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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
em Inglês, Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54999

RESUMO

In 2021, three countries in the Region of the Americas (Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela) have reported confirmed yellow fever cases. In 2020, two countries in the Region of the Americas reported confirmed cases of yellow fever: Bolivia and Peru. A situation summary of the countries that reported confirmed yellow fever cases in 2021 is provided here.


En 2021, tres países de la Región (Brasil, Perú y Venezuela) notificaron casos confirmados de fiebre amarilla. En 2020 fueron dos los países de la región de las Américas que notificaron casos confirmados de fiebre amarilla: Brasil y Perú. Aquí se presenta un resumen de la situación los países que notificaron casos confirmados de fiebre amarilla en 2021.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Emergências , Brasil , Peru , Febre Amarela , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Emergências , Brasil , Peru
2.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021098, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current demographic changes and improvement of quality of life of elderly population have direct consequences on international travelling. The older traveller demands for specific care and precautions to be observed, as for the yellow fever (YF) vaccination, due to the increased incidence rate of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in people aged 60 years or over. The aim of our study was to determine the adherence to YF vaccine and travel behaviours in a sample of elderly travellers moving to YF endemic areas. METHODS: Participants in this cohort study were offered YF vaccine, and informed about the increased risk of AEFIs and the unavoidable risk of acquiring YF at the destination. The research was planned on survey-based design, using pre- and post-travel questionnaires. RESULTS: In 2018, 239 travellers aged 60 years or older attended our travel clinic, of whom 36.8% (n = 88) planned to travel to YF endemic areas and 23.0% (n = 55) for the first time. Of these, 63.6% accepted and 36.4% rejected the vaccination, with 15 travellers moving to endemic areas without immunization, including one patient who presented contraindications to YF vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of more than a third of elderly travellers who travelled without vaccination is a substantial public health problem and, since the number of older travellers continues to increase, it becomes necessary to implement robust actions to improve YF vaccine advocacy and adherence.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Viagem , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(9): 1654-1660, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410829

RESUMO

In the late 1930s, the 17D vaccine against yellow fever was produced in record time. 17D was and is an excellent vaccine. Its rapid diffusion led, however, to several problems, the most important among them being the 1942 massive contamination of the vaccine distributed to the US Army by the hepatitis B virus. The US part of this story is relatively well-known, but its Brazilian part much less so. In 1940, scientists who were producing the 17D vaccine in Rio de Janeiro found that it was contaminated by an "icterus virus" that originated in normal human serum. They solved this problem through the exclusion of human serum from vaccine production, but failed to persuade their US colleagues to do the same. The Rio experts, aware of the potential pitfalls of a new technology, carefully supervised the consequences of their vaccination campaigns. They were thus able to rapidly spot problems and eliminate them. By contrast, US scientists, persuaded of their technical superiority and distrustful of warnings that originated from a "less developed" country, neglected to implement basic public health rules. A major disaster followed. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(9): 1654-1660. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306313).


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Hepatite B/história , Programas de Imunização/história , Militares/história , Brasil , Vírus da Hepatite B , História do Século XX , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Estados Unidos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela
4.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372589

RESUMO

The yellow fever virus vaccine, 17D, was derived through the serial passage of the wild-type (WT) strain Asibi virus in mouse and chicken tissue. Since its derivation, the mechanism of attenuation of 17D virus has been investigated using three 17D substrains and WT Asibi virus. Although all three substrains of 17D have been sequenced, only one isolate of Asibi has been examined genetically and all interpretation of attenuation is based on this one isolate. Here, we sequenced the genome of Asibi virus from three different laboratories and show that the WT strain is genetically homogenous at the amino acids that distinguish Asibi from 17D vaccine virus.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Variação Genética , Vacinas Atenuadas , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Vírus da Febre Amarela/classificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
5.
J Immunol ; 207(4): 1033-1043, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321231

