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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978125

RESUMO

Commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) crops benefit from the presence of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination. Unfortunately, beekeepers are observing negative impacts of pollination services on honey bee colonies. In this study, we investigated three beekeeping management strategies (MS) and measured their impact on honey bee colony health and development. Experimental groups (five colonies/MS) were: A) Control farmland honey producing MS (control MS); B) Blueberry pollination MS (blueberry MS); C) Cranberry pollination MS (cranberry MS) and D) Double pollination MS, blueberry followed by cranberry (double MS). Our goals were to 1) compare floral abundance and attractiveness of foraging areas to honey bees between apiaries using a Geographic Information System, and 2) compare honey bee colony health status and population development between MS during a complete beekeeping season. Our results show significantly lower floral abundance and honey bee attractiveness of foraging areas during cranberry pollination compared to the other environments. The blueberry pollination site seemed to significantly reduce brood population in the colonies who provided those services (blueberry MS and double MS). The cranberry pollination site seemed to significantly reduce colony weight gain (cranberry MS and double MS) and induce a significantly higher winter mortality rate (cranberry MS). We also measured significantly higher levels of Black queen cell virus and Sacbrood virus in the MS providing cranberry pollination (cranberry MS and double MS).


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Polinização/fisiologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Agricultura , Animais , Criação de Abelhas/normas , Abelhas/virologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dicistroviridae/patogenicidade , Flores/química , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , Vaccinium macrocarpon/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2016-2023, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986021

RESUMO

The protein precipitation (PP) of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF) by four procyanidin-rich condensed tannin (CT) samples in both 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) and a modified Goering-Van Soest (GVS) buffer is described. Purified CT samples examined included Vitis vinifera seed (mean degree of polymerization [mDP] 4.1, 16.5% galloylated), Tilia sp. flowers (B-type linkages, mDP 5.9), Vaccinium macrocarpon berries (mDP 8.7, 31.7% A-type linkages). and Trifolium pratense flowers (B-type linkages, mDP 12.3) and were characterized by 2D NMR (>90% purity). In general, CTs precipitated ALF > LYS ≥ BSA. PP in GVS buffer was 1 to 2.25 times greater than that in MES buffer (25 °C). The GVS buffer system better reflects the results/conclusions from the literature on the impacts mDP, galloylation, and A-type linkages have on PP. Determinations of PP using the MES buffer at 37 °C indicated that some of these differences may be attributed to the temperature at which GVS buffer determinations are conducted. In vitro PP studies using the GVS buffer may offer better guidance when selecting CT-containing forages and amendments for ruminant feeding studies.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Catequina/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Ração Animal/análise , Tampões (Química) , Precipitação Química , Medicago sativa/química , Muramidase/química , Tilia/química , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Vitis/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 2900-2905, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274305

RESUMO

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) can be partitioned into soluble PACs, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PACs, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PACs because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PACs are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a cranberry PAC (c-PAC) standard, reflective of the structural heterogeneity of PACs found in cranberry fruit, to quantify insoluble PACs by the butanol-hydrochloric acid (BuOH-HCl) method. For the first time, a c-PAC standard enabled conversion of BuOH-HCl absorbance values (550 nm) to a weight (milligram) basis, allowing for quantification of insoluble PACs in cranberries. The use of the c-PAC reference standard for sequential analysis of soluble PACs by the method of 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and insoluble PACs by the method of BuOH-HCl provides analytical tools for the standardization of cranberry-based ingredients.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Frutas/química , Padrões de Referência
4.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 254-269, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657094

