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Replicação Viral , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Mamíferos
13.
JAMA ; 328(20): 2064-2067, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36178700

RESUMO

This study uses electronic medical record data to describe monkeypox infections after a single dose of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic vaccine, a live, nonreplicating vaccine indicated for prevention of smallpox and monkeypox infection in adults.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Vacina Antivariólica , Vacinas Virais , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Vaccinia , Vírus Vaccinia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
14.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146766

RESUMO

Beginning in May 2022, a novel cluster of monkeypox virus infections was detected in humans. This virus has spread rapidly to non-endemic countries, sparking global concern. Specific vaccines based on the vaccinia virus (VACV) have demonstrated high efficacy against monkeypox viruses in the past and are considered an important outbreak control measure. Viruses observed in the current outbreak carry distinct genetic variations that have the potential to affect vaccine-induced immune recognition. Here, by investigating genetic variation with respect to orthologous immunogenic vaccinia-virus proteins, we report data that anticipates immune responses induced by VACV-based vaccines, including the currently available MVA-BN and ACAM2000 vaccines, to remain highly cross-reactive against the newly observed monkeypox viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Vaccinia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Vaccinia/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia/genética
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 914969, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935987

RESUMO

Stabilized HIV envelope (Env) trimeric protein immunogens have been shown to induce strong autologous neutralizing antibody response. However, there is limited data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of stabilized Env expressed by a viral vector-based immunogen. Here, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of two modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines based on variable loop 2 hotspot (V2 HS) optimized C.1086 envelope (Env) sequences, one expressing the membrane anchored gp150 (MVA-150) and the other expressing soluble uncleaved pre-fusion optimized (UFO) gp140 trimer (MVA-UFO) in a DNA prime/MVA boost approach against heterologous tier 2 SHIV1157ipd3N4 intrarectal challenges in rhesus macaques (RMs). Both MVA vaccines also expressed SIVmac239 Gag and form virus-like particles. The DNA vaccine expressed SIVmac239 Gag, C.1086 gp160 Env and rhesus CD40L as a built-in adjuvant. Additionally, all immunizations were administered intradermally (ID) to reduce induction of vaccine-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T cell responses. Our results showed that both MVA-150 and MVA-UFO vaccines induce comparable Env specific IgG responses in serum and rectal secretions. The vaccine-induced serum antibody showed ADCC and ADCVI activities against the challenge virus. Comparison with a previous study that used similar immunogens via intramuscular route (IM) showed that ID immunizations induced markedly lower SHIV specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses compared to IM immunizations. Following challenge, MVA-UFO vaccinated animals showed a significant delay in acquisition of SHIV1157ipd3N4 infection but only in Mamu-A*01 negative macaques with an estimated vaccine efficacy of 64% per exposure. The MVA-150 group also showed a trend (p=0.1) for delay in acquisition of SHIV infection with an estimated vaccine efficacy of 57%. The vaccine-induced IFNγ secreting CD8 T cell responses showed a direct association and CD4 T cells showed an inverse association with delay in acquisition of SHIV infection. These results demonstrated that both MVA-150 and MVA-UFO immunogens induce comparable humoral and cellular immunity and the latter provides marginally better protection against heterologous tier 2 SHIV infection. They also demonstrate that DNA/MVA vaccinations delivered by ID route induce better antibody and lower CD4 and CD8 T cell responses compared to IM.


Assuntos
HIV-1 , Vacinas de DNA , Vaccinia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , DNA , HIV-1/genética , Macaca mulatta , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vacinas Virais
16.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(9): 1532-1538, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979896

RESUMO

The global spread of human monkeypox disease, a zoonotic infection related to smallpox and endemic to West and Central Africa, presents serious challenges for health systems. As of July 2022, 14 533 cases have been reported world-wide, leading to designation as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Monkeypox disease is spread from animals to humans through infected lesions or fluids; human-human transmission occurs through fomites, droplets or direct contact. Illness is usually self-limiting, but severe disease can occur in specific groups - particularly children, and people who are immunocompromised or pregnant. Clinical presentation may include fever, lymphadenopathy and skin rash, but the rash may occur without other symptoms. Complications can include secondary bacterial infection of skin lesions, vision loss from corneal involvement, pneumonia, sepsis and encephalitis. Diagnosis of monkeypox requires consideration of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings, with sensitive history-taking, to elicit close contacts, critical. Supportive management is usually sufficient, but treatment options (where required) include antivirals and vaccinia immune globulin. A paucity of safety data for relevant antivirals may limit their use. There are two types of monkeypox vaccines: a replication-competent vaccinia vaccine, the use of which is logistically and clinically complex, and a replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine. Preparedness of health systems for addressing the current outbreak is constrained by historic underfunding for research, and compounded by stigma and discrimination against cases and affected communities. Key challenges in halting transmission include improving vaccine equity and countering discrimination against men who have sex with men to aid diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vacina Antivariólica , Vaccinia , Animais , Antivirais , Criança , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/terapia , Pediatras , Gravidez , Vaccinia/prevenção & controle
17.
JCI Insight ; 7(19)2022 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040810