RESUMO

A single dose of the replication-competent, live-attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D vaccine provides lifelong immunity against human YFV infection. The magnitude, kinetics, and specificity of B cell responses to YFV 17D are relatively less understood than T cell responses. In this clinical study, we focused on early immune events critical for the development of humoral immunity to YFV 17D vaccination in 24 study subjects. More specifically, we studied the dynamics of several immune cell populations over time and the development of neutralizing Abs. At 7 d following vaccination, YFV RNA in serum as well as several antiviral proteins were detected as a sign of YFV 17D replication. Activation of Th1-polarized circulating T follicular helper cells followed germinal center activity, the latter assessed by the surrogate marker CXCL13 in serum. This coincided with a plasmablast expansion peaking at day 14 before returning to baseline levels at day 28. FluoroSpot-based analysis confirmed that plasmablasts were specific to the YFV-E protein. The frequencies of plasmablasts correlated with the magnitude of neutralizing Ab titers measured at day 90, suggesting that this transient B cell subset could be used as an early marker of induction of protective immunity. Additionally, YFV-specific memory B cells were readily detectable at 28 and 90 d following vaccination, and all study subjects tested developed protective neutralizing Ab titers. Taken together, these studies provide insights into key immune events leading to human B cell immunity following vaccination with the YFV 17D vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114264, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274595

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation performance of hydrogen peroxide to the yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain, used for the production of attenuated yellow fever vaccine, in two matrixes: formulated yellow fever vaccine (FYV) and yellow fever viral suspension - active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The samples were dried on stainless steel and exposed to hydrogen peroxide liquid (HPL) at concentrations of 30, 10, 3 and 1% for 20 and 60 min; and to hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) in an isolator. The exposure to HPL 30 and 10 %, within 20 min, reduced the virus titre at least 3.85 log10 PFU/mL (74.8 %). During 60 min of exposure, the HPL 30, 10 and 3% reduced the virus titre by at least 3.18 log10 PFU/mL (62.6 %). HPV exposure resulted in complete virus inactivation in FYV (≥ 4.42 log10 PFU/mL reduction) and for API samples 3.17 log10 PFU/mL (64.3 %) reduction. Hydrogen peroxide showed to be a promising disinfectant for elimination of yellow fever virus. However, the optimum concentration and contact time will vary depending on the type of application, and as such may complement individual risk assessments of biological production processes.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Indústria Manufatureira , Vírus da Febre Amarela
7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(9): 1051-1057, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is a globalized health concern caused by a beta-coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019, when this outbreak flared in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 cases have been continuously rising all over the world. Due to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, subsequent waves are flowing in a faster manner as compared to the primary wave, which is more contagious and causing higher mortality. Recently, India has emerged as the new epicenter of the second wave by mutants of SARS-CoV-2. After almost eighteen months of this outbreak, some COVID-19 dedicated therapeutics and vaccines are available, and a few are under trial, but the situation is still uncontrolled. AREA COVERED: This perspective article covers the repurposing of childhood vaccines like Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), which are live attenuated vaccines and have been shown the protective effect through 'trained immunity and 'crossreactivity.' EXPERT OPINION: This perspective article has suggested that combinatorial use of these childhood vaccines might exert a better protective effect along with the available COVID-19 therapeutic and vaccines which could be considered as a preventive option against SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as its subsequent waves.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia
8.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4359-4372, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147295

RESUMO

In the present study, a range of serum biomarkers were quantified in suspected cases of adverse events following YF immunization (YEL-AEFI) to propose a reliable laboratorial algorithm to discriminate confirmed YEL-AEFI ("A1" class) from cases with other illnesses ("C" class). Our findings demonstrated that increased levels of CXCL8, CCL2, CXCL10, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in YEL-AEFI ("A1" and "C" classes) as compared to primary vaccines without YEL-AEFI [PV(day 3-28)] and reference range (RR) controls. Notably, increased levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL2, CCL5, IL-1ß, IL-15, IL-1Ra and G-CSF were found in "A1" as compared to "C" class. Venn diagrams analysis allowed the pre-selection of biomarkers for further analysis of performance indices. Data demonstrated that CCL3, CCL5, IL-15 and IL-1Ra presented high global accuracy (AUC = 1.00) to discriminate "A1" from "C". Decision tree was proposed with a reliable algorithm to discriminate YEL-AEFI cases according to cause-specific definitions with outstanding overall accuracy (91%). CCL3, CCL5, IL-15 and IL-1Ra appears as root attributes to identify "A1" followed by VEGF as branch nodes to discriminate Wild Type YFV infection ("C(WT-YFV)") from cases with other illnesses ("C*"). Together, these results demonstrated the applicability of serum biomarker measurements as putative parameters towards the establishment of accurate laboratorial tools for complementary differential diagnosis of YEL-AEFI cases.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , Algoritmos , Quimiocina CCL5 , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Interleucina-15 , Vacinação , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 465-472, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) pre-qualified a single-dose typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) and identified TCV co-administration studies as a research priority. Accordingly, we tested co-administration of Typbar TCV® (Bharat Biotech International) with measles-rubella (MR) and yellow fever (YF) vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, and controlled, phase 2 trial in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Healthy children aged 9-11 months were randomized 1:1 to receive TCV (Group 1) or control vaccine (inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), Group 2). Vaccines were administered intramuscularly with routine MR and YF vaccines. Safety was assessed by (1) local and systemic reactions on days 0, 3, and 7; (2) unsolicited adverse events within 28 days; and (3) serious adverse events (SAEs) within six months after immunization. RESULTS: We enrolled, randomized, and vaccinated 100 eligible children (49 Group 1 and 51 Group 2). Safety outcomes occurred with similar frequency in both groups: local/solicited reactions (Group 1: 1/49, Group 2: 3/50), systemic/solicited reactions (Group 1: 4/49, Group 2: 9/50), unsolicited adverse events (Group 1: 26/49, Group 2: 33/51), and SAEs (Group 1: 2/49, Group 2: 3/51). TCV conferred robust immunogenicity without interference with MR or YF vaccines. CONCLUSION: TCV can be safely co-administered with MR and YF vaccines to children at the 9-month vaccination visit.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/efeitos adversos , Burkina Faso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Vacina contra Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 248, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104296

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by yellow fever virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Since 2013, in Chad, four cases of yellow fever have been detected and confirmed as part of the national fever surveillance program. We here report the last clinical case confirmed in the health district of Lai. The patient was a 57-year-old man with no significant medical and surgical history and unknown immunisation status. He consulted on April 21st, 2020 for fever, moderate to low abundance jaundice and epistaxis (nosebleed) and painful hepatomegaly. Paraclinical examinations, such as RT-PCR, objectified yellow fever virus in post-mortem tissue sample. Thus, confirmed yellow fever cases in this district, the low level of vaccination coverage, the circulation of the virus and the presence of vector in the country should warn of a real threat of reemergence of yellow fever in Chad.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Chade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Recidiva , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
11.
Elife ; 102021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165077

RESUMO

Background: Childhood immunisation services have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. WHO recommends considering outbreak risk using epidemiological criteria when deciding whether to conduct preventive vaccination campaigns during the pandemic. Methods: We used two to three models per infection to estimate the health impact of 50% reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 and delay of campaign vaccination from 2020 to 2021 for measles vaccination in Bangladesh, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Sudan, for meningococcal A vaccination in Burkina Faso, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, and for yellow fever vaccination in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, and Nigeria. Our counterfactual comparative scenario was sustaining immunisation services at coverage projections made prior to COVID-19 (i.e. without any disruption). Results: Reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 without catch-up vaccination may lead to an increase in measles and yellow fever disease burden in the modelled countries. Delaying planned campaigns in Ethiopia and Nigeria by a year may significantly increase the risk of measles outbreaks (both countries did complete their supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) planned for 2020). For yellow fever vaccination, delay in campaigns leads to a potential disease burden rise of >1 death per 100,000 people per year until the campaigns are implemented. For meningococcal A vaccination, short-term disruptions in 2020 are unlikely to have a significant impact due to the persistence of direct and indirect benefits from past introductory campaigns of the 1- to 29-year-old population, bolstered by inclusion of the vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule accompanied by further catch-up campaigns. Conclusions: The impact of COVID-19-related disruption to vaccination programs varies between infections and countries. Planning and implementation of campaigns should consider country and infection-specific epidemiological factors and local immunity gaps worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic when prioritising vaccines and strategies for catch-up vaccination. Funding: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1245-1256.e5, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004140

