Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 385
Filtrar
4.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(4): 807-809, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510536

RESUMO

In the race for a safe and effective vaccine against Coronavirus disease-19 manufacturer plays a critical role throughout the development, clinical trial, manufacturing, supply, and vaccination phases. For the efficacy of Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine, proper transport, storage, vaccine carrier, adjuvant, dosage form and route of vaccine administration plays a crucial role for immune response. In the context of no more people were willing to pay for a Coronavirus disease-19 vaccine the logistics of manufacturing, storing and distributing the vaccine, and mass vaccination are essential. It is urgent to improve health promotion and reduce the barriers to Coronavirus disease-19 vaccination. Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine development; vaccination.


Assuntos
/provisão & distribução , /prevenção & controle , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Nepal/epidemiologia
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(9): 2219-2221, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735161

RESUMO

In the Northern Hemisphere, the persistence or reemergence of coronavirus circulation into the 2020-2021 influenza season threatens to overwhelm health-care resources and systems and increase mortality and morbidity. Data from Australia show that stay-at-home policies have reduced both influenza and coronavirus cases early in the season, thus "flattening the curve." However, influenza vaccination is critical to ensure the reduction in co-infection. Several policies, such as vaccination strategies to accommodate physical distancing measures, change population recommendations, and timing and location of vaccination have been implemented to increase influenza vaccine uptake during the pandemic. This commentary explores those policies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/provisão & distribução , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Pandemias , Estações do Ano
15.
Med Arch ; 74(3): 164-167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801428

RESUMO

Probably in the history of medicine, doctors were not as united as they are today, in that fight against COVID-19, when the pandemic spread incredibly fast - from East to West, from North to South. The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have unprecedented and unforeseeable consequences, from those on a worldwide/global level to those at the local level - at the level of local communities and families, and individuals (and not just humans, but all other living beings), of which the future will testify in various ways. The consequences will be political, economic, social, but probably to the greatest degree, the consequences of a health nature - systemic and individual. The death toll is high, despite the therapy being applied. We do not currently have a specific and effective therapy against COVID-19. In addition, we do not have a single clinical study that would support prophylactic therapy that could affect COVID-19. All of the therapeutic options now available to us are based on the experience we have gained in treating SARS and MERS. When the vaccine is discovered, at that moment we will be able to say that we have an appropriate and effective method in fighting against COVID-19. Some historians of medicine believe that voluntary vaccination against COVID-19 would be, not only less politically risky but also more effective in protecting the population from coronavirus. It remains to be seen what the new wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, announced by WHO experts these days, and which is expected in the fall of 2020, will bring us.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global/tendências , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Previsões , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373259

RESUMO

Introduction: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have attained significant reduction in measles incidence between 2004 and 2013. The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 in West Africa caused significant disruption of the health service delivery in the three worst affected countries. The magnitude of the impact on the immunization program has not been well documented. Methods: We reviewed national routine immunization administrative coverage data as well as measles surveillance performance and measles epidemiology in the years before, during and after the EVD outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone. Results: Both Liberia and Guinea experienced a sharp decline of more than 25% in the monthly number of children vaccinated against measles in 2014 and 2015 as compared to the previous years, while there was no reported decline in Sierra Leone. Guinea and Liberia experienced a decline in measles surveillance activity and performance indicators in 2014 and 2015. During this period, there was an increase in measles incidence and a decline in the mean age of measles cases reported in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Guinea started reporting high measles incidence in 2016. All three countries organized measles supplemental immunization activities by June 2015. Liberia achieved 99% administrative coverage, while Guinea and Sierra Leone attained 90.6% and 97.2% coverage respectively. There were no severe adverse events reported during these mass vaccination activities. The disruptive effect of the Ebola outbreak on immunization services was especially evident in Guinea and Liberia. Our review of the reported administrative vaccination coverage at national level does not show significant decline in measles first dose vaccination coverage in Sierra Leone as compared to other reports. This may be due to inaccuracies in coverage monitoring and data quality problems. The increases in measles transmission and incidence in these three countries can be explained by the rapid accumulation of susceptible children. Despite the organization of mass vaccination activities, measles incidence through 2017 has remained higher than the pre-Ebola period in all three countries. Conclusion: The Ebola outbreak in West Africa significantly affected measles vaccination coverage rates in two of the three worst affected countries, and led to persistent gaps in coverage, along with high measles incidence that was documented until two years after the end of the Ebola outbreak. Liberia and Sierra Leone have demonstrated coverage improvements after the end of the Ebola outbreak.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/normas , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373262

RESUMO

Introduction: Poor data quality and use have been identified as key challenges that negatively impact immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition, many LMICs have a shortage of health personnel, and staff available have demanding workloads across several health programs. In order to address these challenges, the Better Immunization Data (BID) Initiative introduced a comprehensive suite of interventions, including an electronic immunization registry aimed at improving the quality, reliability, and use of immunization data in Arusha Region, Tanzania, and Southern Province of Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs of implementing the BID interventions in immunization programs in these two countries. Methods: We conducted a micro-costing study to estimate the economic costs of service delivery and logistics for the immunization programs with and without the BID interventions in a sample of health facilities and district program offices in each country. Structured questionnaires were used to interview immunization program staff at baseline and post-intervention to assess annual resource utilization and costs. Cost outcomes were reported as annual cost per facility, cost per district and changes in resource costs due to the BID interventions (i.e., costs associated with health worker time, start-up costs, etc.). Sub-group analyses were conducted by health facility to assess variation in costs by volume served and location (rural versus urban). One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify influential parameters. Costs were reported in 2017 US dollars. Results: In Tanzania, the average annual reduction in resource costs was estimated at US$10,236 (95% confidence interval: $7,606-$14,123) per health facility, while the average annual reduction in resource costs per district was estimated at $6,542. In Zambia, reductions in resource costs were modest at an estimated annual average of $628 (95% confidence interval: $209-$1,467) per health facility and $236 per district. Resource cost reductions were mainly attributable to reductions in time required for immunization service delivery and reporting. One-way sensitivity analyses identified key cost drivers, all related to reductions in health worker time. Conclusion: The introduction of electronic immunization registries and stock management systems through the BID Initiative was estimated to result in potential time savings in both countries. Health worker time was the area most impacted by the interventions, suggesting that time savings gained could be utilized for patient care. Information generated through this work provides evidence to inform stakeholder decision-making for scale-up of the BID interventions in Tanzania and Zambia and to inform other Low-to-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) interested in similar interventions.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Vacinação em Massa/economia , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros , Estoque Estratégico/economia , Estoque Estratégico/organização & administração , Vacinas , Criança , Redução de Custos/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estoque Estratégico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/economia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/economia , Vacinas/provisão & distribução , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373263

RESUMO

Introduction: The Expanded Programme on Immunization has, since its inception, struggled to achieve high completion rates for child immunizations. The introduction of 2YL (second year of life) immunizations presents the programme with fresh challenges to assuring high completion rates. Methods: Using the same procedures as those employed in the 2017 article on SMS reminders, of which this is an update, I searched the NLM database for all recent articles from developing countries on SMS reminders for reduction of vaccination dropout rates. I summarized these and earlier articles in tabular form. Results: The freshly reviewed articles are confirmatory of earlier studies which show an improvement in vaccination completion rates when SMS reminders are sent to mothers and other caregivers. Conclusion: All of the studies reviewed were based on pilot projects. It is time, and past time, to go to scale with SMS reminders, perhaps stand alone, or as part of a larger system of electronic immunization registers. There may be potential for use of WhatsApp in dropout reduction, thus far documented only in other public health applications.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Sistemas de Alerta , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA