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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494498

RESUMO

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26-54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2-10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Schizosaccharomyces/fisiologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Benzofuranos/química , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 295: 441-448, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174780

RESUMO

Aerial surfaces of plants are covered by a waxy cuticle protecting plants from excessive water loss and UV light. In the present study, composition and morphology of cuticular waxes of northern wild berry species bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.), bog bilberry (V. uliginosum L.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed differences in epicuticular wax morphology, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed variation in chemical composition of cuticular waxes between the berry species. The dominant compounds in bilberry and lingonberry cuticular waxes were triterpenoids, while fatty acids and alkanes were the dominant ones in bog bilberry and crowberry, respectively. Wax extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from industrial press cakes of bilberry and lingonberry contained linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid as the dominant compounds. Furthermore, in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) of berry waxes depicted good UV-B absorbing capacities.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/química , Ceras/análise , Antocianinas , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Finlândia , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fator de Proteção Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Ceras/química , Ceras/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7832-7843, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242723

RESUMO

Oxidative-stress-induced senescence constitutes a great risk factor for chronic diseases. Therefore, ameliorating oxidative-stress-induced senescence is expected to prevent chronic diseases. The beneficial effects of bilberry anthocyanin (BA) on healthy aging were evaluated using 12 month old, aging female SD rats in this study. The experimental results suggested that consumption of a middle-dose of BA (MBA) appreciably increased the relative liver mass by 7.34% when compared with that of the AC group. Furthermore, BA significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase activity, and catalase activities; decreased malondialdehyde, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), and glycated serum protein (GSP) levels; and reduced TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. In addition, MBA decreased the activity of fecal bacterial enzymes and increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids. The Western blot results showed that MBA significantly upregulated the expression of OCLN, ZO-1, and autophagy-related proteins (ATP6 V0C, ATG4D, and CTSB) in aging rats. Moreover, it also showed that MBA induced the phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3a and inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR, which indicated that bilberry anthocyanin induced autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR signaling pathways. This induction of autophagy further promoted oxidative stress resistance effects and intestinal epithelial barrier function of bilberry anthocyanin in aging female rats.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 382-390, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059744

RESUMO

Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit is a blue-colored berry with a high content of anthocyanins. These bioactive secondary metabolites are considered to play a major role in the health-promoting properties of bilberries. Our in vivo study was designed to assess the possible influence of bilberry extract on drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Rats were exposed to bilberry extract in drinking water at two concentrations (0.15 and 1.5 g/L). Selected DMEs were determined (mRNA expression and enzymatic activity) after 29 and 58 days in rat liver. In addition, a panel of antioxidant, physiological, biochemical and hematological parameters was studied; these parameters did not demonstrate any impact of bilberry extract on the health status of rats. A significant increase in activity was observed in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C11 (131% of control) and CYP2E1 (122% of control) after a 29-day administration, while the consumption of a higher concentration for a longer time led to a mild activity decrease. Slight changes were observed in some other DMEs, but they remained insignificant from a physiological perspective. According to our results, we conclude that the consumption of bilberries as a food supplement should not pose a risk of interacting with co-administered drugs based on their metabolism.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Food Chem ; 286: 51-63, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827640

RESUMO

This study presents unpublished data on the chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid content in fruits. Sixty-four fruits consumed in Brazil, most of which were produced domestically, were evaluated based on their levels of 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid. The study investigated 15 fruits that have not been reported in the literature in relation to these compounds, including several native species. The highest concentration of mono-caffeoylquinic acid was observed in strawberry, cherry, bilberry, quince and mulberry, while the dicaffeoylquinic acid was present with highest concentration in kumquat, passion fruit and sweet granadilla. Regarding caffeic acid, the highest content was found in bilberry and yellow pitaya. Considering the sum of the concentrations of these compounds, quince, cherry, bilberry, mulberry and sweet granadilla were exceptional, with concentrations between 200.0 and 569.7 mg kg-1.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Frutas/química , Brasil , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eugenia/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 304: 61-72, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825423