RESUMO

The use of vegetable butters and oils shows promising results in the treatment of skin wounds, as they have an effective impact on the phases of the wound-healing process through their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities and by promoting cell proliferation, increasing collagen synthesis, stimulating dermal reconstruction, and repairing the skin's lipid barrier function. In this article, in vitro and in vivo studies of argan (Argania spinosa), avocado (Persea americana), black cumin (Nigella sativa), calophyllum (Calophyllum inophyllum), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), grape (Vitis vinifera), green coffee (Coffea arabica), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), pomegranate (Punica granatum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), rapeseed (Brassica napus), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were reviewed. In many cases, vegetable oils proved to be more effective than synthetic wound-healing compounds used as controls. The fatty-acid components of vegetable oils are assumed to play a major role in the wound-healing process, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Evidence shows that oils with a higher linoleic to oleic acid ratio are more effective for lipid barrier repair. However, in depth studies are needed to gain knowledge about vegetable oils' effects on the skin and vice versa.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Calophyllum , Cucurbita , Dermatologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Linho , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/química , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Mangifera , Ácido Oleico/química , Persea , Pele , Dermatopatias , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Verduras
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 279-291, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802659

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the key aroma-active volatiles in cranberry wines through three vinification methods (White, Red and Thermo) using GC-MS/O to identify the important aroma compounds. A total of 70 compounds were detected, with 67 in wines and 61 in juices. The esters was the most diversified class, while alcohols and acids were the most abundant, especially 3-methylbutanol, methylbutyric acid, and benzoic acid. The volatile profiles of cranberry wines are distinctive from their source juices. Most alcohols, esters, and acids are fermentation-derived, while terpenes, phenols, aldehydes and ketones are varietal. The Red vinification retained the most varietal volatiles from the must, while the White and Thermo vinifications produced more volatiles during fermentation. Thermovinification reduced the yield of benzoic acid and its derivatives after fermentation. Olfactory analysis identified 47 aroma-active compounds, among which 41 were considered as the major aroma contributors (ethyl benzoate had the highest modified detection frequency).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise
6.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(1): 68-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Commercial cranberry supplements provide a low-sugar alternative to juices and sweetened fruit consumed for health benefits, but their phytochemical composition and associated biological activity varies depending on the source material and post-harvest processing. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) is a rapid and environmentally friendly method of generating metabolic profiles of plant materials that may be used to authenticate cranberry products. OBJECTIVE: The 1 H NMR-based chemometrics were used to characterise variations in metabolic profiles of cranberry supplements in comparison to a whole cranberry powder reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The secondary metabolite profiles of nine commercial cranberry supplements were compared to a whole cranberry powder reference standard, using 1 H-NMR with Bruker AssureNMR software and principal component analysis (PCA). Content of selected triterpenoids and organic acids was determined by quantitative NMR. Total proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were determined by established methods. RESULTS: PCA of 1 H-NMR spectra showed overlap between the cranberry standard and three supplements, but most products varied substantially in metabolic profile. Metabolites contributing to the observed variance include citric acid and cranberry peel constituents ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and hyperoside. Ursolic, oleanolic, citric, quinic and malic acids were readily determined by quantitative 1 H-NMR in the whole cranberry standard, but were below detection limits in many supplements. Proanthocyanidin and flavonoid content in several products was minimal or below detection limits. CONCLUSION: The 1 H-NMR chemometrics found significant variation in composition of characteristic cranberry metabolites among commercial preparations, reinforcing the need for reliable industry standards.


Assuntos
Vaccinium macrocarpon , Frutas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7714-7723, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750473

RESUMO

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are full of polyphenols, which display various health benefits. Most studies have focused on extractable polyphenols (EPs) rather than non-extractable polyphenols (NEPs) but NEPs may possess important biological functions. The objective of this work was to characterize EP and NEP fractions from whole cranberries and determine their potential as anti-inflammation and anti-colon-cancer agents. Our results showed that of the identified polyphenols, anthocyanins were the major ones in the cranberry EP fraction, while phenolic acids were most abundant in the NEP fraction. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the NEPs was significantly higher than that of the EPs. Both the EPs and NEPs showed anti-inflammatory effects in inhibiting LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in macrophages. At the concentrations tested, the NEPs showed significantly higher inhibition of the production of nitric oxide in macrophages than the EPs, which was accompanied by decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased expression of HO-1. EP and NEP samples showed anti-cancer capacities in HCT116 cells. And the NEPs showed stronger inhibitory effects on the viability and colony formation capacity of human colon cancer HCT116 cells than the EPs. In a flow cytometry analysis, the NEPs caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and induced significant cellular apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Overall, our results suggested that both the EP and NEP fractions from cranberries were bioactive, and importantly, the NEP fraction showed promising anti-inflammation and anti-colon-cancer potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Vaccinium macrocarpon/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224836, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714906