RESUMO

Collateral lethality occurs when loss of a gene/protein renders cancer cells dependent on its remaining paralog. Combining genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens with RNA sequencing in over 900 cancer cell lines, we found that cancers of nervous system lineage, including adult and pediatric gliomas and neuroblastomas, required the nuclear kinase vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) for their survival in vivo. VRK1 dependency was inversely correlated with expression of its paralog VRK2. VRK2 knockout sensitized cells to VRK1 loss, and conversely, VRK2 overexpression increased cell fitness in the setting of VRK1 loss. DNA methylation of the VRK2 promoter was associated with low VRK2 expression in human neuroblastomas and adult and pediatric gliomas. Mechanistically, depletion of VRK1 reduced barrier-to-autointegration factor phosphorylation during mitosis, resulting in DNA damage and apoptosis. Together, these studies identify VRK1 as a synthetic lethal target in VRK2 promoter-methylated adult and pediatric gliomas and neuroblastomas.


Assuntos
Glioma , Neuroblastoma , Vaccinia , Criança , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Sistema Nervoso , Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Vírus Vaccinia
18.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2098657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859732

RESUMO

Recombinant-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) is known to elicit potent antitumor immune responses in preclinical models due to its inherent ability to activate the innate immune system and the activation of adaptive responses mediated by the expression of tumor antigens and costimulus-providing molecules, such as CD40L and CD137L. Here, we evaluated different rMVA vectors in preclinical peritoneal carcinomatosis models (ID8.OVA-Vegf/GFP and MC38). We compared rMVA vectors expressing a tumor antigen (OVA or gp70) either alone or co-expressed with CD40L or/and CD137L. In tumor-free mice, the vector coding for the triple combination was only slightly superior, whereas, in tumor-bearing animals, we observed a synergistic induction of T lymphocytes specific against vector-encoded and non-encoded tumor-associated antigens. The enhanced activation of the immune response was associated with improved survival in mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with a rMVA vector encoding both CD40L and CD137L. Thus, the triple transgene combination in vaccinia viral vectors represents a promising strategy for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis.


Assuntos
Ligante 4-1BB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Vaccinia , Animais , Ligante de CD40/genética , Imunidade , Camundongos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13007, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906465

RESUMO

Viruses of the giant virus family are characterized by a structurally conserved scaffold-capsid protein that shapes the icosahedral virion. The vaccinia virus (VACV) scaffold protein D13, however, transiently shapes the newly assembled viral membrane in to a sphere and is absent from the mature brick-shaped virion. In infected cells D13, a 62 kDa polypeptide, forms trimers that arrange in hexamers and a honey-comb like lattice. Membrane association of the D13-lattice may be mediated by A17, an abundant 21 kDa viral membrane protein. Whether membrane binding mediates the formation of the honey-comb lattice or if other factors are involved, remains elusive. Here we show that H7, a 17 kDa protein conserved among poxviruses, mediates proper formation of D13-hexamers, and hence the honey comb lattice and spherical immature virus. Without H7 synthesis D13 trimers assemble into a large 3D network rather than the typical well organized scaffold layer observed in wild-type infection, composed of short D13 tubes of discrete length that are tightly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The data show an unexpected role for H7 in D13 organization and imply that formation of the honey-comb, hexagonal, lattice is essential for VACV membrane assembly and production of infectious progeny. The data are discussed with respect to scaffold proteins of other giant viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus Vaccinia , Vaccinia , Humanos , Vírus Vaccinia/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus
20.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891430

RESUMO

The conventional live smallpox vaccine based on the vaccinia virus (VACV) cannot be widely used today because it is highly reactogenic. Therefore, there is a demand for designing VACV variants possessing enhanced immunogenicity, making it possible to reduce the vaccine dose and, therefore, significantly eliminate the pathogenic effect of the VACV on the body. In this study, we analyzed the development of the humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses elicited by immunizing mice with low-dose VACV variants carrying the mutant A34R gene (which increases production of extracellular virions) or the deleted A35R gene (whose protein product inhibits antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex class II). The VACV LIVP strain, which is used as a smallpox vaccine in Russia, and its recombinant variants LIVP-A34R*, LIVP-dA35R, and LIVP-A34R*-dA35R, were compared upon intradermal immunization of BALB/c mice at a dose of 104 pfu/animal. The strongest T cell-mediated immunity was detected in mice infected with the LIVP-A34R*-dA35R virus. The parental LIVP strain induced a significantly lower antibody level compared to the strains carrying the modified A34R and A35R genes. Simultaneous modification of the A34R gene and deletion of the A35R gene in VACV LIVP synergistically enhanced the immunogenic properties of the LIVP-A34R*-dA35R virus.


Assuntos
Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Vaccinia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antivariólica/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vírus Vaccinia
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