RESUMO

This study examined the nephroprotective effects of 15 different anthocyanins from the bilberry extract on the acute kidney injury caused by CCl4. The acute nephrotoxicity in rats was induced 24 h after the treatment with a single dose of CCl4 (3 mL/kg, i.p.).The nephroprotective effects of the anthocyanins were examined in the animals that had been given the bilberry extract in a single dose of 200 mg of anthocyanins/kg daily, 7 days orally, while on the seventh day, 3 h after the last dose of anthocyanins, the animals received a single dose of CCl4 (3 mL/kg, i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 h later. When the nephrotoxicant alone was administered, it resulted in a substantial increase of the pro-oxidative (TBARS, CD, H2O2, XO, and GSSG) and pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, NO, and MPO), as well as a noticeable reduction of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GPx, GST, GR) and GSH when compared to the results of the control group. Moreover, the application of CCl4 significantly influenced a reduction of the renal function, as well as an increase in the sensitive and specific injury indicators of the kidney epithelial cells (ß2-microglobulin, NGAL, KIM1/TIM1) in the serum and urine of rats. The pretreatment of the animals poisoned with CCl4 with the anthocyanins from the bilberry extract led to a noticeable reduction in the pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers with reduced consumption of the antioxidant defence kidney capacity, compared to the animals exposed to CCl4 alone. Anthocyanins have been protective for the kidney parenchyma, with an apparent absence of the tubular and periglomerular necrosis, severe degenerative changes, inflammatory mononuclear infiltrates and dilatation of proximal and distal tubules, in contrast to the CCl4-intoxicated animals. The nephroprotective effects of anthocyanins can be explained by strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects achieved through the stabilization and neutralization of highly reactive and unstable toxic CCl4 metabolites.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Food Chem ; 280: 146-153, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642480

RESUMO

Encapsulation of polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from bilberries was achieved by designing microcapsules with bilberry seed oil (BSO) distributed in an aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI). Non-thermal emulsification method (o/w/o) was developed and the effect of pH (3 or 4.5), concentration of WPI (8.4-10.8% w/w), addition of AC (72-216 ppm) and emulsifier on the structure-forming kinetics, resulting microstructure during storage and after centrifugation and washing was investigated. Agglomeration of BSO was observed in all microcapsules at pH 4.5 due to slow gelling process and in samples at pH 3 at low concentrations of WPI (≤8.4%). Capsules with pH 3 (9.6-10.8% WPI) had weak structures but as the gelling process was faster, it generated an even distribution of BSO droplets. All samples at pH 4.5 and samples with WPI concentration ≥10.8% at pH 3 exhibited intact structures after centrifugation and washing.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Cápsulas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Emulsificantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Hidrogéis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Sementes/química , Água/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
8.
Mol Vis ; 24: 621-632, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294201

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bilberry extract with its anthocyanins on retinal photoreceptor cell damage and on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by exposure to blue light-emitting diode (LED) light. Methods: Cultured murine photoreceptor cells (661W) were exposed to blue LED light with or without bilberry extract or its anthocyanins in the culture media. Aggregated short-wavelength opsin (S-opsin) in murine photoreceptor cells was observed with immunostaining. The expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response was examined with immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Furthermore, cell death was observed with double staining with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide after dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Results: Bilberry extract and anthocyanins suppressed the aggregation of S-opsin, activation of ATF4, and expression of the mRNA of the factors associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR). In addition, bilberry extract and the anthocyanins inhibited the death of photoreceptor cells induced by DTT, an ER stress inducer. Conclusions: These findings suggest that bilberry extract containing anthocyanins can alter the effects of blue LED light and DTT-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. These effects were achieved by modulating the activation of ATF4 and through the suppression of the abnormal aggregation of S-opsin.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz/efeitos adversos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Immunoblotting , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/patologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/metabolismo , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo
9.
Ren Fail ; 40(1): 466-474, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the antioxidant effects of whortleberry against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 263.68 ± 8.29 g. The rats were divided into the following six groups, with eight rats in each group: control, ethanol control, whortleberry control, cisplatin control, 16 mg/kg cisplatin +100 mg/kg whortleberry, and 16 mg/kg cisplatin +200 mg/kg whortleberry groups. Biochemical analysis was performed by measuring total oxidant status and total antioxidant status, histopathological analysis was performed by calculating proximal and distal tubule areas (µm2), and immunohistochemical analysis was performed by determining anti-Caspase-3 immunostaining. Differences among the groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance, and p < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Cisplatin treatment decreased the total antioxidant status and increased the total oxidant status and Caspase-3 level. Moreover, it resulted in the dilatation, vacuolization and loss of tubular epithelial cells; and glomerular degeneration and edema in the kidney tissues (p < .05). Treatment with 100 and 200 mg whortleberries increased the total antioxidant status; decreased the total oxidant status and Caspase-3 level and ameliorated distal and proximal tubule degeneration, glomerular degeneration and edema in the kidney tissues (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the antioxidant effects of the whortleberry decrease cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050005