RESUMO

The opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli, a common member of the human gut microbiota belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causative agent of the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The gut microbiota serves as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli where they are shed in feces, colonize the periurethral area, and infect the urinary tract. Currently, front line treatment for UTIs consists of oral antibiotics, but the rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to higher rates of recurrence, and antibiotics cause collateral damage to other members of the gut microbiota. It is commonly believed that incorporation of the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, into the diet is useful for reducing recurrence of UTIs. We hypothesized such a benefit might be explained by a prebiotic or antimicrobial effect on the gut microbiota. As such, we tested cranberry extracts and whole cranberry powder on a human gut microbiome-derived community in a gut simulator and found that cranberry components broadly modulate the microbiota by reducing the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and increasing the abundance of Bacteroidaceae. To identify the specific compounds responsible for this, we tested a panel of compounds isolated from cranberries for activity against E. coli, and found that salicylate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both laboratory E. coli and human UTI E. coli isolates. In a gut simulator, salicylate reduced levels of Enterobacteriaceae and elevated Bacteroidaceae in a dose dependent manner.


Assuntos
Bacteroidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Bacteroidaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pós , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224798, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715627

RESUMO

Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is often chosen as an effective experimental method for analyzing gene expression. However, an appropriate reference gene as a standard is needed to obtain accurate gene expression data. To date, no internal reference genes have been reported for research on cranberries. Expanding the selection of internal reference genes for cranberry will enable reliable gene expression analysis, and, at the same time, can also lay a solid foundation for revealing the biological characteristics of cranberry. Here, we selected ten candidate reference gene families and used three statistical software tools-geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper-to evaluate their expression stability under the influence of different experimental factors. The results showed that protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit (PP2A) or RNA helicase-like 8 (RH 8) was the best choice for an internal reference gene when analyzing different cranberry cultivars. In two sample sets comprising different cranberry organs and three abiotic stress treatments, sand family protein (SAND) was the best choice as a reference gene. In this study, we screened genes that are stably expressed under the influence of various experimental factors by qRT-PCR. Our results will guide future studies involving gene expression analysis of cranberry.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Vaccinium macrocarpon/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
10.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7645-7652, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702761

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the common bacterial infections treated with antibiotics. The North American cranberry is recommended for prophylaxis in women with recurrent UTIs as a nutritional alternative. The ability of cranberry components and their metabolites to inhibit adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important mechanism by which cranberry mitigates UTIs. The objective of this study was to evaluate urinary anti-adhesion activity against type 1 and P-type uropathogenic E. coli after consumption of cranberry +health™ cranberry supplement (cranberry chew). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design pilot trial (n = 20), subjects consumed two cranberry or placebo chews, one in the morning and one in the evening. Clean-catch urine samples collected at the baseline and post-intervention (0-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, 12-24, 24-30, 30-36 h) were tested for anti-adhesion effects with a mannose-resistant human red blood cell hemagglutination assay specific for P-type E. coli, or a T24 cell line model for type 1 E. coli. Urinary anti-adhesion activity against P-type E. coli after consumption of the cranberry chew was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that observed with placebo chew at all time points except 24-36 h. Ex vivo anti-adhesion effects on type 1 E. coli were greater (p < 0.05) after cranberry chew consumption than placebo chew at 3-6 and 6-9 h urine collections. In conclusion, consumption of cranberry +health™ cranberry supplement exhibited greater ex vivo urinary anti-adhesion activity compared to placebo, suggesting that it may have the potential to help promote urinary tract health.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/urina
11.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7091-7102, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617532