RESUMO

We examined how baseline CD4+ T cell repertoire and precursor states impact responses to pathogen infection in humans using primary immunization with yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine. YFV-specific T cells in unexposed individuals were identified by peptide-MHC tetramer staining and tracked pre- and post-vaccination by tetramers and TCR sequencing. A substantial number of YFV-reactive T cells expressed memory phenotype markers and contained expanded clones in the absence of exposure to YFV. After vaccination, pre-existing YFV-specific T cell populations with low clonal diversity underwent limited expansion, but rare populations with a reservoir of unexpanded TCRs generated robust responses. These altered dynamics reorganized the immunodominance hierarchy and resulted in an overall increase in higher avidity T cells. Thus, instead of further increasing the representation of dominant clones, YFV vaccination recruits rare and more responsive T cells. Our findings illustrate the impact of vaccines in prioritizing T cell responses and reveal repertoire reorganization as a key component of effective vaccination.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero , Febre Amarela/virologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10431, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001945

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether the serum biomarkers of immune response orchestrate the seroconversion status in patients with autoimmune diseases (AID) upon planned primary 17DD-YF vaccination. For this purpose a total of 161 individuals were enrolled in a prospective study, including patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA = 38), Spondyloarthritis (SpA = 51), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE = 21) and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS = 30) along with a group of healthy controls (HC = 21). Analysis of plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titers and seropositivity rates along with the 17DD-YF viremia and serum biomarkers were carried out at distinct time points (D0/D3-4/D5-6/D7/D14-28). The results demonstrated an overall lower PRNT titer and seropositivity rate (170 vs. 448; 77 vs. 95%) in AID as compared to HC, especially in SpA and SLE subgroups. No significant differences were observed in the viremia levels amongst groups. In general, a more prominent serum biomarker response was observed in AID as compared to HC, throughout the timeline kinetics. Remarkably, AID/PRNT(-) exhibited higher levels of several biomarkers at baseline as compared to AID/PRNT+. Moreover, while AID/PRNT(+) exhibited earlier increase in serum biomarkers at D3-4/D5-6, the AID/PRNT(-) displayed higher response at later time points (D7/D14-D28). Of note, a synchronic increase of IFN-γ at the peak of viremia (D5-6) was observed in HC and AID/PRNT(+) groups, whereas a later asynchronous IFN-γ response was reported for AID/PRNT(-) at D7. The biomarker profile tends to deflate at post-vaccination timeline, highlighting a putative immunomodulatory effect of live attenuated 17DD-YF vaccine in AID/PRNT(+), but not in AID/PRNT(-). Altogether these data suggested that inflammatory status prior vaccination, low IFN-γ at viremia peak and the occurrence of asynchronous biomarker storm after 17DD-YF vaccination may orchestrate the lack of neutralizing antibody response γ.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Soroconversão , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(8): 2471-2481, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909542