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish correlation of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of bilberry plants from Montenegro. Total phenolic, tannin, flavonoid, procyanidin and anthocyanin contents were determined in fruits and leaves extracts using spectrophotometric methods, while the measurements of metal content was carried out in an Inductively Coupled Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics were achieved by HPLC. In the investigated extracts, the most abundant phenolic was chlorogenic acid, followed by protocatechuic acid, while resveratrol, isoquercetin, quecetin and hyperoside were also present in significant quantities. Antioxidant potential was evaluated using two in vitro assays-FRAP and DPPH-being in the accordance with the cyclic voltammetry tests, performed as well. The results revealed that all the investigated extracts were rich in phenolic and essential mineral constituents, with significant antioxidant activity, depending on the polyphenolic and mineral contents, which was confirmed by principal component analysis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Minerais/química , Montenegro , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 210: 859-866, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048938

RESUMO

Ericaceous dwarf shrubs, such as bilberry, Vaccinium myrtillus, have an important role in nutrient cycling of boreal forests, but in metal polluted environments they also form a link between heavy metal pool of the soil, primary consumers and upper trophic levels. From the viewpoint of metal transfer in a food chain, we document metallic element (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) concentrations in leaves, berries and herbivorous larvae of V. myrtillus around a Finnish copper-nickel smelter and compare those with levels in relatively unpolluted reference sites, and with levels documented in soil and feces (a proxy of dietary levels) of an insectivorous bird, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. Herbivorous larvae of the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), grown experimentally on V. myrtillus, showed slower growth rate but not higher mortality in the polluted area. In general, metal levels in leaves, berries and larvae were higher in the polluted area and comparable to those reported at other smelter sites in Europe. The levels of the main toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb) followed the general pattern: soil > bird feces > leaves > larvae = berries, and levels in V. myrtillus, E. autumnata and F. hypoleuca reflected soil metal levels. The lowest levels were found in those matrices that are most important sources of food for birds and humans, i.e. leaf-eating larvae and berries, reducing a risk of toxic effects.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Cobre/química , Cadeia Alimentar , Frutas/química , Larva/química , Metais Pesados/química , Níquel/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Herbivoria , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise
12.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 29(6): 697-703, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052516

RESUMO

Background Vaccinium myrtillus leaves are known to be rich in phenols and have been used in traditional medicine as an antidiabetic remedy. This study evaluated the powder extract of V. myrtillus leaves obtained with the use of L-arginine and myo-inositol for anti-obesity and lipid-lowering potential in hamsters. Methods Standard phytochemical methods were used to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extract. The obesity condition was induced in Syrian hamsters by feeding them with highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (40.3 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. From the 10th week of diet feeding, the obese hamsters were treated with the powder extract of V. myrtillus leaves (15, 25 and 35 mg/kg/day, respectively) and "Styfimol" (6.2 mg/kg/day of hydroxycitric acid) as a positive control drug. At the end of the treatment period, the biochemical parameters as well as visceral fat mass were determined. Results Vaccinium myrtillus leaves powder extract at 25 and 35 mg/kg/day caused a significant reduction in body weight gain and visceral fat mass in obese hamsters. Serum triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were also significantly lower. Besides, the hamsters treated with powder extract at 25 and 35 mg/kg/day had the closest intact value ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C compared with positive control animals. Conclusions The results showed that V. myrtillus leaves powder extract is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity and obesity-induced diseases.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Folhas de Planta
13.
J Food Sci ; 83(7): 1856-1861, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905949

RESUMO

Bilberries are processed into different food products and beverages. Therefore, we studied how various bilberry items (puree, infusion, liqueur, and fresh and pasteurized juices) differ in secondary metabolites as compared to the fresh fruit. For this purpose, we identified phenolics with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS) system and compared phenolic profiles and phenolic contents in various bilberry products prepared from the same raw material. Our results show that processing significantly affected the biochemical pattern and levels of phenolics. Total analyzed phenolics decreased with processing, mostly due to anthocyanins, which had the highest share in phenolic profile of all bilberry-based products. The highest differences among products in flavanol (63.7-fold), followed by flavonol contents (26.3-fold). Fresh fruits had the highest content of total anthocyanins (5,190 mg/100 g dry weight [DW]), followed by puree (2,719 mg/100 g DW), infusion (2,469 mg/100 g DW), and liqueur (1,830 mg/100 g DW), whereas fresh and pasteurized juices had the lowest content of total anthocyanins (921 and 1,099 mg/100 g DW). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Although we confirmed the common belief among consumers that the consumption of fresh berries is more beneficial than consuming processed products, this study showed that various bilberry-derived products can also be valuable source of phenolic compounds all year round.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonóis/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Polifenóis/análise
14.
J Med Food ; 21(11): 1106-1112, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847743