RESUMO

Cranberry volatiles have received little attention for health-promoting properties. In this study, we compared the inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and volatile standards on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Polyphenols were analyzed by HPLC/HPLC-MS and volatiles were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The inhibition of NO production of the fresh cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and α-terpineol, linalool, linalool oxide, and eucalyptol standards at 2, 4, and 8-fold dilutions of their original concentrations in fresh cranberries was evaluated by treating these extracts/standards for 1 h before or after LPS application for 24 h. After inducing inflammation with LPS, the polyphenol treatments (317.8 and 635.7 µg g-1) and 1.8 µg g-1 volatile treatment lowered NO levels 46-62% compared to the positive control (P < 0.05). When the cells were treated with polyphenol and volatile extracts before inducing inflammation, the 635.7 µg g-1 and 317.8 µg g-1 polyphenol treatments and 1.8 µg g-1 and 0.9 µg g-1 volatile treatments lowered NO levels (13-52%) compared to the positive control (P < 0.05). Polyphenol and volatile extracts from cranberry were effective in reducing NO production whether applied before or after the application of LPS. α-Terpineol at a concentration found in fresh cranberries (1.16 µg mL-1) was also found to be effective in reducing NO production whether cells were treated before or after application of LPS. Future studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms by which volatile compounds, especially α-terpineol act to mitigate inflammation and to determine the bioavailability of terpenes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 17(9): 733-740, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516055

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess efficacy and safety of Bio-Kult Pro-Cyan (BKPro-Cyan), a product containing two strains of Lactobacilli plus cranberry extract, for preventing recurrent UTIs in pre-menopausal adult women.Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Subjects received BKPro-Cyan or placebo twice-daily for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with recurrent UTI at the end of the study.Results: 115 subjects were screened; 90 were enrolled; 81 completed the study. After 26 weeks, a significantly lower number of women experienced recurrent UTIs with BKPro-Cyan compared to placebo (9.1 vs 33.3%; P = 0.0053). BKPro-Cyan produced statistically significant improvements compared to placebo for multiple secondary endpoints, including: greater number of subjects who experienced no UTIs (90 vs 67%; P < 0.05); longer time to first UTI (174 vs 90 days; P = 0.001); shorter duration of active UTI (5 vs 12 days; P = 0.009); Fewer subjects requiring antibiotics (3 vs 11; P < 0.05); and shorter median duration of antibiotic treatment (4 vs 7 days; P = 0.09).Conclusions: BKPro-Cyan was safe and effective for preventing recurrent UTI in pre-menopausal adult women. These findings support the need for further well-designed trials to clarify the benefits that may be achieved.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Pré-Menopausa , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6331-6341, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524900

RESUMO

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p < 0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. α diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in α-diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.


Assuntos
Colite/dietoterapia , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaccinium macrocarpon/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/imunologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Sulfatos/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
14.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6286-6299, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524913