RESUMO

By preventing infectious diseases, vaccines contribute substantially to public health. Besides, they offer great opportunities to investigate human immune responses. This is particularly true for live-attenuated virus vaccines which cause resolving acute infections and induce robust immunity. The fact that one can precisely schedule the time-point of vaccination enables complete characterization of the immune response over time, short-term and over many years. The live-attenuated Yellow Fever virus vaccine strain YF-17D was developed in the 1930's and gave rise to the 17D-204 and 17DD vaccine sub-strains, administered to over 600 million individuals worldwide. YF vaccination causes a systemic viral infection, which induces neutralizing antibodies that last for a lifetime. It also induces a strong T cell response resembling the ones of acute infections, in contrast to most other vaccines. In spite of its use since 1937, learning how YF vaccination stimulates such strong and persistent immune responses has gained substantial knowledge only in the last decades. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge on the immune response to YF vaccination, and discuss its contribution as a human model to address complex questions on optimal immune responses.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunidade , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 958-967, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We lack the rationale on which to base the development of a yellow fever (YF) vaccination schedule for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV). OBJECTIVES: To report on the current evidence regarding the seroconversion rate and the duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine, as well as the impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Google Scholar, LILACS and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. METHODS: We selected studies on PLWHIV of all ages (including perinatally HIV-infected patients) and all settings (YF endemic and non-endemic zones). Intervention investigated was vaccination against YF, at least once after the HIV diagnosis. The research questions were the seroconversion rate, duration of humoral immunity after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. Selected studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Ten, six and six studies were selected for the systematic review of each question, respectively. Only one study addressed the first question in perinatally HIV-infected children. The quality of the studies was assessed as Poor (n = 16), Fair (n = 2) or Good (n = 4). A meta-analysis demonstrated that 97.6% (95% CI 91.6%-100%) of the included population seroconverted. Between 1 and 10 years after YF vaccine, reported persistence of neutralizing antibodies was 72% (95% CI 53.6%-91%), and it was 62% (95% CI 45.4%-78.6%) more than 10 years after YF vaccine. No conclusions could be drawn on impact of revaccination because of the small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence regarding seroconversion rate, duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV is limited by the low number and quality of studies. Based on the presently available data, it is difficult to rationally develop yellow fever vaccination guidelines for PLWHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Soroconversão , Vacinação , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
18.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 591-600, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846611

RESUMO

Examination of the vaccine strategies and technical platforms used for the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of those used for previous emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and pandemics may offer some mutually beneficial lessons. The unprecedented scale and rapidity of dissemination of recent emerging infectious diseases pose new challenges for vaccine developers, regulators, health authorities and political constituencies. Vaccine manufacturing and distribution are complex and challenging. While speed is essential, clinical development to emergency use authorization and licensure, pharmacovigilance of vaccine safety and surveillance of virus variants are also critical. Access to vaccines and vaccination needs to be prioritized in low- and middle-income countries. The combination of these factors will weigh heavily on the ultimate success of efforts to bring the current and any future emerging infectious disease pandemics to a close.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Cólera/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia
19.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-8471

RESUMO

A Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora convidou o médico infectologista, Rodrigo de Souza e a professora da Faculdade de Enfermagem, Izabela Palitot para responderem o que é mito e verdade sobre a doença Febre Amarela, que tem causado muitas interrogações entre a população. Confira e tire suas dúvidas!


Assuntos
Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico
20.
Elife ; 102021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722340

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF) is a viral, vector-borne, haemorrhagic fever endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine for YF is considered safe and effective, but intervention strategies need to be optimised; one of the tools for this is mathematical modelling. We refine and expand an existing modelling framework for Africa to account for transmission in South America. We fit to YF occurrence and serology data. We then estimate the subnational forces of infection for the entire endemic region. Finally, using demographic and vaccination data, we examine the impact of vaccination activities. We estimate that there were 109,000 (95% credible interval [CrI] [67,000-173,000]) severe infections and 51,000 (95% CrI [31,000-82,000]) deaths due to YF in Africa and South America in 2018. We find that mass vaccination activities in Africa reduced deaths by 47% (95% CrI [10%-77%]). This methodology allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination and illustrates the need for continued vigilance and surveillance of YF.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/métodos , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/uso terapêutico
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