RESUMO

Antihyperglycemic effects of four extracts obtained from leaves and fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium corymbosum were assessed in diabetic rats. In addition, the effects of extracts on diabetic-related complications such as the development of diabetic cataract and oxidative stress were evaluated. Type 1 diabetes was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin in Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into seven equal groups: NC-normal control, DC-diabetic control, PC-positive control treated with metformin, VML-received V. myrtillus leaf extract, VMLF-received VML and fruit extract, VCL-received V. corymbosum leaf extract, and VCLF-received VCL and fruit extract. Body weight and glucose levels were monitored every second week. After 8 weeks of treatment, serum glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde were measured. Lenses were removed after sacrifice and eight lenses from each group were randomly selected for evaluation of cataract development. A decrease in body weight was observed in all diabetic groups in the first weeks. In the VML group, no significant decrease was observed. Glucose levels during the experiment were high in DC, PC, and VCL groups, with no improvement during the 8 weeks. In VML, VMLF, and VCLF groups, a decrease in blood glucose levels was observed. Similar results regarding serum insulin and glucose levels at the end of the experiment were observed within groups. V. myrtillus extracts prevented the development of cataract compared with the DC group (P < .05).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos
15.
Food Chem ; 262: 199-205, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751909

RESUMO

Vaccinium bracteatum leaves (VBTL) are traditionally used in China to dye rice grains, which assume a deep blue color, named 'Wu mi'. Information on the mechanism of pigment formation is limited. In this study, CIELAB color space parameters were used to represent the color of 'Wu mi'. Precursor compounds of pigments formed during the dyeing process were identified by UPLC Q-TOF MS analysis. The changes in co-factors for pigment formation in VBTL were measured at different growth stages. The L∗ and b∗ values of dyed rice increased as the leaves aged, whereas a∗ values showed irregular changes. Six compounds were tentatively identified as pigment precursors by UPLC Q-TOF MS analysis. The pH and ß-glucosidase activity at different growth stages of VBTL were indicated to be crucial co-factors for pigment formation. A tentative hypothesis is presented that iridoid glycosides are hydrolyzed by acids and ß-glucosidases to form a dialdehyde structure that binds covalently with amino residues of lysine side chains in rice protein molecules.


Assuntos
Corantes de Alimentos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos Iridoides/metabolismo , Oryza , Folhas de Planta/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , China , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Glicosídeos Iridoides/análise , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Vaccinium myrtillus/enzimologia , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15: 22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743826

RESUMO

Background: Emerging evidence indicates that fruits rich in polyphenols may attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage and associated markers of inflammation and soreness. This study was conducted to determine whether bilberry juice (BJ), which is particularly rich in polyphenols, reduces markers of muscle damage in runners completing a half marathon. Methods: A total of 21 recreationally trained runners (age 30.9 ± 10.4 y; mass 71.6 ± 11.0 kg; M = 16; F = 5) were recruited to a single blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Participants were block randomised to consume 2 × 200 ml of BJ or energy-matched control drink (PLA) for 5 d before the Sheffield Half Marathon, on race day, and for 2 days post-race. Measurements of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle damage (creatine kinase; CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein; CRP) were taken at baseline, pre-race, post-race, 24 h post-race and 48 h post-race. The effect of treatment on outcome measures was analysed using magnitude-based inferences based on data from 19 participants; 2 participants were excluded from the analyses because they did not provide samples for all time points. Results: The half marathon caused elevations in DOMS, CRP and CK. BJ had a possibly harmful effect on DOMS from pre-race to immediately post-race (11.6%, 90% CI ± 14.7%), a likely harmful effect on CRP from pre-race to 24 h post-race (mean difference ES 0.56, 90% CI ± 0.72) and a possibly harmful effect on CRP from pre-race to 48 h post-race (ES 0.12, 90% CI ± 0.69). At other time points, the differences between the BJ and PLA groups in DOMS and CRP were unclear, possibly trivial or likely trivial. Differences in the changes in CK between BJ and PLA were unclear at every time point other than from baseline to pre-race, where BJ had a possibly harmful effect on reducing muscle damage (ES 0.23, 90% CI ± 0.57). Conclusion: Despite being a rich source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, BJ evoked small to moderate increases in exercise-induced DOMS and CRP. Further larger studies are required to confirm these unexpected preliminary results.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Inflamação/sangue , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Corrida , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(15): 3559-3571, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428993