RESUMO

Spray dried functional food ingredients were prepared by complexing alternative plant protein sources - buckwheat flour alone or blended with pea and rice proteins, with polyphenol sources - blueberry, cranberry and purple muscadine grape extracts from juice concentrates and pomaces - to create colloidal aggregate powders. When fruit pomaces (rather than juice concentrates) were used as polyphenol resources, solid recovery was significantly enhanced, especially for matrices made with pea protein, buckwheat flour or pea-buckwheat blends (over two fold for pea protein-berry pomace aggregates). Polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity were, in general, significantly greater for pomace-derived protein-polyphenol aggregates compared to those made with juice concentrates. In particular, the particles produced with muscadine grape pomace presented the highest (p < 0.05) phenolic content (147.3-174.3 mg g-1, 19.4-20.4 mg g-1 and 16.3-21.4 mg g-1 for total phenolic content, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins respectively), and antioxidant activity (408.9-423.3 µmol TE per g) as well as good spray drying yield (38.6-63.4%). Buckwheat flour, despite its relatively low protein content (13.7%) relative to pea and rice protein isolates (84% and 89%, respectively) still demonstrated high capacity for sorption of flavonoid phytoactive compounds from the berry fruits. These results suggest an efficient plant-based approach to produce value-added protein-polyphenol aggregates with broad utility as healthy food ingredients.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/química , Animais , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Cor , Fagopyrum/química , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ervilhas/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) fruit quality traits encompass many properties. Although visual appearance and fruit nutritional constitution have usually been the most important attributes, cranberry textural properties such as firmness have recently gained importance in the industry. Fruit firmness has become a quality standard due to the recent demand increase for sweetened and dried cranberries (SDC), which are currently the most profitable cranberry product. Traditionally, this trait has been measured by the cranberry industry using compression tests; however, it is poorly understood how fruit firmness is influenced by other characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a high-throughput computer-vision method to measure the internal structure of cranberry fruit, which may in turn influence cranberry fruit firmness. We measured the internal structure of 16 cranberry cultivars measured over a 40-day period, representing more than 3000 individual fruit evaluated for 10 different traits. The internal structure data paired with fruit firmness values at each evaluation period allowed us to explore the correlations between firmness and internal morphological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential use of internal structure and firmness data as a decision-making tool for cranberry processing, especially to determine optimal harvest times and ensure high quality fruit. In particular, this study introduces novel methods to define key parameters of cranberry fruit that have not been characterized in cranberry yet. This project will aid in the future evaluation of cranberry cultivars for in SDC production.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/anatomia & histologia , Produção Agrícola , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(6): 1876-1888, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502331

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficiency of triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cranberry alone or in combinations against Escherichia coli strains as urinary catheter lock solutions to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections. METHODS AND RESULTS: Viable counting was used to assess antibiofilm activities for triclosan, EDTA and cranberry alone or in combinations against E. coli strains embedded in biofilm onto all-silicon Foley catheter surface. The results revealed that combination of triclosan (10 mg ml-1 /EDTA 30 mg ml-1 ) when filling the catheter balloon was able to eradicate and prevent biofilm formation among all tested E. coli including the resistant strains, whereas triclosan (8·5 mg ml-1 )/ cranberry (103 mg ml-1 ) combination was a successful catheter lock solution by preventing all tested strains from adhering onto catheter surface when filled via the eye hole. CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry were significantly effective in eradicating and preventing biofilm formation of the tested E. coli strains on Foley catheters. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry have a promising application as nonantibiotic catheter lock solution.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cateteres/microbiologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Triclosan/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos
17.
Urol Int ; 103(4): 423-426, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the efficacy of Bifiprost® + Serenoa Repens 320 mg versus Serenoa Repens 320 mg alone for the prevention of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) due to enterobacteriaceae. METHODS: Between September 2016 and September 2018, 120 patients with CBP at the National Institutes of Health (NIH type II) with recurrent infections due to enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia Coli and Enterococcus faecalis) were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups each to receive Bifiprost® + Serenoa Repens 320 mg (Group A) or Serenoa Repens 320 mg alone (Group B) daily for 24 weeks (after receiving a proper antibiotic treatment with subsequent culture negativization). The primary endpoint was the reduction in the episodes of prostatitis. The secondary endpoint evaluated was the score of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Evaluation was performed at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. RESULTS: The patients of the Group A experienced a significantly larger reduction in the prostatitis episodes than the Group B at 24 and 36 weeks, but they did not experience a significantly larger reduction at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean NIH-CPSI score was reduced in both groups compared with baselines, but no significant differences were seen between the Group A and Group B. On the contrary, we observed a significant difference in the mean NIH-CPSI score between the 2 groups at 24 and 36 weeks. CONCLUSION: The association of Bifiprost® and Serenoa Repens 320 mg improves the prevention of the episodes of CBP due to enterobacteriaceae and ameliorates prostatitis-related symptoms after 6 months of therapy. The long-term impact on the entero-urinary route was also seen 3 months after the end of the treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Lycium , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Probióticos , Prostatite/microbiologia , Prostatite/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Plant Dis ; 103(11): 2843-2850, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469361