RESUMO

Anthocyanins represent the most abundant class of bioactive compounds present in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit, conferring it several health-promoting properties. The content of anthocyanins in food products produced from bilberries can be affected by many parameters, making the study of their composition a critical issue. In this ambit, this work was aimed at a comprehensive profiling of anthocyanins in bilberry fruit and derivatives from the Italian Northern Apennines, including jam, juice, and liqueur ("Mirtillino"). Anthocyanins were extracted from the jams by means of a dynamic maceration with acidified methanol, while juice and liqueurs were directly analyzed. The analysis of anthocyanins in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and MS2, under gradient elution. As a comparison, authentic bilberry fruits were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content was in the range 582.4-795.2 mg/100 g (FW) for the fruit, 2.3-234.5 mg/100 g for the jams, 109.2-2252.2 mg/L for the juice, and 27.9-759.3 mg/L for the liqueurs. To deeper investigate the anthocyanin profile of the liqueurs that exhibited a remarkably different composition in comparison with the other products, an authentic bilberry liqueur was prepared in the lab, following a traditional recipe, and monitored weakly by HPLC. The percentage of degradation of 3-O-galactosides and 3-O-arabinosides of bilberry anthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of 3-O-glucosides. The results of this work demonstrated the importance of a suitable and reliable analysis of bilberry fruit and related food products to ensure their genuineness and quality. Graphical abstract Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products analyzed in this work.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Bebidas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
18.
Am J Chin Med ; 46(2): 357-387, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444592

RESUMO

The fruit of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. (VBF) is commonly known as the oriental blueberry in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of water VBF extract (VBFW) in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress (CRS) and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its action. The behavioral effects of VBFW were assessed in the forced swim test (FST) and open field test (OFT). The levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), brain monoamines, in addition to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway were evaluated. VBFW treatment significantly reduced the immobility time and increased swimming time in FST without altering the locomotor activity in unstressed mice. Furthermore, CRS mice treated with VBFW exhibited a significantly decreased immobility time in FST and serum CORT, increased locomotor activity in OFT, and enhanced brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Similarly, VBFW significantly upregulated the ERKs/Akt signaling pathway in the hippocampus and PFC. In addition, VBFW may reverse CORT-induced cell death by enhancing cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein expression through the up-regulation of ERKs/Akt signaling pathways. In addition, VBFW showed the strong antagonistic effect of the 5-HT[Formula: see text] receptor by inhibiting 5-HT-induced intracellular Ca[Formula: see text] and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our study provides evidence that antidepressant-like effects of VBFW might be mediated by the regulation of monoaminergic systems and glucocorticoids, which is possibly associated with neuroprotective effects and antagonism of 5-HT[Formula: see text] receptor.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ratos , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina
19.
Food Chem ; 248: 217-224, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329847

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are flavonoids that have been suggested to provide beneficial health effects. The biological activity of anthocyanins is influenced by their pharmacokinetic properties, but anthocyanins are associated with limited bioavailability in humans. In the presented study, we investigated how the encapsulation of bilberry extract (BE), a source of anthocyanins, with either whey protein or citrus pectin influences the bioavailability and intestinal accessibility of anthocyanins in humans. We performed an intervention study that analyzed anthocyanins and their degradation products in the urine, plasma, and ileal effluent of healthy volunteers and ileostomists (subjects without an intact colon). We were able to show, that whey protein encapsulation modulated short-term bioavailability and that citrus pectin encapsulation increased intestinal accessibility during passage through the small intestine and modulated the formation of the degradation product phloroglucinol aldehyde (PGAL) in human plasma.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Adulto , Antocianinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Ileostomia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pectinas/química , Projetos Piloto , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
20.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(6): 57-66, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763491

RESUMO

In this review we briefly discuss the publications dedicated to experimental evaluation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of different plant polyphenols. The stages of preclinical studies of their efficacy are presented: in silico studies with molecular docking methods and in vivo studies with the use of genetic and medicamental models of type 2 diabetes. The results of own studies present the substantiation of prospects of using the plant polyphenol extracts as functional food ingredients for diet therapy and treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. It was shown using genetic fatty Zucker rats model that extract consumption led to lower blood glucose level, had beneficial effect on glucose sensitivity and also improved the reaction of insulin-sensitive tissues on exogenous injection of glucose and insulin. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of bilberry leaves extract were characterized on male Wistar rats model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder (streptozotocin injection accompanied with consumption of 10% fructose solution). The results of previous studies showed the beneficial effects of bilberry leaves extract on carbohydrate metabolism and determined the task to enhance the efficacy of developed polyphenol ingredient by the way of sorption on protein food matrix - brown buckwheat flour. Thus, a brief review of presented in this article results of foreign and domestic experimental studies shows the prospect of using the individual plant polyphenols and polyphenol plant extracts as phytonutrients for diet therapy and treatment of diseases associated with disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Hipoglicemiantes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Zucker
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