RESUMO

Cranberry fruit rot (CFR) is arguably one of the most limiting factors of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production throughout its growing areas. The disease is caused by a group of closely related fungi that require identification using long and cumbersome steps of isolation and microscopic observations of structural features. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular assay to simultaneously detect and discriminate 12 of the most important fungal species reported to be pathogenic on cranberry fruit to facilitate the diagnosis of CFR. As the first approach, internal transcribed spacers and large subunit regions of all fungi were sequenced and confirmed with sequences available in the NCBI database. These data were used to develop primers able to differentiate seven of the 12 species. The five remaining species, including three in the Phacidiaceae family and two in the Glomerellaceae family, were differentiated on the basis of a more discriminant marker, the translation elongation factor 1-α. Two PCR reactions were optimized to clearly delineate the 12 species. The multiplex test was first validated using pure fungal cultures; it was subsequently validated using fruit collected in cranberry beds in eastern Canada. In the latter case, the test was rigorous enough to clearly discriminate the fungal pathogens from contaminants. Within the tested samples, Physalospora vaccinii and Coleophoma empetri were most commonly found. This molecular test offers scientists, diagnosticians, and growers a powerful tool that can rapidly and precisely identify fungi causing CFR so they can implement appropriate control methods.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Tipagem Molecular , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Canadá , Frutas/microbiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vaccinium macrocarpon/microbiologia
19.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(8): 1295-1302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366865

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Pós , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269043

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars continue to be an important food safety issue worldwide. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) fruits possess antimicrobial properties due to their various acids and phenolic compounds; however, the underlying mechanism of actions is poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of cranberry extracts on the growth rate of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Heidelberg and on the transcriptomic profile of Salmonella Enteritidis to gain insight into phenotypic and transcriptional changes induced by cranberry extracts on this pathogen. An ethanolic extract from cranberry pomaces (KCOH) and two of its sub-fractions, anthocyanins (CRFa20) and non-anthocyanin polyphenols (CRFp85), were used. The minimum inhibitory (MICs) and bactericidal (MBCs) concentrations of these fractions against tested pathogens were obtained using the broth micro-dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute's guidelines. Transcriptional profiles of S. Enteritidis grown in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with or without 2 or 4 mg/ml of KCOH were compared by RNASeq to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. The MIC and MBC values of KCOH were 8 and 16 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested S. enterica isolates. The MIC value was 4 mg/mL for both CRFa20 and CRFp85 sub-fractions, and a reduced MBC value was obtained for CRFp85 (4 mg/ml). Treatment of S. Enteritidis with KCOH revealed a concentration-dependent transcriptional signature. Compared to the control, 2 mg/ml of KCOH exposure resulted in 89 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 53 and 36 were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. The upregulated genes included those involved in citrate metabolism, enterobactin synthesis and transport, and virulence. Exposure to 4 mg/ml KCOH led to the modulated expression of 376 genes, of which 233 were downregulated and 143 upregulated, which is 4.2 times more DEGs than from exposure to 2 mg/ml KCOH. The downregulated genes were related to flagellar motility, Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 (SPI-1), cell wall/membrane biogenesis, and transcription. Moreover, genes involved in energy production and conversion, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and coenzyme transport and metabolism were upregulated during exposure to 4 mg/ml KCOH. Overall, 57 genes were differentially expressed (48 downregulated and 9 upregulated) in response to both concentrations. Both concentrations of KCOH downregulated expression of hilA, which is a major SPI-1 transcriptional regulator. This study provides information on the response of Salmonella exposed to cranberry extracts, which could be used in the control of this important foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Etanol , Alimentos Orgânicos , Frutas/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhas Genômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enteritidis/patogenicidade , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética
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